Why have sperm counts more than halved in the past 40 years?

Dr Shanna Swan, a professor of environmental medicine and public health at Mount Sinai school of medicine in New York City, talks toRachel Humphreysabout declining fertility in men. Over the past 40 years, average sperm counts among western men havemore than halved.She tells Rachel how certain chemicals can interfere with reproductive health. Phthalates, used to make plastic soft and flexible, are of particular concern. They lower testosterone,which can affect sperm count,though they are bad for women, too, and can increase the risk of miscarriage and premature birth. The reproductive crisis is serious, she says. We need to try and limit our exposure to these chemicals otherwise human survival could be threatened.You can also read:Shanna Swan: ‘Most couples may have to use assisted reproduction by 2045’, by Zoe CorbynContinue reading...
Source: Guardian Unlimited Science - Category: Science Authors: Tags: Fertility problems Health Reproduction Biology Society Science Men's health Women's health Plastics Source Type: news

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Clin Mol Hepatol. 2021 Sep 17. doi: 10.3350/cmh.2021.0205. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTBACKGROUND AND AIMS: Maternal and fetal outcomes in pregnant patients with NAFLD have been largely unexplored. To determine the level of evidence associated with both maternal and fetal outcomes in pregnant women with NAFLD.METHOD: We conducted a comprehensive literature search. The studies included pregnant patients with a previous, current or subsequent diagnosis of NAFLD. We used a random-effects model using odds ratios (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI).RESULTS: Twenty two studies, with 13641 female NAFLD patients were reviewe...
Source: Clinical and molecular hepatology - Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Source Type: research
Clin Mol Hepatol. 2021 Sep 17. doi: 10.3350/cmh.2021.0205. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTBACKGROUND AND AIMS: Maternal and fetal outcomes in pregnant patients with NAFLD have been largely unexplored. To determine the level of evidence associated with both maternal and fetal outcomes in pregnant women with NAFLD.METHOD: We conducted a comprehensive literature search. The studies included pregnant patients with a previous, current or subsequent diagnosis of NAFLD. We used a random-effects model using odds ratios (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI).RESULTS: Twenty two studies, with 13641 female NAFLD patients were reviewe...
Source: Clinical and molecular hepatology - Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Source Type: research
Clin Mol Hepatol. 2021 Sep 17. doi: 10.3350/cmh.2021.0205. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTBACKGROUND AND AIMS: Maternal and fetal outcomes in pregnant patients with NAFLD have been largely unexplored. To determine the level of evidence associated with both maternal and fetal outcomes in pregnant women with NAFLD.METHOD: We conducted a comprehensive literature search. The studies included pregnant patients with a previous, current or subsequent diagnosis of NAFLD. We used a random-effects model using odds ratios (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI).RESULTS: Twenty two studies, with 13641 female NAFLD patients were reviewe...
Source: Clinical and molecular hepatology - Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Source Type: research
CONCLUSIONS: We are uncertain whether intravenous atosiban improves pregnancy outcomes for women undergoing assisted reproductive technology. This conclusion is based on currently available data from seven RCTs, which provided very low- to low-certainty evidence across studies. We could draw no clear conclusions about subcutaneous barusiban, based on limited data from one RCT. Further large well-designed RCTs reporting on live births and adverse clinical outcomes are still required to clarify the exact role of atosiban and barusiban before ET. Oral nolasiban appears to improve clinical pregnancy rate but not live birth rat...
Source: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews - Category: General Medicine Authors: Source Type: research
This study was conducted at an infertility clinic affiliated with a teaching hospital. In the study group the septum reached the internal or the external cervical os in 14 and 10 patients respectively. After hysteroscopic correction, all patients were offered various infertility treatments depending on the underlying etiology. The inclusion criterion in this study was to have a singleton birth after hysteroscopy. Demographic and clinical data and obstetric outcomes were compared between the two groups.Main results and the role of chanceThere was no significant difference in mean age, infertility duration, infertility type ...
Source: Human Reproduction - Category: Reproduction Medicine Source Type: research
This study was conducted at an infertility clinic affiliated with a teaching hospital. In the study group the septum reached the internal or the external cervical os in 14 and 10 patients respectively. After hysteroscopic correction, all patients were offered various infertility treatments depending on the underlying etiology. The inclusion criterion in this study was to have a singleton birth after hysteroscopy. Demographic and clinical data and obstetric outcomes were compared between the two groups.Main results and the role of chanceThere was no significant difference in mean age, infertility duration, infertility type ...
Source: Human Reproduction - Category: Reproduction Medicine Source Type: research
Contributors : Amy Webb ; Siavash Azari ; Lauren Johnson ; Stephanie SeveauSeries Type : Expression profiling by high throughput sequencingOrganism : Homo sapiensPregnant women are highly susceptible to infection by the bacterial pathogen Listeria monocytogenes leading to miscarriage, premature birth, and neonatal infection. It is thought that L. monocytogenes breaches the placental barrier by infecting trophoblasts at the maternal interface. However, the fate of L. monocytogenes within the chorionic villi and how infection reaches the fetus are unsettled. Hofbauer cells (HBCs) are fetal placental macrophages and the only ...
Source: GEO: Gene Expression Omnibus - Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Tags: Expression profiling by high throughput sequencing Homo sapiens Source Type: research
We report 16 pregnancies in 14 women with cystic fibrosis. We recorded the age, body weight, height, body mass index, and respiratory function values of pregnant women at the beginning and end of pregnancy. The mean maternal age at childbirth was 21.6 (18-25) years. At the beginning of maternal pregnancy, the mean height was 162 (150-175) cm, the mean body weight was 57.6 (42-72) kg, and the mean body mass index was 21.4 (19.1-23.2) kg/m2. At the end of pregnancy, the mean body weight was 62 (39-76) kg and the mean body mass index was 23.6 (21.3-24.1) kg/m2. The weight gain under pregnancy was mean 8 (1.5-21.5) kg. The res...
Source: Orvosi Hetilap - Category: General Medicine Authors: Source Type: research
Rev Physiol Biochem Pharmacol. 2021 Jun 23. doi: 10.1007/112_2021_58. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTAlcohol is one of the most consumed drugs in the world, even during pregnancy. Its use is a risk factor for developing adverse outcomes, e.g. fetal death, miscarriage, fetal growth restriction, and premature birth, also resulting in fetal alcohol spectrum disorders. Ethanol metabolism induces an oxidative environment that promotes the oxidation of lipids and proteins, triggers DNA damage, and advocates mitochondrial dysfunction, all of them leading to apoptosis and cellular injury. Several organs are altered due to this harm...
Source: Physiological Reviews - Category: Physiology Authors: Source Type: research
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