Intravitreal vascular endothelial growth factors hypertension, proteinuria, and renal injury: a concise review
Purpose of review Nearly 20 years ago, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)inhibitors (VEGFi) were adapted from systemic use from antiangiogenesis roles to intravitreal uses. Initially bevacizumab a murine immunoglobulin was injected ‘off label’ as a treatment for diabetic macular edema and age-related macular degeneration. Throughout the following decade aflibercept and finally ranibizumab were adapted and obtained Food and Drug Administration approval for intravitreal use. Initially systemic absorption was thought to be quite low after intravitreal injections and was quoted as being 200-fold lower than levels postulated to induce significant VEGF inhibition. Pharmacodynamic studies obtained in 2014 and again in 2017 revealed significant systemic absorption and detectable VEGF inhibition, this has since been confirmed in multiple subsequent studies. Recent findings A few case reports of renal dysfunction and glomerular disease related to VEGFi were initially identified. Mixed findings on effects on blood pressure were noted in studies. More recently, 32 cases of de-novo glomerular disease and/or proteinuria exacerbation were identified. New studies have corroborated increased blood pressure, proteinuria exacerbation in patients with pre-existing nephrotic syndrome, and systemic VEGF depletion. Further, the most common lesion of systemic VEGFi nephrotoxicity, thrombotic microangiopathy, has recently been reported by our group. Summary We wil...
Journal of Human Hypertension, Published online: 27 January 2022; doi:10.1038/s41371-021-00651-zMalignant hypertension and atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome: a possible continuum between two entities?
Journal of Human Hypertension, Published online: 27 January 2022; doi:10.1038/s41371-021-00652-yFocus on today’s evidence while keeping an eye on the future: lessons derived from hypertension in women
ConclusionThe slow firing method using a reinforced triple-row stapler for pancreatic transection is simple, safe, and effective for preventing CR-POPF after LDP.
AbstractPurposeTo evaluate the long-term efficacy of large gastric pouch surgery and revisional surgery in patients with a body mass index (BMI)
Medtronic announces FDA approval of spinal cord stimulation therapy for treating chronic pain resulting from diabetic peripheral neuropathy /PRNewswire/ -- Medtronic plc (NYSE:MDT), a global leader in healthcare technology, today announced it has received U.S. Food and Drug Administration approval... www.prnewswire.com "Medtronic estimates that up to 800,000 US patients suffer from moderate to severe DPN symptoms that are not resolved through conventional medical management approaches, like drugs. The company views these patients as potential ...
Two recent papers provide insight into possible risk factors for developing the chronic condition, including autoantibodies and diabetes.
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