Time to Resolution of Inadvertent Subdural Contrast Injection during a Myelogram: When Can the Study Be Reattempted? [SPINE]
CONCLUSIONS: Our study suggests that resolution of inadvertently injected subdural contrast occurs within 1 day, and the myelogram can be reattempted as early as the next day. (Source: American Journal of Neuroradiology)
Source: American Journal of Neuroradiology - October 5, 2020 Category: Radiology Authors: Shlapak, D. P., Kim, D. K., Diehn, F. E., Benson, J. C., Lehman, V. T., Liebo, G. B., Morris, J. M., Morris, P. P., Verdoorn, J. T., Carr, C. M. Tags: SPINE Source Type: research

Safety of Consecutive Bilateral Decubitus Digital Subtraction Myelography in Patients with Spontaneous Intracranial Hypotension and Occult CSF Leak [SPINE]
CONCLUSIONS: In patients with spontaneous intracranial hypotension and suspected spontaneous spinal CSF leak, consecutive-day lateral decubitus digital subtraction myelography demonstrates an acceptable risk profile without evidence of neurotoxic effects from cumulative intrathecal contrast doses. Higher intrathecal saline injectate volumes may correlate with an increased incidence of minor transient periprocedural neurologic effects. (Source: American Journal of Neuroradiology)
Source: American Journal of Neuroradiology - October 5, 2020 Category: Radiology Authors: Pope, M. C., Carr, C. M., Brinjikji, W., Kim, D. K. Tags: SPINE Source Type: research

Paraspinal Myositis in Patients with COVID-19 Infection [SPINE]
We report MR imaging findings of the spine obtained in a cohort of 9 patients with COVID-19 infection who presented to our hospital between March 3, 2020 and May 6, 2020. We found that 7 of 9 COVID-19 patients (78%) who underwent MR imaging of the spine had MR imaging evidence of paraspinal myositis, characterized by intramuscular edema and/or enhancement. Five of these 7 patients had a prolonged hospital course (greater than 25 days). Our knowledge of the imaging manifestations of COVID-19 infection is expanding. It is important for clinicians>a to be aware of the relatively high frequency of paraspinal myositis in thi...
Source: American Journal of Neuroradiology - October 5, 2020 Category: Radiology Authors: Mehan, W. A., Yoon, B. C., Lang, M., Li, M. D., Rincon, S., Buch, K. Tags: SPINE Source Type: research

MRI Spectrum of Brain Involvement in Sphingosine-1-Phosphate Lyase Insufficiency Syndrome [PEDIATRICS]
In this study, MR images from 4 new patients and additional published case reports were reviewed by a pediatric neuroradiologist. Analysis reveals recurring patterns of features in affected patients, including isolated callosal dysgenesis and prominent involvement of the globus pallidus, thalamus, and dentate nucleus, with progressive atrophy and worsening of brain lesions. MR imaging findings of abnormal deep gray nuclei, microcephaly, or callosal dysgenesis in an infant or young child exhibiting other typical clinical features of sphingosine-1-phosphate lyase insufficiency syndrome should trigger prompt genetic testing f...
Source: American Journal of Neuroradiology - October 5, 2020 Category: Radiology Authors: Martin, K. W., Weaver, N., Alhasan, K., Gumus, E., Sullivan, B. R., Zenker, M., Hildebrandt, F., Saba, J. D. Tags: PEDIATRICS Source Type: research

CT-Based Measurements of Facial Parameters of Healthy Children and Adolescents in Thailand [PEDIATRICS]
CONCLUSIONS: This study, in Thailand, provides detailed age- and sex-specific normative data of the craniofacial measurements in children and adolescences based on CT imaging. These data can be used for evaluating individual patients with craniofacial abnormalities as well as determining the treatment in Thai and Asian populations, in whom craniofacial abnormalities, for example, frontoethmoidal encephalomeningocele, are common. (Source: American Journal of Neuroradiology)
Source: American Journal of Neuroradiology - October 5, 2020 Category: Radiology Authors: Jullabussapa, N., Khwanngern, K., Pateekhum, C., Angkurawaranon, C., Angkurawaranon, S. Tags: PEDIATRICS Source Type: research

Expanding the Neuroimaging Phenotype of Neuronal Ceroid Lipofuscinoses [PEDIATRICS]
CONCLUSIONS: We identified reported classic neuroimaging features in all except 1 patient with neuronal ceroid lipofuscinoses in our study. CLN2, CLN5, and CLN7 diseases showed predominant cerebellar-over-cerebral atrophy. We demonstrate that abnormal signal intensity in the deep white matter, posterior limb of the internal capsule, and ventral pons is more common than previously reported in the literature. We report abnormal signal intensity in the insular/subinsular region for the first time. The difference in the median time from disease onset and diagnosis was 1.5 years. (Source: American Journal of Neuroradiology)
Source: American Journal of Neuroradiology - October 5, 2020 Category: Radiology Authors: Biswas, A., Krishnan, P., Amirabadi, A., Blaser, S., Mercimek-Andrews, S., Shroff, M. Tags: PEDIATRICS Source Type: research

Fetal Intraventricular Hemorrhage in Open Neural Tube Defects: Prenatal Imaging Evaluation and Perinatal Outcomes [PEDIATRICS]
CONCLUSIONS: Intraventricular hemorrhage is relatively common in the prenatal evaluation of open neural tube defects. Hindbrain herniation is more common in cases of intraventricular hemorrhage, but in association with increased third ventricular size. Fetal closure reverses hindbrain herniation and decreases the rate of intraventricular hemorrhage postnatally, regardless of the presence of prenatal intraventricular hemorrhage. (Source: American Journal of Neuroradiology)
Source: American Journal of Neuroradiology - October 5, 2020 Category: Radiology Authors: Didier, R. A., Martin-Saavedra, J. S., Oliver, E. R., DeBari, S. E., Bilaniuk, L. T., Howell, L. J., Moldenhauer, J. S., Adzick, N. S., Heuer, G. G., Coleman, B. G. Tags: PEDIATRICS Source Type: research

Intracranial Arterial Tortuosity in Marfan Syndrome and Loeys-Dietz Syndrome: Tortuosity Index Evaluation Is Useful in the Differential Diagnosis [PEDIATRICS]
CONCLUSIONS: The tortuosity index of intracranial arteries is an easily calculated and highly reproducible measure, which shows a high specificity for Marfan syndrome and Loeys-Dietz syndrome and may be useful in differentiating these 2 entities. (Source: American Journal of Neuroradiology)
Source: American Journal of Neuroradiology - October 5, 2020 Category: Radiology Authors: Spinardi, L., Vornetti, G., De Martino, S., Golfieri, R., Faccioli, L., Pastore Trossello, M., Graziano, C., Mariucci, E., Donti, A. Tags: PEDIATRICS Source Type: research

Maternal Anxiety and Depression during Late Pregnancy and Newborn Brain White Matter Development [PEDIATRICS]
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Anxiety and depression during pregnancy have been associated with an increased risk of adverse neurodevelopmental outcomes in offspring. We aimed to study the in utero effects of maternal anxiety and depression on early brain development. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Pregnant women were recruited at ~36 weeks of gestation for this prospective study. They were assessed for anxiety symptoms by the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory and for depression symptoms by the Beck Depression Inventory, 2nd Edition. After delivery, infant underwent an MR imaging examination of the brain without sedation, including DTI, fo...
Source: American Journal of Neuroradiology - October 5, 2020 Category: Radiology Authors: Graham, R. M., Jiang, L., McCorkle, G., Bellando, B. J., Sorensen, S. T., Glasier, C. M., Ramakrishnaiah, R. H., Rowell, A. C., Coker, J. L., Ou, X. Tags: PEDIATRICS Source Type: research

COVID-19-Associated Cytotoxic Lesions of the Corpus Callosum [PEDIATRICS]
SUMMARY: There are very limited published data on the neurologic complications associated with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in the pediatric population. Here we present the first 2 pediatric cases of presumed COVID-19 related cytotoxic lesions of the corpus callosum. Similar to reports in adults, these cases suggest that the COVID-19 infection in children may rarely mediate a hyperinflammatory response that can cause CNS pathology. As the pandemic continues further, the presentation of cytotoxic lesions of the corpus callosum should prompt radiologists to consider COVID-19, among other known causes. (Source: America...
Source: American Journal of Neuroradiology - October 5, 2020 Category: Radiology Authors: Gaur, P., Dixon, L., Jones, B., Lyall, H., Jan, W. Tags: PEDIATRICS Source Type: research

Prediction of Human Papillomavirus Status and Overall Survival in Patients with Untreated Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma: Development and Validation of CT-Based Radiomics [FUNCTIONAL]
CONCLUSIONS: CT-based radiomics may be useful in predicting human papillomavirus status and overall survival in patients with oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma. (Source: American Journal of Neuroradiology)
Source: American Journal of Neuroradiology - October 5, 2020 Category: Radiology Authors: Choi, Y., Nam, Y., Jang, J., Shin, N.- Y., Ahn, K.- J., Kim, B.- S., Lee, Y.- S., Kim, M.- S. Tags: FUNCTIONAL Source Type: research

Are Gadolinium-Enhanced MR Sequences Needed in Simultaneous 18F-FDG-PET/MRI for Tumor Delineation in Head and Neck Cancer? [HEAD & NECK]
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: PET/MRI with 18F-FDG has demonstrated the advantages of simultaneous PET and MR imaging in head and neck cancer imaging, MRI allowing excellent soft-tissue contrast, while PET provides metabolic information. The aim of this study was to evaluate the added value of gadolinium contrast–enhanced sequences in the tumor delineation of head and neck cancers on 18F-FDG-PET/MR imaging. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Consecutive patients who underwent simultaneous head and neck 18F-FDG-PET/MR imaging staging or restaging followed by surgery were retrospectively included. Local tumor invasion and lymph node ex...
Source: American Journal of Neuroradiology - October 5, 2020 Category: Radiology Authors: Pyatigorskaya, N., De Laroche, R., Bera, G., Giron, A., Bertolus, C., Herve, G., Chambenois, E., Bergeret, S., Dormont, D., Amor-Sahli, M., Kas, A. Tags: HEAD & amp; NECK Source Type: research

Olfactory Bulb Signal Abnormality in Patients with COVID-19 Who Present with Neurologic Symptoms [HEAD & NECK]
CONCLUSIONS: Olfactory bulb 3D T2 FLAIR signal intensity was greater in the patients with COVID-19 and neurologic symptoms compared with an age-matched control group with olfactory dysfunction, and this was qualitatively apparent in 4 of 12 patients with COVID-19. Analysis of these preliminary finding suggests that olfactory apparatus vulnerability to COVID-19 might be supported on conventional neuroimaging and may serve as a noninvasive biomarker of infection. (Source: American Journal of Neuroradiology)
Source: American Journal of Neuroradiology - October 5, 2020 Category: Radiology Authors: Strauss, S. B., Lantos, J. E., Heier, L. A., Shatzkes, D. R., Phillips, C. D. Tags: HEAD & amp; NECK Source Type: research

Microcatheter Originating Debris during Neuroendovascular Procedures: Mechanism of Dislodgement and Its Prevention [INTERVENTIONAL]
SUMMARY: Embolic material dislodgement from microcatheters can potentially induce subclinical brain damage as evidenced by a delayed enhanced or other type of lesions. Some of the most frequently used microcatheters were investigated in vitro in different setups and combinations with different port insertions and rotating hemostatic valves. It was found that side port application increases injury to the catheter surface and debris dislodgement by conflicting with internal ledges in rotating hemostatic valves. This initial observation suggests the need for measures to remove the produced debris during such procedures. (Sour...
Source: American Journal of Neuroradiology - October 5, 2020 Category: Radiology Authors: Kan, I., Karagiozov, K., Ito, S., Sato, S., Murayama, Y. Tags: INTERVENTIONAL Source Type: research

Intraprocedural Flat Panel Detector Rotational Angiography and an Image Fusion Technique for Delivery of a Microcatheter into the Targeted Shunt Pouch of a Dural Arteriovenous Fistula [INTERVENTIONAL]
In this study, we introduce an intraprocedural flat panel detector rotational angiography and image fusion technique to aid precise navigation inside the veins and proper placement of the microcatheter in the targeted shunt pouch. (Source: American Journal of Neuroradiology)
Source: American Journal of Neuroradiology - October 5, 2020 Category: Radiology Authors: Choi, J. H., Cho, D. Y., Shin, Y. S., Kim, B.- S. Tags: INTERVENTIONAL Source Type: research

Quantifying Intra-Arterial Verapamil Response as a Diagnostic Tool for Reversible Cerebral Vasoconstriction Syndrome [INTERVENTIONAL]
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: There is mounting evidence supporting the benefit of intra-arterial administration of vasodilators in diagnosing reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome. We prospectively quantified the degree of luminal diameter dilation after intra-arterial administration of verapamil and its accuracy in diagnosing reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Patients suspected of having intracranial arteriopathy on noninvasive imaging and referred for digital subtraction angiography were enrolled in a prospective registry. Intra-arterial verapamil was administered in vascular terri...
Source: American Journal of Neuroradiology - October 5, 2020 Category: Radiology Authors: Sequeiros, J. M., Roa, J. A., Sabotin, R. P., Dandapat, S., Ortega-Gutierrez, S., Leira, E. C., Derdeyn, C. P., Bathla, G., Hasan, D. M., Samaniego, E. A. Tags: INTERVENTIONAL Source Type: research

The Dilator-Dotter Technique: A Modified Method of Rapid Internal Carotid Artery Revascularization in Acute Ischemic Stroke [INTERVENTIONAL]
CONCLUSIONS: The dilator-Dotter technique may be a safe and effective modification of the traditional Dotter technique in allowing rapid ICA recanalization in cases of acute ischemic stroke due to tandem occlusions. (Source: American Journal of Neuroradiology)
Source: American Journal of Neuroradiology - October 5, 2020 Category: Radiology Authors: Amuluru, K., Sahlein, D., Al-Mufti, F., Payner, T., Kulwin, C., DeNardo, A., Scott, J. Tags: INTERVENTIONAL Source Type: research

Antiplatelet Management for Stent-Assisted Coiling and Flow Diversion of Ruptured Intracranial Aneurysms: A DELPHI Consensus Statement [INTERVENTIONAL]
CONCLUSIONS: More and better data on antiplatelet management of patients with ruptured intracranial aneurysms undergoing stent-assisted coiling or flow diversion are urgently needed. Panel members in this DELPHI consensus study preferred a periprocedural dual-antiplatelet regimen with aspirin and a glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitor. (Source: American Journal of Neuroradiology)
Source: American Journal of Neuroradiology - October 5, 2020 Category: Radiology Authors: Ospel, J. M., Brouwer, P., Dorn, F., Arthur, A., Jensen, M. E., Nogueira, R., Chapot, R., Albuquerque, F., Majoie, C., Jayaraman, M., Taylor, A., Liu, J., Fiehler, J., Sakai, N., Orlov, K., Kallmes, D., Fraser, J. F., Thibault, L., Goyal, M. Tags: INTERVENTIONAL Source Type: research

Regional Mechanical Thrombectomy Imaging Protocol in Patients Presenting with Acute Ischemic Stroke during the COVID-19 Pandemic [INTERVENTIONAL]
CONCLUSIONS: Chest CT provides a pragmatic, rapid additional tool for COVID-19 risk stratification among patients referred for mechanical thrombectomy. Its inclusion in a standardized regional stroke imaging protocol has enabled efficient use of hospital resources with minimal compromise or delay to the overall patient treatment schedule. (Source: American Journal of Neuroradiology)
Source: American Journal of Neuroradiology - October 5, 2020 Category: Radiology Authors: Dhillon, P. S., Pointon, K., Lenthall, R., Nair, S., Subramanian, G., McConachie, N., Izzath, W. Tags: INTERVENTIONAL Source Type: research

Transcranial MR Imaging-Guided Focused Ultrasound Interventions Using Deep Learning Synthesized CT [FUNCTIONAL]
CONCLUSIONS: The deep learning method can be used to simplify workflow associated with transcranial MR imaging–guided focused ultrasound. (Source: American Journal of Neuroradiology)
Source: American Journal of Neuroradiology - October 5, 2020 Category: Radiology Authors: Su, P., Guo, S., Roys, S., Maier, F., Bhat, H., Melhem, E. R., Gandhi, D., Gullapalli, R., Zhuo, J. Tags: FUNCTIONAL Source Type: research

The Variable Appearance of Third Ventricular Colloid Cysts: Correlation with Histopathology and the Risk of Obstructive Ventriculomegaly [ADULT BRAIN]
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: While third ventricular colloid cysts may present as an incidental finding, they also harbor the potential to cause ventricular obstruction and sudden death. Herein we analyze the relationship between imaging appearance and the risk of obstructive ventriculomegaly. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This is a retrospective review of the MR imaging appearance of 64 patients with colloid cysts, 46 of whom also had a CT scan, obtained by a tertiary hospital imaging report data base search over a 10-year period. Cysts were categorized by appearance on T2-FLAIR and correlated with patient age, cyst size, and the ri...
Source: American Journal of Neuroradiology - October 5, 2020 Category: Radiology Authors: Khanpara, S. D., Day, A. L., Bhattacharjee, M. B., Riascos, R. F., Fernelius, J. P., Westmark, K. D. Tags: ADULT BRAIN Source Type: research

Tentorial Venous Anatomy: Variation in the Healthy Population [ADULT BRAIN]
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: A new transtentorial venous system consisting of medial, intermediate, and lateral tentorial veins, connecting infra- and supratentorial compartments, was recently shown in 2 cadaver dissections and 2 patient scans. We sought to characterize the venous patterns within the tentorium and their relation to measures of skull development in a cohort of healthy adults. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed tentorial venous anatomy of the head using CTA/CTV performed for routine care or research purposes in 238 patients. Included studies had adequate contrast opacification of venous structure...
Source: American Journal of Neuroradiology - October 5, 2020 Category: Radiology Authors: Rosenblum, J. S., Tunacao, J. M., Chandrashekhar, V., Jha, A., Neto, M., Weiss, C., Smirniotopoulos, J., Rosenblum, B. R., Heiss, J. D. Tags: ADULT BRAIN Source Type: research

Presurgical Identification of Primary Central Nervous System Lymphoma with Normalized Time-Intensity Curve: A Pilot Study of a New Method to Analyze DSC-PWI [FUNCTIONAL]
CONCLUSIONS: The proposed method for DSC-PWI time-intensity curve normalization renders comparable curves beyond technical and patient variability. Normalized time-intensity curves performed satisfactorily for the presurgical identification of primary central nervous system lymphoma. (Source: American Journal of Neuroradiology)
Source: American Journal of Neuroradiology - October 5, 2020 Category: Radiology Authors: Pons-Escoda, A., Garcia-Ruiz, A., Naval-Baudin, P., Cos, M., Vidal, N., Plans, G., Bruna, J., Perez-Lopez, R., Majos, C. Tags: FUNCTIONAL Source Type: research

Perfusion Parameter Thresholds That Discriminate Ischemic Core Vary with Time from Onset in Acute Ischemic Stroke [FUNCTIONAL]
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: When mapping the ischemic core and penumbra in patients with acute ischemic stroke using perfusion imaging, the core is currently delineated by applying the same threshold value for relative CBF at all time points from onset to imaging. We investigated whether the degree of perfusion abnormality and optimal perfusion parameter thresholds for defining ischemic core vary with time from onset to imaging. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In a prospectively maintained registry, consecutive patients were analyzed who had ICA or M1 occlusion, baseline perfusion and diffusion MR imaging, treatment with IV tPA and/or...
Source: American Journal of Neuroradiology - October 5, 2020 Category: Radiology Authors: Yoshie, T., Yu, Y., Jiang, H., Honda, T., Trieu, H., Scalzo, F., Saver, J. L., Liebeskind, D. S., on behalf of the UCLA Reperfusion Therapy Investigators Tags: FUNCTIONAL Source Type: research

Imaging Features of Acute Encephalopathy in Patients with COVID-19: A Case Series [ADULT BRAIN]
We present 5 cases that illustrate varying imaging presentations of acute encephalopathy in patients with coronavirus disease 2019. MR features include leukoencephalopathy, diffusion restriction that involves the GM and WM, microhemorrhages, and leptomeningitis. We believe it is important for radiologists to be familiar with the neuroradiologic imaging spectrum of acute encephalopathy in the coronavirus disease 2019 population. (Source: American Journal of Neuroradiology)
Source: American Journal of Neuroradiology - October 5, 2020 Category: Radiology Authors: Kihira, S., Delman, B. N., Belani, P., Stein, L., Aggarwal, A., Rigney, B., Schefflein, J., Doshi, A. H., Pawha, P. S. Tags: ADULT BRAIN Source Type: research

Pressing Issues in COVID-19: Probable Cause to Seize SARS-CoV-2 for Its Preferential Involvement of Posterior Circulation Manifesting as Severe Posterior Reversible Encephalopathy Syndrome and Posterior Strokes [ADULT BRAIN]
SUMMARY: Since December 2019, a novel Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome coronavirus 2 from China has rapidly spread worldwide. Although respiratory involvement is the mainstay of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), systemic involvement has recently drawn more attention. In particular, a number of recent articles have shed light on the nervous system as one of the possible targets. At our institution, we observed 15 patients with acute brain vascular manifestations; most interesting, we had a higher prevalence of the posterior circulation acute impairment. In our series, 7 patients had acute posterior cerebral injury: 1, h...
Source: American Journal of Neuroradiology - October 5, 2020 Category: Radiology Authors: DAmore, F., Vinacci, G., Agosti, E., Cariddi, L. P., Terrana, A. V., Vizzari, F. A., Mauri, M., Giorgianni, A. Tags: ADULT BRAIN Source Type: research

Bilateral Basal Ganglia Hemorrhage in a Patient with Confirmed COVID-19 [ADULT BRAIN]
SUMMARY: Bilateral basal ganglia hemorrhage is exceedingly rare. To our knowledge, our patient is the first reported case of a confirmed coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patient who had bilateral basal ganglia hemorrhage. In the absence of other risk factors for bilateral deep cerebral involvement, we suspect that COVID-19 may be contributing to these rare pathologies. Most published data represent a correlation between COVID-19 and neurologic complications, and more research is still needed to prove causation. (Source: American Journal of Neuroradiology)
Source: American Journal of Neuroradiology - October 5, 2020 Category: Radiology Authors: Daci, R., Kennelly, M., Ferris, A., Azeem, M. U., Johnson, M. D., Hamzei-Sichani, F., Jun-OConnell, A. H., Natarajan, S. K. Tags: ADULT BRAIN Source Type: research

Clinical and Neuroimaging Correlation in Patients with COVID-19 [ADULT BRAIN]
CONCLUSIONS: A spectrum of acute neuroimaging abnormalities was seen in our cohort of patients with coronavirus disease 2019, including hemorrhage, infarction, and leukoencephalopathy. Significant associations between abnormal neuroimaging studies and markers of disease severity (intensive care unit admission, intubation, and acute kidney injury) suggest that patients with severe forms of coronavirus disease 2019 may have higher rates of neuroimaging abnormalities. (Source: American Journal of Neuroradiology)
Source: American Journal of Neuroradiology - October 5, 2020 Category: Radiology Authors: Yoon, B. C., Buch, K., Lang, M., Applewhite, B. P., Li, M. D., Mehan, W. A., Leslie-Mazwi, T. M., Rincon, S. P. Tags: ADULT BRAIN Source Type: research

Exophytic Lumbar Vertebral Body Mass in an Adult with Back Pain [SPINE]
SUMMARY: Chordomas are rare primary bone malignancies derived from notochord remnants. The tumors often are slow-growing and often present with indolent, nonspecific symptoms. Nevertheless, chordomas are locally aggressive and highly prone to local recurrence, necessitating precise planning before biopsy and/or surgical resection. Familiarity with the imaging features of chordomas is, therefore, essential. This case highlights the typical imaging and pathologic features of a spinal chordoma as well as the surgical approach and the patient’s subsequent outcome. (Source: American Journal of Neuroradiology)
Source: American Journal of Neuroradiology - October 5, 2020 Category: Radiology Authors: Benson, J. C., Vizcaino, M. A., Kim, D. K., Carr, C., Rose, P., Eckel, L., Diehn, F. Tags: SPINE Source Type: research

Middle Meningeal Artery: Anatomy and Variations [HEAD & NECK]
SUMMARY: The middle meningeal artery is the major human dural artery. Its origin and course can vary a great deal in relation, not only with the embryologic development of the hyostapedial system, but also because of the relationship of this system with the ICA, ophthalmic artery, trigeminal artery, and inferolateral trunk. After summarizing these systems in the first part our review, our purpose is to describe, in this second part, the anatomy, the possible origins, and courses of the middle meningeal artery. This review is enriched by the correlation of each variant to the related embryologic explanation as well as by so...
Source: American Journal of Neuroradiology - October 5, 2020 Category: Radiology Authors: Bonasia, S., Smajda, S., Ciccio, G., Robert, T. Tags: HEAD & amp; NECK Source Type: research

Stapedial Artery: From Embryology to Different Possible Adult Configurations [HEAD & NECK]
SUMMARY: The stapedial artery is an embryonic artery that represents the precursor of some orbital, dural, and maxillary branches. Although its embryologic development and transformations are very complex, it is mandatory to understand the numerous anatomic variations of the middle meningeal artery. Thus, in the first part of this review, we describe in detail the hyostapedial system development with its variants, referring also to some critical points of ICA, ophthalmic artery, trigeminal artery, and inferolateral trunk embryology. This basis will allow the understanding of the anatomic variants of the middle meningeal ar...
Source: American Journal of Neuroradiology - October 5, 2020 Category: Radiology Authors: Bonasia, S., Smajda, S., Ciccio, G., Robert, T. Tags: HEAD & amp; NECK Source Type: research

Neuroimaging in Zoonotic Outbreaks Affecting the Central Nervous System: Are We Fighting the Last War? [ADULT BRAIN]
SUMMARY: When preparing for the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic and its effects on the CNS, radiologists should be familiar with neuroimaging appearances in past zoonotic infectious disease outbreaks. Organisms that have crossed the species barrier from animals to humans include viruses such as Hendra, Nipah, Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome, and influenza, as well as bacteria and others. Brain CT and MR imaging findings have included cortical abnormalities, microinfarction in the white matter, large-vessel occlusion, and features of meningitis. In particular, the high sensitivity of diffusion-weighted MR imaging in det...
Source: American Journal of Neuroradiology - October 5, 2020 Category: Radiology Authors: Goh, G. X., Tan, K., Ang, B. S. P., Wang, L.- F., Tchoyoson Lim, C. C. Tags: ADULT BRAIN Source Type: research

Perspectives [other]
(Source: American Journal of Neuroradiology)
Source: American Journal of Neuroradiology - October 5, 2020 Category: Radiology Authors: Lindqwister, A. Tags: other Source Type: research

Recanalized Aneurysms: Is Rupture Further Preventable? [LETTERS]
(Source: American Journal of Neuroradiology)
Source: American Journal of Neuroradiology - October 5, 2020 Category: Radiology Authors: Kimura, T. Tags: LETTERS Source Type: research

Celebrating 35 Years of the AJNR: September 1985 edition [35 YEARS AGO IN AJNR]
(Source: American Journal of Neuroradiology)
Source: American Journal of Neuroradiology - September 8, 2020 Category: Radiology Tags: 35 YEARS AGO IN AJNR Source Type: research

Respiratory Phase Affects the Conspicuity of CSF-Venous Fistulas in Spontaneous Intracranial Hypotension [SPINE]
We describe how the respiratory phase affects the visibility of CSF–venous fistulas during myelography. (Source: American Journal of Neuroradiology)
Source: American Journal of Neuroradiology - September 8, 2020 Category: Radiology Authors: Amrhein, T. J., Gray, L., Malinzak, M. D., Kranz, P. G. Tags: SPINE Source Type: research

The Evaluation and Prediction of Laminoplasty Surgery Outcome in Patients with Degenerative Cervical Myelopathy Using Diffusion Tensor MRI [SPINE]
CONCLUSIONS: The DTI metrics before laminoplasty surgery, especially fractional anisotropy at the C2 level, have the potential for evaluating and predicting the degenerative cervical myelopathy surgery outcome. (Source: American Journal of Neuroradiology)
Source: American Journal of Neuroradiology - September 8, 2020 Category: Radiology Authors: Han, X., Ma, X., Li, D., Wang, J., Jiang, W., Cheng, X., Li, G., Guo, H., Tian, W. Tags: SPINE Source Type: research

Neuroimaging Appearance of Cerebral Malignant Epithelioid Glioneuronal Tumors in Children [PEDIATRICS]
SUMMARY: Malignant epithelioid glioneuronal tumor is a rare high-grade, aggressive brain tumor that shows both glial and neuronal differentiation on histopathology but is not included in the current World Health Organization classification. The neuroimaging appearance is variable but may be secondary to the size of the mass and/or location of the tumor. In our series, all epithelioid glioneuronal tumors were encountered in the supratentorial space and included pineal, temporal, and extratemporal lobar cerebral hemisphere locations. When large, the tumors demonstrate cystic degeneration and necrosis, hemorrhage, contrast en...
Source: American Journal of Neuroradiology - September 8, 2020 Category: Radiology Authors: Orman, G., Mohammed, S., Tran, H. D. B., Lin, F. Y., Meoded, A., Desai, N., Huisman, T. A. G. M., Kralik, S. F. Tags: PEDIATRICS Source Type: research

Focal Areas of High Signal Intensity in Children with Neurofibromatosis Type 1: Expected Evolution on MRI [PEDIATRICS]
CONCLUSIONS: Focal areas of high signal intensity are mostly small (
Source: American Journal of Neuroradiology - September 8, 2020 Category: Radiology Authors: Calvez, S., Levy, R., Calvez, R., Roux, C.- J., Grevent, D., Purcell, Y., Beccaria, K., Blauwblomme, T., Grill, J., Dufour, C., Bourdeaut, F., Doz, F., Robert, M. P., Boddaert, N., Dangouloff-Ros, V. Tags: PEDIATRICS Source Type: research

Assessment of Maturational Changes in White Matter Anisotropy and Volume in Children: A DTI Study [FUNCTIONAL]
CONCLUSIONS: The fractional anisotropy increase of several WM fascicles after 8 years of age may not result from an increase in WM fascicle volume. It might be the consequence of other developmental processes such as myelination. (Source: American Journal of Neuroradiology)
Source: American Journal of Neuroradiology - September 8, 2020 Category: Radiology Authors: Coll, G., de Schlichting, E., Sakka, L., Garcier, J.- M., Peyre, H., Lemaire, J.- J. Tags: FUNCTIONAL Source Type: research

Deep Learning for Pediatric Posterior Fossa Tumor Detection and Classification: A Multi-Institutional Study [FUNCTIONAL]
CONCLUSIONS: We present a multi-institutional deep learning model for pediatric posterior fossa tumor detection and classification with the potential to augment and improve the accuracy of radiologic diagnosis. (Source: American Journal of Neuroradiology)
Source: American Journal of Neuroradiology - September 8, 2020 Category: Radiology Authors: Quon, J. L., Bala, W., Chen, L. C., Wright, J., Kim, L. H., Han, M., Shpanskaya, K., Lee, E. H., Tong, E., Iv, M., Seekins, J., Lungren, M. P., Braun, K. R. M., Poussaint, T. Y., Laughlin, S., Taylor, M. D., Lober, R. M., Vogel, H., Fisher, P. G., Grant, Tags: FUNCTIONAL Source Type: research

Internal Auditory Canal Diverticula among Pediatric Patients: Prevalence and Assessment for Hearing Loss and Anatomic Associations [PEDIATRICS]
CONCLUSIONS: Internal auditory canal diverticula are a common finding on pediatric temporal bone CT. In the absence of clinical or imaging evidence for otospongiosis, diverticula likely fall within the range of a normal anatomic variation. Familiarity with these findings may prevent neuroradiologists from recommending unnecessary additional testing in pediatric patients with isolated internal auditory canal diverticula. (Source: American Journal of Neuroradiology)
Source: American Journal of Neuroradiology - September 8, 2020 Category: Radiology Authors: Bunch, P. M., Zapadka, M. E., Lack, C. M., Kiell, E. P., Kirse, D. J., Sachs, J. R. Tags: PEDIATRICS Source Type: research

COVID-19-Associated Bifacial Weakness with Paresthesia Subtype of Guillain-Barre Syndrome [HEAD & NECK]
We report a case of bifacial weakness with paresthesia, a recognized Guillain-Barré syndrome subtype characterized by rapidly progressive facial weakness and paresthesia without ataxia or other cranial neuropathies, which was temporally associated with antecedent coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19). This case highlights a potentially novel but critically important neurologic association of the COVID-19 disease process. Herein, we detail the clinicoradiologic work-up and diagnosis, clinical course, and multidisciplinary medical management of this patient with COVID-19. This case is illustrative of the increasingly recognized...
Source: American Journal of Neuroradiology - September 8, 2020 Category: Radiology Authors: Hutchins, K. L., Jansen, J. H., Comer, A. D., Scheer, R. V., Zahn, G. S., Capps, A. E., Weaver, L. M., Koontz, N. A. Tags: HEAD & amp; NECK Source Type: research

Anosmia in COVID-19 Associated with Injury to the Olfactory Bulbs Evident on MRI [HEAD & NECK]
We report 5 cases (3 with anosmia) of adult patients with COVID-19 in whom injury to the olfactory bulbs was interpreted as microbleeding or abnormal enhancement on MR imaging. The patients had persistent headache (n = 4) or motor deficits (n = 1). This olfactory bulb injury may be the mechanism by which the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome coronavirus 2 causes olfactory dysfunction. (Source: American Journal of Neuroradiology)
Source: American Journal of Neuroradiology - September 8, 2020 Category: Radiology Authors: Aragao, M. F. V. V., Leal, M. C., Cartaxo Filho, O. Q., Fonseca, T. M., Valenca, M. M. Tags: HEAD & amp; NECK Source Type: research

Diagnostic Accuracy of MRI-Based Morphometric Parameters for Detecting Olfactory Nerve Dysfunction [HEAD & NECK]
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Although olfactory dysfunction is a common cranial nerve disorder, there are no simple objective morphometric criteria to assess olfactory dysfunction. The aim of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic performance of MR imaging morphometric parameters for detecting olfactory dysfunction. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This prospective study enrolled patients from those presenting with olfactory symptoms who underwent both an olfactory function test and MR imaging. Controls without olfactory dysfunction were recruited during the preoperative work-up for pituitary adenoma. Two independent neuroradiologist...
Source: American Journal of Neuroradiology - September 8, 2020 Category: Radiology Authors: Lee, M. K., Lee, J. H., Kim, J. H., Kim, H., Joo, L., Kim, M., Cho, S. J., Suh, C. H., Chung, S. R., Choi, Y. J., Baek, J. H. Tags: HEAD & amp; NECK Source Type: research

A Simple Formula to Estimate Parathyroid Weight on 4D-CT, Predict Pathologic Weight, and Diagnose Parathyroid Adenoma in Patients with Primary Hyperparathyroidism [HEAD & NECK]
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Parathyroid gland weight is a clinically relevant parameter used to diagnose parathyroid adenomas intraoperatively. We evaluated the accuracy of a formula to estimate parathyroid weight on preoperative 4D-CT. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A single-institution retrospective study was performed in patients with primary hyperparathyroidism who underwent 4D-CT between January 2013 and December 2014 with subsequent parathyroidectomy and surgical cure. All patients had correct localization of a solitary parathyroid adenoma. The longest 3 dimensions of all identified parathyroid glands were measured on CT, and w...
Source: American Journal of Neuroradiology - September 8, 2020 Category: Radiology Authors: Yeh, R., Tay, Y.- K. D., Dercle, L., Bandeira, L., Parekh, M. R., Bilezikian, J. P. Tags: HEAD & amp; NECK Source Type: research

MRI Findings of Immune Checkpoint Inhibitor-Induced Hypophysitis: Possible Association with Fibrosis [HEAD & NECK]
CONCLUSIONS: Pituitary geographic hypoenhancing lesions in the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland are characteristic and frequent MR imaging findings of immune checkpoint inhibitor–induced hypophysitis. They reflect fibrosis and are useful in distinguishing immune checkpoint inhibitor–induced hypophysitis from other types of hypophysitis/tumors. (Source: American Journal of Neuroradiology)
Source: American Journal of Neuroradiology - September 8, 2020 Category: Radiology Authors: Kurokawa, R., Ota, Y., Gonoi, W., Hagiwara, A., Kurokawa, M., Mori, H., Maeda, E., Amemiya, S., Usui, Y., Sato, N., Nakata, Y., Moritani, T., Abe, O. Tags: HEAD & amp; NECK Source Type: research

Intraluminal Carotid Artery Thrombus in COVID-19: Another Danger of Cytokine Storm? [EXTRACRANIAL VASCULAR]
We report a series of 6 patients with COVID-19 with acute ischemic stroke due to intraluminal carotid artery thrombus presenting during an 8-day period. Six patients were included (5 men) with a mean age of 65.8 years (range, 55–78 years). COVID-19 was diagnosed by detection of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome coronavirus 2 in 5 patients and was presumed due to typical clinical and imaging findings in 1 patient. All patients had vascular risk factors including diabetes (83%), hyperlipidemia (100%), and smoking (17%). Four patients presented with large infarcts with initial NIHSS scores of 24–30. During their h...
Source: American Journal of Neuroradiology - September 8, 2020 Category: Radiology Authors: Mohamud, A. Y., Griffith, B., Rehman, M., Miller, D., Chebl, A., Patel, S. C., Howell, B., Kole, M., Marin, H. Tags: EXTRACRANIAL VASCULAR Source Type: research

Predictors of Favorable Outcome after Endovascular Thrombectomy in MRI: Selected Patients with Acute Basilar Artery Occlusion [INTERVENTIONAL]
CONCLUSIONS: In our series of MR imaging–selected patients with acute basilar artery occlusions, complete reperfusion was the strongest predictor of a good outcome. Lower pretreatment NIHSS, the presence of posterior communicating artery collateral flow, the absence of atrial fibrillation, and intravenous thrombolysis administration were associated with favorable outcome. (Source: American Journal of Neuroradiology)
Source: American Journal of Neuroradiology - September 8, 2020 Category: Radiology Authors: Mahmoudi, M., Dargazanli, C., Cagnazzo, F., Derraz, I., Arquizan, C., Wacogne, A., Labreuche, J., Bonafe, A., Sablot, D., Lefevre, P. H., Gascou, G., Gaillard, N., Scott, C., Costalat, V., Mourand, I. Tags: INTERVENTIONAL Source Type: research

Fusion Image Guidance for Supra-Aortic Vessel Catheterization in Neurointerventions: A Feasibility Study [INTERVENTIONAL]
CONCLUSIONS: Fluoroscopy with MRA/CTA fusion guidance for supra-aortic vessel interventions is feasible. Further improvements of the technique to increase accuracy at the cervical level and further studies are needed for assessing the procedural time savings and decreasing the x-ray radiation exposure. (Source: American Journal of Neuroradiology)
Source: American Journal of Neuroradiology - September 8, 2020 Category: Radiology Authors: Feddal, A., Escalard, S., Delvoye, F., Fahed, R., Desilles, J. P., Zuber, K., Redjem, H., Savatovsky, J. S., Ciccio, G., Smajda, S., Ben Maacha, M., Mazighi, M., Piotin, M., Blanc, R. Tags: INTERVENTIONAL Source Type: research