Community-acquired bacterial meningitis

Progress has been made in the prevention and treatment of community-acquired bacterial meningitis during the past three decades but the burden of the disease remains high globally. Conjugate vaccines against the three most common causative pathogens (Streptococcus pneumoniae, Neisseria meningitidis, and Haemophilus influenzae) have reduced the incidence of disease, but with the replacement by non-vaccine pneumococcal serotypes and the emergence of bacterial strains with reduced susceptibility to antimicrobial treatment, meningitis continues to pose a major health challenge worldwide. In patients presenting with bacterial meningitis, typical clinical characteristics (such as the classic triad of neck stiffness, fever, and an altered mental status) might be absent and cerebrospinal fluid examination for biochemistry, microscopy, culture, and PCR to identify bacterial DNA are essential for the diagnosis. Multiplex PCR point-of-care panels in cerebrospinal fluid show promise in accelerating the diagnosis, but diagnostic accuracy studies to justify routine implementation are scarce and randomised, controlled studies are absent. Early administration of antimicrobial treatment (within 1 hour of presentation) improves outcomes and needs to be adjusted according to local emergence of drug resistance. Adjunctive dexamethasone treatment has proven efficacy beyond the neonatal age but only in patients from high-income countries. Further progress can be expected from implementing preventi...
Source: Current Awareness Service for Health (CASH) - Category: Consumer Health News Source Type: news

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In conclusion, there are significant differences in vaccination programs for pregnant women in Europe. Vaccination programs for pregnant women should expand in order to protect maternal and infant health. A consensus-based vaccination program is needed.PMID:34462162 | DOI:10.1016/j.vaccine.2021.08.074
Source: Vaccine - Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Source Type: research
Clin Microbiol Rev. 2021 Jun 2:e0002821. doi: 10.1128/CMR.00028-21. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTHaemophilus influenzae serotype b (Hib) was previously the most common cause of bacterial meningitis and an important etiologic agent of pneumonia in children aged
Source: Clinical Microbiology Reviews - Category: Microbiology Authors: Source Type: research
CONCLUSIONS: The results are representative of the burden of bacterial meningitis among under-five children in India. The findings were useful in rolling out PCV in the National Immunization Program. The non-susceptibility to penicillin and multidrug resistance was an important observation. Timely expansion of PCV across India will significantly reduce the burden of antimicrobial resistance. Continued surveillance is needed to understand the trend after PCV expansion in India.PMID:34074545 | DOI:10.1016/j.vaccine.2021.05.041
Source: Vaccine - Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Source Type: research
Clin Microbiol Rev. 2021 Jun 2:e0002821. doi: 10.1128/CMR.00028-21. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTHaemophilus influenzae serotype b (Hib) was previously the most common cause of bacterial meningitis and an important etiologic agent of pneumonia in children aged
Source: Clinical Microbiology Reviews - Category: Microbiology Authors: Source Type: research
CONCLUSION: Our findings showed a significant decrease (60%) in the overall Hib nasopharyngeal carriage in healthy children under six years after 5 years after the start of Hib vaccination.PMID:33816612 | PMC:PMC7987433 | DOI:10.1155/2021/4923852
Source: Biomed Res - Category: Research Authors: Source Type: research
Haemophilus influenzae (H. influenzae) is a commensal bacterium of the human upper respiratory tract, and can cause a wide range of localized and invasive infections in humans, such as epiglottitis, pneumonia, septicemia, and meningitis (1). Historically H. influenzae used to be the most common cause of bacterial meningitis, and primarily a disease of infants and young children (2, 3). The introduction of the conjugate vaccine targeting H. influenzae serotype b (Hib) in 1993 in the Netherlands resulted in a large decline of H.
Source: Journal of Infection - Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Tags: Original article Source Type: research
Abstract Bacteriological cultures from cerebrospinal fluids (CSF) have less sensitivity and specificity compared to quantitative PCR (RT-PCR), and multiple facts still conduct to the increase of negative culture. The aims of this study are to determine the molecular epidemiology and the simultaneous detection of bacterial meningitis in Morocco by using RT-PCR and compared this molecular approach with culture method to improve the etiological diagnosis of meningitis. The CSFs were collected over one-year period in 2018 in different hospitals covering all regions of the Kingdom of Morocco, from patients with suspect...
Source: Acta Microbiologica et Immunologica Hungarica - Category: Microbiology Authors: Tags: Acta Microbiol Immunol Hung Source Type: research
Authors: Lee GM Abstract An estimated 1 million people in the United States have functional or anatomic asplenia or hyposplenia. Infectious complications due to encapsulated organisms such as Streptococcus pneumoniae, Neisseria meningitidis, and Haemophilus influenzae can lead to fulminant sepsis and death, particularly in young children, in the period shortly after splenectomy, and in immunocompromised patients. Patients with asplenia are also at risk for less common infections due to Capnocytophaga, Babesia, and malaria. Antibiotic prophylaxis, vaccines, and patient and family education are the mainstays of preve...
Source: Hematology ASH Education Program - Category: Hematology Tags: Hematology Am Soc Hematol Educ Program Source Type: research
Abstract Over a 4-year study period from 2015 to 2018, altogether 183 isolates of bacterial meningitis were collected from 12 hospitals covering the entire Moroccan territory. Neisseria meningitidis represented 58.5%, Streptococcus pneumoniae 35.5%, and Haemophilus influenzae type b 6%. H. influenzae type b mainly affected 5-year-olds and unvaccinated adults. N. meningitidis serogroup B represented 90.7% followed by serogroup W135 with 6.5%. Decreased susceptibility to penicillin G (DSPG) for all isolates accounted for 15.7%, with 11.6% being resistant to penicillin G (PG) and 4.1% decreased susceptibility. Cumula...
Source: Acta Microbiologica et Immunologica Hungarica - Category: Microbiology Authors: Tags: Acta Microbiol Immunol Hung Source Type: research
Highly successful invasive pathogens exploit host vulnerabilities by adapting tools to co-opt highly conserved host features. This is especially true when pathogens develop ligands to hijack trafficking routes or signaling patterns of host receptors. In this context, highly successful pathogens can be grouped together by the patterns of organs infected and diseases they cause. In the case of this perspective, the focus is on the historically most successful invasive bacterial pathogens of children that cause pneumonia, sepsis and meningitis: Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, and Neisseria meningitidis. This...
Source: Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology - Category: Microbiology Source Type: research
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