A Young Boy With Hemophagocytic Lymphohistiocytosis Presenting With Vaccine-Related Granulomatous Dermatitis: A Case Report and Literature Review
We report the case of a 4-year-old boy who initially developed a widespread popular–pustular rash 2 weeks after his 12-month measles, mumps, and rubella vaccinations. These resolved with scarring then recurred following his 24-month vaccinations. Multiple skin biopsies were negative for infectious organisms and showed a granulomatous infiltrate with perforation and necrobiosis. The differential diagnosis included perforating granuloma annulare, infection, or rheumatoid nodules. At the age of 4, he developed fever, hepatosplenomegaly, pancytopenia and other laboratory abnormalities, requiring hospitalization. A number of studies were performed including biopsies of bone marrow and liver. Molecular testing revealed 2 mutations in UNC13D known to be associated with familial HLH. His prior cutaneous lesions were likely caused by immune dysregulation exacerbated by immunizations because of underlying familial HLH. This case illustrates the importance of recognizing an unusual cutaneous manifestation of a rare disease to arrive at an earlier diagnosis in a pediatric patient. Although cutaneous eruptions usually develop concurrently with other systemic symptoms of HLH, preceding unusual skin lesions may be the first indication of this rare disease.
Conclusions: The novel SARS-CoV-2 vaccine upregulates the immune system to produce an adaptive immune response. The SARS-CoV-2 vaccine may potentially be associated with increased risk of rejection in those with ocular surface transplants.
Abstract: As the understanding of COVID-19 infection becomes better, it is being recognized as a complex multisystem pathology rather than just affecting the lungs. Several ocular findings have been documented by researchers in individuals infected with COVID-19, and ocular symptoms may even be the first presenting feature of COVID-19 infection in 2.26% individuals. Several countries have started vaccination with inactivated or live vaccines to combat this pandemic, and varied side effects have been reported after vaccination. Few cases of herpes zoster have previously been reported in elderly patients with comorbiditi...
Conclusions: To the best of our knowledge, this case of full-thickness graft rejection after the Moderna SARS-CoV-2 mRNA vaccination is the first to be reported worldwide. The temporal relationship between vaccination and subsequent rejection is highly suggestive of causation due to the short interval (3 days) between vaccination and rejection and the lack of other inciting factors in an otherwise healthy graft. Patients with corneal transplants who plan to take the COVID-19 vaccinations should be counseled on symptoms and closely monitored, and an individualized plan should be made in discussion with the ophthalmologist.
Conclusions: Invasive disease due to Hia affecting young children accounts for considerable morbidity and mortality.
Although there are many hypotheses for the age-related difference in the severity of COVID-19, differences in innate, adaptive and heterologous immunity, together with differences in endothelial and clotting function, are the most likely mechanisms underlying the marked age gradient. Children have a faster and stronger innate immune response to SARS-CoV-2, especially in the nasal mucosa, which rapidly controls the virus. In contrast, adults can have an overactive, dysregulated and less effective innate response that leads to uncontrolled pro-inflammatory cytokine production and tissue injury. More recent exposure to other ...
This report describes a case of aseptic meningitis 3 weeks after administration of the second dose of Comirnaty. The patient recovered with conservative and symptomatic care after 5 days of admission. Surveillance of rare adverse events, including aseptic meningitis, and their management should be prompt and appropriate.
ConclusionsCompared with topical corticosteroids, two infiltrations delivered 3 months apart decreased the inflammation of the vulva and improved most of the clinical signs and symptoms associated with VLS. Nonetheless, no improvement in vulvar skin elasticity was derived from the autologous treatment.Level of Evidence IThis journal requires that authors assign a level of evidence to each article. For a full description of these Evidence-Based Medicine ratings, please refer to the Table of Contents or the online Instructions to Authorswww.springer.com/00266.
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