The Role of Mu-Opioids for Reward and Threat Processing in Humans: Bridging the Gap from Preclinical to Clinical Opioid Drug Studies

AbstractPurpose of ReviewOpioid receptors are widely expressed in the human brain. A number of features commonly associated with drug use disorder, such as difficulties in emotional learning, emotion regulation and anhedonia, have been linked to endogenous opioid signalling. Whereas chronic substance use and misuse are thought to alter the function of the mu-opioid system, the specific mechanisms are not well understood. We argue that understanding exogenous and endogenous opioid effects in the healthy human brain is an essential foundation for bridging preclinical and clinical findings related to opioid misuse. Here, we will examine psychopharmacological evidence to outline the role of the mu-opioid receptor (MOR) system in the processing of threat and reward, and discuss how disruption of these processes by chronic opioid use might alter emotional learning and reward responsiveness.Recent FindingsIn healthy people, studies using opioid antagonist drugs indicate that the brain ’s endogenous opioids downregulate fear reactivity and upregulate learning from safety. At the same time, endogenous opioids increase the liking of and motivation to engage with high reward value cues. Studies of acute opioid agonist effects indicate that with non-sedative doses, drugs such as mor phine and buprenorphine can mimic endogenous opioid effects on liking and wanting. Disruption of endogenous opioid signalling due to prolonged opioid exposure is associated with some degree of anhedonia...
Source: Current Addiction Reports - Category: Addiction Source Type: research

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ConclusionsThese results among youth have both public health and societal implications.Key messagesThe prevalence of exposure to adverse childhood experiences as well as risky behaviors are alarming among Tunisian adolescents.Screening addictive behaviors among youth with a history of childhood adversities is needed.
Source: The European Journal of Public Health - Category: General Medicine Source Type: research
Conclusions: This study suggests that although IGA has been regarded as a mental disease, online game behavior should be treated differently. Online game activities should not be entirely denied, but mental disorders caused by excessive gaming activities deserve attention. In particular, the emotional state and executive function of students with excessive online game behaviors should be monitored and intervened in advance to avoid game behaviors turning into indulgent behaviors or addiction. As a cognitive control process, executive function may play a key role in regulating IGA and emotional state.
Source: Frontiers in Psychiatry - Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research
ConclusionsThe findings have implications for identifying the risk factors of co-occurring addictive behaviors, and the development of primary prevention strategies resulting from such factorsKey messagesThe prevalence of addictive behavior is very high in middle school students.Understanding the risk factors of co-occurrence addictive problems is important for prevention program planning.
Source: The European Journal of Public Health - Category: General Medicine Source Type: research
ConclusionsThe results of the study highlighted predictors that can be useful in prevention, confirming the impact of the extent of time spent using the smartphone, especially at night, and underlining the role of psychological distress in maladaptive smartphone use.Key messagesThe findings raise concerns about the potential spread of smartphone addictive behaviour in Italian young adults.Perceiving a psychological distress condition was associated with potential smartphone addiction. It is important for prevention to have reliable screening tools that are quick and easy to fill out.
Source: The European Journal of Public Health - Category: General Medicine Source Type: research
The objective of the present study was to distinguish psychological and behavioral patterns of individuals with obesity concerning food addiction using a cluster analysis. We determined the profiles of the participants in terms of psychological distress, eating behaviors and physical activity and evaluated their association with food addiction. A cross-sectional study was conducted between September and November 2020, during the lockdown period imposed by the government for the COVID-19 pandemic. A sample of 507 individuals with obesity aged between 18 and 65 years participated in the present study by filling in the online...
Source: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health - Category: Environmental Health Authors: Tags: Article Source Type: research
While the pandemic was busy spiking depression, addiction, anxiety, suicidal thoughts and other crises in people, the region ’s mental and behavioral health programs were building more services to get ahead of the growing demand. Leaders believe much of what was developed during the height of the pandemic will continue long after it ends. As a result, they say, Western New York will have access to a greater number of s ervices than ever. Much of the expansion came because of an infusion of government…
Source: Health Care:Biotechnology headlines - Category: Biotechnology Authors: Source Type: news
AbstractCOVID-19 epidemic has resulted in devastating mortality and morbidity consisting of socioeconomic and health effects that have included respiratory/pulmonary, cardiovascular, mental health and neurological consequences such as anxiety, depression, and substance use. Several effective vaccines have been developed and extensive efforts are underway to develop therapeutics to treat COVID-19. Cannabis and/or its product-cannabidiol (CBD) are being advertised for the treatment of COVID-19 associated mental/neurological complications and substance use disorders. However, research reviewed shows that there is insufficient...
Source: Journal of NeuroImmune Pharmacology - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research
From Wall Street to Hollywood, psychedelics are having a cultural moment. For those of us who grew up in the “this is your brain on drugs” era, it’s hard to let go of stigma—and the mental image of an egg sizzling on a hot pan. But as a growing number of states and cities move to decriminalize drugs, and investors flock to an emerging market for psychedelic health care, substances like psilocybin, ketamine and LSD are edging into mainstream culture—and setting the stage for a paradigm shift in modern medicine. Within the next few years, we could see psychedelic therapies prescribed for refract...
Source: TIME: Health - Category: Consumer Health News Authors: Tags: Uncategorized Source Type: news
Conclusion: During the COVID-19 pandemic, the use of the Internet for health-related information and CYB contribute to the psychological stress affecting individuals and society. Delineating subjects more vulnerable to CYB and associated psychopathological factors will help to elaborate operational indications for prevention and psychological support.
Source: Frontiers in Psychiatry - Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research
The objective of this study was to explore the psychometric properties of the French version of the Bergen Facebook addiction scale (BFAS) and to compare a one- and two-factors models. A sample of 687 students (Mage = 20.28;SD = 3.74; min = 17; max = 57) with 17.5% of male and 82.5% of women completed the study. Participants completed online the French version of the BFAS, as well as questionnaires assessing the intensity, frequency of Facebook use, and emotional engagement with Facebook and emotional symptom s (depression and anxiety). In order to assess test–r...
Source: International Journal of Mental Health and Addiction - Category: Addiction Source Type: research
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