Immune mechanisms in cancer patients that lead to poor outcomes of SARS-CoV-2 infection

Transl Res. 2021 Dec 3:S1931-5244(21)00284-X. doi: 10.1016/j.trsl.2021.12.001. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTPatients with cancers have been severely affected by the COVID-19 pandemic. This is highlighted by the adverse outcomes in cancer patients with COVID-19 as well as by the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on cancer care. Patients with cancer constitute a heterogeneous population that exhibits distinct mechanisms of immune dysfunction, associated with distinct systemic features of hot (T-cell-inflamed/infiltrated) and cold (Non-T-cell-inflamed/infiltrated) tumors. The former show hyper immune activated cells and a highly inflammatory environment while, contrastingly, the latter show the profile of a senescent/quiescent immune system. Thus, the evolution of SARS-CoV-2 infection in different types of cancers can show distinct trajectories which could lead to a variety of clinical and pathophysiological outcomes. The altered immunological environment including cytokines that characterizes hot and cold tumors will lead to different mechanisms of immune dysfunction, which will result in downstream effects on the course of SARS-CoV-2 infection. This review will focus on defining the known contributions of soluble pro- and anti-inflammatory mediators on immune function including altered T-cells and B-cells responses and as well on how these factors modulate the expression of SARS-CoV-2 receptor ACE2, TMPRSS2 expression, and lymph node fibrosis in cancer patients. We will propose...
Source: Translational Research : the journal of laboratory and clinical medicine - Category: Laboratory Medicine Authors: Source Type: research

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CONCLUSIONS: The importance of brachytherapy is widely recognized for conferring a survival benefit, but barriers to implementation include inadequate training or maintenance of skills, and larger systematic issues related to reimbursement policy, social support, and financial hardship. As most established providers were uninterested in additional brachytherapy training, future approaches to improve patients' access should be multidimensional and reflect the value of brachytherapy in definitive treatment of patients with LACC.PMID:35079247 | PMC:PMC8782067 | DOI:10.5114/jcb.2021.112112
Source: Journal of Contemporary Brachytherapy - Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Source Type: research
New Brunswick, N.J. (January 25, 2022) – Johnson &Johnson (NYSE: JNJ) today announced results for fourth-quarter and full year 2021. “Our 2021 performance reflects continued strength across all segments of our business. Guided by Our Credo, I am honored to assume the role of CEO, leading our global teams in continuing our work to deliver life-changing solutions to consumers, patients, and health care providers” said Joaquin Duato, Chief Executive Officer. “Given our strong results, financial profile, and innovative pipeline we are well positioned for success in 2022 and beyond.” OVERALL FI...
Source: Johnson and Johnson - Category: Pharmaceuticals Tags: Financial Source Type: news
Conclusions: The finding that SARS-CoV-2 mRNA vaccination resulted in binding to additional epitopes beyond what was seen after infection suggests protection could vary depending on the route of exposure to Spike antigen. The relatively conserved escape pathways to vaccine-induced antibodies relative to infection-induced antibodies suggests that if escape variants emerge, they may be readily selected for across vaccinated individuals. Given that the majority of people will be first exposed to Spike via vaccination and not infection, this work has implications for predicting the selection of immune escape variants at a popu...
Source: Cancer Control - Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Source Type: research
Viruses. 2021 Dec 30;14(1):61. doi: 10.3390/v14010061.ABSTRACTThe massive emergence of COVID-19 cases in the first phase of pandemic within an extremely short period of time suggest that an undetected earlier circulation of SARS-CoV-2 might have occurred. Given the importance of this evidence, an independent evaluation was recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO) to test a subset of samples selected on the level of positivity in ELISA assays (positive, low positive, negative) detected in our previous study of prepandemic samples collected in Italy. SARS-CoV-2 antibodies were blindly retested by two independent ce...
Source: Cancer Control - Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Source Type: research
Conclusions. SARS-CoV-2 infection in CLL patients is associated with poor outcome regardless of administered CLL-directed treatment.
Source: Cancers - Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Tags: Article Source Type: research
This article aims to review the impact of COVID-19 on CRC screening.PMID:35056408 | DOI:10.3390/medicina58010100
Source: Medicina (Kaunas) - Category: Universities & Medical Training Authors: Source Type: research
In this study, we collected 3,508 nasopharyngeal swab samples from 3,249 patients who visited the Yamanashi Central Hospital in Japan from March 1, 2020 to February 28, 2021. We performed multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using the FilmArray Respiratory Panel and singleplex quantitative reverse transcription PCR targeting SARS-CoV-2 to detect respiratory disease-associated pathogens. At least one pathogen was detected in 246 (7.0%) of the 3,508 samples. Eleven types of pathogens were detected in the samples collected from March-May 2020, during which non-pharmaceutical interventions were not well implemented. In co...
Source: Cancer Control - Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Source Type: research
This article aims to review the impact of COVID-19 on CRC screening.PMID:35056408 | DOI:10.3390/medicina58010100
Source: Medicina (Kaunas) - Category: Universities & Medical Training Authors: Source Type: research
Assessing the risk for specific patient groups to suffer from severe courses of COVID-19 is of major importance in the current SARS-CoV-2 pandemic. This review focusses on the risk for specific patient groups with chronic respiratory conditions, such as patients with asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, cystic fibrosis (CF), sarcoidosis, interstitial lung diseases, lung cancer, sleep apnea, tuberculosis, neuromuscular diseases, a history of pulmonary embolism, and patients with lung transplants. Evidence and recommendations are detailed in exemplary cases. While some patient groups with chronic respiratory condit...
Source: Respiration - Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research
AbstractPurpose of ReviewChronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is the most frequent lymphoproliferative disease in the elderly of the western world. Immune defective responses and treatment can worsen the immune system ’s competence of CLL patients. Consequently, they may present a higher incidence of recurrent severe infections, second malignancies, and reduced efficacy of vaccines. The outbreak of COVID-19 is an ongoing pandemic, and patients with comorbidities experience more severe forms of the disease. Hema tological malignancies are associated with higher case fatality rates (CFRs) than other cancers. Knowledge ab...
Source: Current Oncology Reports - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research
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