Advertising Unhealthy Food to Children: on the Importance of Regulations, Parenting Styles, and Media Literacy
AbstractPurpose of ReviewChildhood obesity is a global health concern. And a number of studies have indicated that food promotions affect children ’s food attitudes, preferences, and food choices for foods high in fat and sugar, which potentially impacts children’s body weight development. This review showcases how children are affected by food promotions, why companies even target children with their promotional efforts, and what makes ch ildren so susceptible to promotion of unhealthy food. In addition, this review discusses how regulations, parental styles, and individual media literacy skills can help to co...
Source: Current Addiction Reports - November 21, 2020 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

Hooked on Junk: Emerging Evidence on How Food Marketing Affects Adolescents ’ Diets and Long-Term Health
AbstractPurpose of ReviewExamine current research on how adolescents are influenced by junk food marketing; inform proposed policies to expand food marketing restrictions to protect children up to age 17.Recent FindingsPrevious food marketing effects research focused primarily on TV advertising to younger children. However, recent research with adolescents demonstrates the following: (a) unique effects of food marketing on adolescents; (b) extensive exposure to social media and other digital marketing “disguised” as entertainment and messages from peers; (c) adolescents’ still-developing and hypersensitiv...
Source: Current Addiction Reports - November 13, 2020 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

A Breath of Knowledge: Overview of Current Adolescent E-cigarette Prevention and Cessation Programs
ConclusionsAlthough the programs reviewed largely incorporated theory and included key components known to be effective, there are some gaps in the programs ’ overall ability to prevent and stop adolescents from using e-cigarettes, such as lack of dedicated e-cigarette materials. More evidence-based tools, resources, and evaluations are needed to best inform adolescent e-cigarette cessation. Addressing the gaps that existing prevention and cessation p rograms present requires intervening at multiple systematic levels, conducting more rigorous program evaluations, and bolstering the availability of cessation programs....
Source: Current Addiction Reports - November 12, 2020 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

Risks Versus Consequences of Adolescent and Young Adult Substance Use: a Focus on Executive Control
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThis review examines the role of executive control processes in the liability for substance misuse and whether substance use, once initiated, leads to subsequent decrements as proposed by neurotoxicity models of substance use disorder (SUD).Recent FindingsAs indicated by a number of recent meta-analyses, executive control processes, which include working memory, cognitive flexibility, and numerous aspects of attentional, behavioral, and emotional control, are impaired in the context of active SUD. Longitudinal studies of behaviorally disinhibited children, individuals with familial risks for SUD, a...
Source: Current Addiction Reports - November 12, 2020 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

Review of Popularity and Quality Standards of Opioid-Related Smartphone Apps
AbstractPurpose of ReviewOpioid misuse, addiction, and related harm are a global crisis that affects public health and social and economic welfare. Many of the strategies being used to combat the opioid crisis could benefit from improved access and dissemination, such as that afforded by smartphone apps. The goal of this study was to characterize the purpose, audience, quality, and popularity of opioid-related smartphone apps. Using web scraping, available information from 619 opioid-related apps (e.g., popularity metrics) was downloaded from Google Play, and 59 apps met criteria for review. The apps were additionally code...
Source: Current Addiction Reports - November 10, 2020 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

Evidence for the Endocannabinoid System as a Therapeutic Target in the Treatment of Cannabis Use Disorder
AbstractPurpose of ReviewCannabis use disorder (CUD) is highly prevalent. Psychotherapeutic treatment alone is not adequately effective, with few individuals achieving abstinence. Pharmacotherapeutic supplementation may improve efficacy, and the endocannabinoid system presents a target specifically dysregulated by heavy cannabis use. This review compiles current literature evaluating endocannabinoid modulation as a treatment strategy for CUD, with implications for future research.Recent FindingsCannabinoid receptor agonists have been found to reduce cannabis withdrawal symptoms without a notable effect on relapse, and anta...
Source: Current Addiction Reports - November 9, 2020 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

Lived Experience and Defining Addictive-Like Eating: a Synthesis of Qualitative Research
AbstractPurpose of ReviewAddictive-like eating has engendered much controversy, in part because it has been ill-defined. Qualitative research has described individuals ’ experiences and definitions of addictive-like eating, providing insights about its central features. The aim of the present review was to synthesize the latest qualitative research on addictive-like eating, to identify features that are common across individuals’ experiences. We sought to unde rstand how people with lived experience of addictive-like eating define and conceptualize this phenomenon, to answer the question, “What is addicti...
Source: Current Addiction Reports - November 9, 2020 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

Gaming Disorder in Children and Adolescents: Risk Factors and Preventive Approaches
AbstractPurpose of ReviewGaming disorder can play a role in child and adolescent psychopathology, as research has associated gaming disorder with a range of negative psychosocial outcomes. Since any dysfunctional behavior can have important long-term consequences, approaches to prevent gaming behavior in youth from becoming problematic are clearly called for. In this paper, we discuss some of the risk factors that have been associated with gaming disorder in youth.Recent FindingsPotential risk factors for gaming disorder in youth include attention problems, emotion dysregulation, problematic family relationships, and in-ga...
Source: Current Addiction Reports - October 28, 2020 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

Electronic Cigarette Use Among Youth: Understanding Unique Risks in a Vulnerable Population
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThis review discusses prevalence rates of electronic (e-)cigarette use among youth and factors that likely contribute to their growing popularity among this population. Trends shaping the e-cigarette landscape, the appeal of e-cigarettes among youth, perceptions contributing to the initiation of e-cigarettes, available assessments capturing the usage of and attitudes towards e-cigarettes, and e-cigarette policies and regulations are reviewed.Recent FindingsE-cigarette use among this vulnerable group may relate to factors associated with the promotion of social status, individuality, and enjoyment, ...
Source: Current Addiction Reports - October 22, 2020 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

Gaming Disorder Across the Lifespan: a Scoping Review of Longitudinal Studies
AbstractPurpose of reviewGaming disorder is a mental disorder characterized by impaired control over gaming behaviors resulting in the escalation of gaming despite significant negative consequences and functional impairments. This scoping review aims to synthesize empirical evidence for the development of gaming disorder based solely on extant findings from longitudinal studies.Recent findingsAlthough research efforts investigating gaming disorder are expanding, there is a need to conceptualize this disorder from a developmental framework in order to identify trajectories of this disorder across the lifespan while accounti...
Source: Current Addiction Reports - October 21, 2020 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

Instrumental and Pavlovian Mechanisms in Alcohol Use Disorder
AbstractPurpose of ReviewCurrent theories of alcohol use disorders (AUD) highlight the importance of Pavlovian and instrumental learning processes mainly based on preclinical animal studies. Here, we summarize available evidence for alterations of those processes in human participants with AUD with a focus on habitual versus goal-directed instrumental learning, Pavlovian conditioning, and Pavlovian-to-instrumental transfer (PIT) paradigms.Recent FindingsThe balance between habitual and goal-directed control in AUD participants has been studied using outcome devaluation or sequential decision-making procedures, which have f...
Source: Current Addiction Reports - October 19, 2020 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

Food Marketing in an Obesogenic Environment: a Narrative Overview of the Potential of Healthy Food Promotion to Children and Adults
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThere is abundant evidence that food marketing influences children ’s and adults’ food preferences and consumption. As such, exposure to unhealthy food marketing is a widely acknowledged risk factor contributing to the development of overweight and obesity. Less is known about the effects of healthy food promotion on people’s dietary behavior. This narrative review describes research from the past 5 years focused on the effects of healthy food marketing on children’s and adults’ food preferences and dietary intake. Our aim is to gain insight into the potential eff...
Source: Current Addiction Reports - October 10, 2020 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

Interventions for Alcohol and Drug Use Disorders in Young People: 10 Key Evidence-Based Approaches to Inform Service Delivery
AbstractPurpose of ReviewEffective treatment of alcohol and drug disorders in young people is critical to reducing substance-related harm; however, research examining treatment for young people often trails the adult literature. This review identifies 10 evidence-based treatment and service delivery principles that can be applied to treatment settings for young people.Recent FindingsScreening and brief intervention is effective across a range of settings. Incorporating peer networks in service delivery can improve treatment engagement and outcomes, and a harm reduction approach may be beneficial. Treatment outcomes are imp...
Source: Current Addiction Reports - October 6, 2020 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

Neural and Behavioral Correlates Associated with Adolescent Marijuana Use
AbstractPurpose of ReviewMarijuana (MJ) is one of the most commonly used drugs among adolescents. Exposure to MJ during adolescence can lead to alterations in brain development, and subsequently, to the behavioral correlates regulated by the affected brain regions. In this review, we discuss findings from preclinical and human studies examining the relationship between adolescent MJ use and the neurobiological and behavioral correlates associated with it.Recent FindingsCurrent findings indicate that adolescent MJ use is associated with alterations in brain structure and function, especially in regions that express high lev...
Source: Current Addiction Reports - October 1, 2020 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

Treatment Implications Associated With Cannabis and Tobacco Co-use
This article will highlight the limitations to co-use captured in the literature and offer considerations and directives for co-use research and treatment moving forward.Recent FindingsThe degree to which co-use affects cessation for a single, targeted substance remains in question, as the literature is largely mixed. Cannabis treatment trials are better equipped to answer these questions given that they do not typically exclude tobacco users. While the relationship between tobacco use and poorer cannabis outcomes appears to have some evidence, the reverse relationship (cannabis use affecting tobacco outcomes) is not consi...
Source: Current Addiction Reports - October 1, 2020 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

Prospects of Genetics and Epigenetics of Alcohol Use Disorder
In this study, we illustrate recent findings regarding the genetics and epigenetics of alcohol use disorder (AUD). We further outline the future direction of genetic and epigenetic research in AUD.Recent FindingsRecent genome- and epigenome-wide studies allow new insight into genetic and epigenetic variation associated with AUD. The largest EWAS of AUD so far/to date found evidence for altered glucocorticoid receptor regulation. Longitudinal studies provide insight into the dynamics of the disease. Analyses of postmortem brain tissue reveal the impact of chronic alcohol consumption on DNA methylation in the brain.SummaryGe...
Source: Current Addiction Reports - September 14, 2020 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

A Literature Review on International E-cigarette Regulatory Policies
AbstractPurpose of ReviewJurisdictions around the world have adopted different policies in order to regulate e-cigarette products, to allow for the use of e-cigarettes by cigarette smokers for cessation or harm reduction and to reduce the likelihood of non-smokers initiating e-cigarette use. The purpose of this review is to provide a brief overview of different e-cigarette regulations across the world, focusing on regulations of sales, product standards, nicotine concentrations, flavours and marketing restrictions. This review was conducted between February and April 2020.Recent FindingsThere are a large range of policies ...
Source: Current Addiction Reports - September 7, 2020 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

Bio-Behavioral Indices of Emotion Regulation: Potential Targets for Treatment in Addiction
ConclusionsThe biological construct of emotion regulation has helped to provide an important heuristic framework within which to develop novel treatment markers. However, there remains a need for more contextual and situational-based research to achieve a more holistic understanding of emotion regulation for improved clinical application. (Source: Current Addiction Reports)
Source: Current Addiction Reports - August 27, 2020 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

Neural Underpinnings of Social Contextual Influences on Adolescent Risk-Taking
In this report, we discuss how the developing brain serves as both a link between and a susceptibility factor for, social contextual factors and risk-taking in adolescence.Recent FindingsNeural activity in regions related to affective processing, cognitive control, and social cognition, which continue to develop across the adolescent years, shapes the relationship between adolescents ’ social environment and their risk-taking.SummaryExamining neural patterns of adolescent brain development enriches our understanding of how adolescents ’ complex social environment modulates their risk-taking behavior, which may ...
Source: Current Addiction Reports - August 14, 2020 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

Intensive Longitudinal Methods for Studying the Role of Self-Regulation Strategies in Substance Use Behavior Change
AbstractPurpose of ReviewMany psychosocial interventions for substance use disorders (SUDs) focus on teaching self-regulation strategies. Research using intensive longitudinal methods (ILM), such as ecological momentary assessment and daily diaries, is critical for elucidating if and how these strategies function as mechanisms of change among individuals with SUDs. We review this emerging area of research.Recent FindingsWe found a small number of studies using ILM to study self-regulation strategies in SUD (n = 18 studies), with most conducted among college student drinkers (n = 9) and cigarette...
Source: Current Addiction Reports - August 12, 2020 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

The Ups and Downs of Relating Nondrug Reward Activation to Substance Use Risk in Adolescents
AbstractPurpose of ReviewA wealth of epidemiological and cohort research, together with a healthy dose of anecdote, has characterized late adolescence and emerging adulthood as a time of increased substance use and other risky behaviors. This review will address whether differences between adolescents or between adolescents and other age groups in dopaminergic mesolimbic recruitment by (nondrug) rewards inferred from functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) could partially explain morbidity and mortality from risky-behavior-related causes in adolescents.Recent FindingsRecent findings do not suggest a definitive directi...
Source: Current Addiction Reports - August 6, 2020 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

Therapeutic Efficacy of Cannabidiol (CBD): a Review of the Evidence From Clinical Trials and Human Laboratory Studies
AbstractPurpose of ReviewGlobal policy changes have increased access to products containing cannabidiol (CBD), a primary constituent of hemp and cannabis. The CBD product industry has experienced tremendous growth, in part, because CBD is widely touted as an effective therapeutic for myriad health conditions. However, only 1 CBD product (Epidiolex ®) has been approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to date. There is substantial interest among consumers and the medical and scientific communities regarding the therapeutic potential of CBD, including for indications that are not recognized by the FDA. The pu...
Source: Current Addiction Reports - July 24, 2020 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

The Digital Health Landscape in Addiction and Substance Use Research: Will Digital Health Exacerbate or Mitigate Health Inequities in Vulnerable Populations?
AbstractPurpose of ReviewNovel and emerging digital health technologies are increasingly used in substance use and addiction-related self-management and treatment research. The promise of digital health is exciting, yet there are important factors regarding population characteristics to consider prior to using novel technologies with vulnerable populations. This paper reports a review of scientific literature published between 2015 and early 2020 on the use of digital health strategies in research focused on substance use and addiction in vulnerable populations.Recent FindingsUsing 13 search terms, three databases were scr...
Source: Current Addiction Reports - July 22, 2020 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

Understanding the Overlap Between Cannabis Use and Gambling Behaviour: A Systematic Review of Empirical Findings and Consideration of Policy Implications
AbstractPurpose of the ReviewGiven recent changes in cannabis legalization across North America, understanding cannabis-gambling relationships is of increasing interest. This review examines the current state of the research literature on the co-occurrence of cannabis and gambling. Specifically, the relationship between cannabis and gambling is examined in youth, adults, treatment-seeking individuals, as well as in specific populations.Recent FindingsLiterature search findings show that the majority of studies to date examining gambling and cannabis are epidemiological investigations conducted in youth. Overall, studies su...
Source: Current Addiction Reports - July 20, 2020 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

Directional Effects of Anxiety and Depressive Disorders with Substance Use: a Review of Recent Prospective Research
AbstractPurpose of ReviewAnxiety and depressive disorders are highly prevalent, frequently comorbid, and contribute to high rates of disability and death globally. They also commonly co-occur with substance use, including alcohol, cigarettes, and cannabis. Yet, the directionality for the onset and progression of these conditions is not fully understood. The present review highlights key findings from recent longitudinal studies on the prospective associations between anxiety and depressive disorders and the most commonly used substances (alcohol, tobacco, and cannabis). Additionally, this article reviews the potential of e...
Source: Current Addiction Reports - July 13, 2020 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

Parental and Family Factors Associated with Problematic Gaming and Problematic Internet Use in Adolescents: a Systematic Literature Review
AbstractPurpose of ReviewSome adolescents may develop problematic gaming (PG) or problematic Internet use (PIU). We reviewed the literature on associations between specific parental/family (PF) characteristics and adolescents ’ PG and PIU.Recent FindingsIncreasingly, links are being reported between PF factors and PG and PIU. However, questions remain about the nature of the factors involved and the strength of their link with PG and PIU. We addressed these questions in the present review.SummaryOur systematic literature search identified 27 research papers on PG and 73 on PIU and distinguished six categories of pare...
Source: Current Addiction Reports - July 11, 2020 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

Developments in Mobile Health Just-in-Time Adaptive Interventions for Addiction Science
We describe the design of five mHealth JITAIs in addiction and three MRT studies, and discuss challenges and future directions.SummaryThis review aims to provide guidance for constructing effective JITAIs to support addiction treatment and recovery. (Source: Current Addiction Reports)
Source: Current Addiction Reports - June 26, 2020 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

(Neuro)therapeutic Approaches in the Field of Alcohol Use Disorders
This article discusses these learning mechanisms and modification thereof as possible targets of (neuro)therapeutic interventions for AUD.Recent FindingsPsychological therapies that target dysregulated neurocognitive processes underlying addictive behavior may hold promise as effective treatments for AUD.SummaryDespite the progression in psychological and neuroscience research in the field of AUD, many behavioral interventions fail to systematically integrate and apply such findings into treatment development. Future research should focus on the targeted modification of the aforementioned processes. (Source: Current Addiction Reports)
Source: Current Addiction Reports - June 26, 2020 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

Digital Health for Assessment and Intervention Targeting Tobacco and Cannabis Co-Use
This article aims to summarize current research on digital health for assessment and intervention targeting tobacco and cannabis co-use and to answer the following questions: Which digital tools have been used? Which populations have been targeted? And what are the implications for future research?Recent FindingsEcological momentary assessment (EMA) via text messages or interactive voice response calls has been used to capture co-use patterns within a time window or co-administration of both substances via blunts among young adults. Feasibility of multicomponent interventions targeting dual cessation of both substances amo...
Source: Current Addiction Reports - June 18, 2020 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

Evaluating the Quality of Smartphone Apps for Overeating, Stress, and Craving-Related Eating Using the Mobile Application Rating Scale
This study included 19 apps, and app quality scores ranged from 2.58 to 4.87, with a mean score of 3.52 out of 5. The large discrepancy in quality is a concern given that these apps are aimed at addressing eating-related behaviors and influence health outcomes. As a result, a high burden is put on consumers to vigilantly screen apps to determine if information provided is based on scientific evidence. (Source: Current Addiction Reports)
Source: Current Addiction Reports - June 18, 2020 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

Choosing the Optimal Brain Target for Neuromodulation Therapies as Alcohol Addiction Progresses —Insights From Pre-Clinical Studies
AbstractPurpose of the ReviewDevelopment of addiction involves a transition from reward-driven to habitual behavior, mediated by neuroplastic changes. Based on preclinical findings, this article article reviews the current knowledge on the use of neuromodulation therapies to target alcohol addiction and essentially reduce relapse.Recent FindingsTo date, only a limited number of preclinical studies have investigated the use of neuromodulation in alcohol addiction, with the focus being on targeting the brain reward system. However, as addiction develops, additional circuits are recruited. Therefore, a differential setup may ...
Source: Current Addiction Reports - June 11, 2020 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

Wearable and Wireless mHealth Technologies for Substance Use Disorder
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThe goal of this scoping review is to evaluate the advances in wearable and other wireless mobile health (mHealth) technologies in the treatment of substance use disorders.Recent FindingsThere are a variety of wireless technologies under investigation for the treatment of substance use disorder. Wearable sensors are the most commonly used technology. They can be used to decrease heavy substance use, mitigate factors related to relapse, and monitor for overdose. New technologies pose distinct advantages over traditional therapies by increasing geographic availability and continuously providing feedb...
Source: Current Addiction Reports - June 10, 2020 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

Risk and Protective Factors for Alcohol Use Disorders Across the Lifespan
AbstractPurpose of ReviewLosing and regaining control over alcohol intake varies as a function of individual-level predictors across the lifespan. Specifically, the interplay of protective and risk factors for losing and regaining control, particularly in real-life settings, is thus far poorly understood. Individual differences in cognition, affect, emotion regulation, social factors, and personality traits, together with individual differences in brain structure and function, and biological markers of stress exposure may have different effects on alcohol consumption in different age groups. We will review current evidence...
Source: Current Addiction Reports - June 3, 2020 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

Considering Food Addiction Through a Cultural Lens
AbstractPurpose of ReviewResearch suggests that cultural factors influence eating behaviors; however, little is known about the relationship between food addiction and culture. This narrative review aimed to (i) review theoretically related work on the relationship between sociocultural demographic variables, food cravings, and eating disorders; (ii) review the available literature assessing cultural aspects of food addiction, specifically the rates of food addiction across the globe and notable differences in relevant sociodemographic variables: race, ethnicity, gender, and acculturation level; (iii) discuss the potential...
Source: Current Addiction Reports - May 23, 2020 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

eHealth Treatments for Compulsive Overeating: a Narrative Review
AbstractPurpose of ReviewElectronic or eHealth technologies have resulted in a progressive transformation of healthcare delivery, leading to greater treatment access, and more informed and individualized clinician-patient relationships. These characteristics are especially important for individuals who suffer from compulsive overeating and related disorders such as binge-eating disorder and bulimia nervosa —where personal feelings of shame and fear, high costs and low treatment availability may deter individuals from obtaining appropriate care. In the following narrative review, the efficacy of eHealth interventions ...
Source: Current Addiction Reports - May 22, 2020 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

Cognitive Correlates in Gaming Disorder and Social Networks Use Disorder: a Comparison
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThis overview aims at summarizing studies, which investigated cognitive correlates of gaming disorder and of a problematic use of social networks by using behavioral experimental paradigms and brain imaging techniques.Recent FindingsBased on theoretical models, inhibition/inhibitory control, attentional bias, executive functions, decision-making, and working memory capabilities have been identified as cognitive components, which are assumed to play a crucial role in the development and maintenance of an addictive behavior. A systematic search shows that various studies have already examined the inv...
Source: Current Addiction Reports - May 20, 2020 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

The Assessment of Cyberchondria: Instruments for Assessing Problematic Online Health-Related Research
AbstractPurpose of ReviewCyberchondria is a problematic, i.e. distressing or anxiety-increasing pattern of online health information seeking. The development of psychometrically sound instruments for the assessment of cyberchondria is imperative for better understanding of this construct. The aim of the present article is to provide a systematic literature review of cyberchondria instruments.Recent FindingsAlthough several measures of cyberchondria have been developed, the Cyberchondria Severity Scale (CSS) has been used most often. The CSS is based on a solid theoretical framework, with very good to excellent reliability ...
Source: Current Addiction Reports - April 29, 2020 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

“Who Am I” and “How Should I Be”: a Systematic Review on Self-Concept and Avatar Identification in Gaming Disorder
AbstractPurpose of ReviewGaming disorder (GD) appears to be associated with self-concept deficits and increased identification with one ’s avatar. The goal of this literature review is to highlight study findings assessing psychological and neurobiological correlates of self-concept-related characteristics and avatar identification in GD.Recent FindingsThe review was based on three literature researches on GD: (1) self-esteem, (2) emotional, social, and academic self-concept domains and avatar identification, and (3) neurobiological correlates of self-concept and avatar identification. The results indicate that GD is...
Source: Current Addiction Reports - April 24, 2020 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

Gambling Problems in US Military Veterans
AbstractPurpose of ReviewGambling disorder (GD) is a debilitating mental illness characterized by persistent patterns of dysregulated gambling behaviors. Recent evidence suggests that US military veterans are a high-risk population vulnerable to the development of problem gambling. This systemic review examined the published literature on the rates, correlates, comorbidities, treatment, and genetic contributions to US veterans ’ gambling behaviors in 39 studies.Recent FindingsOverall, we found that US military veterans have higher rates of GD (including subthreshold problem gambling/at-risk problem gambling) compared...
Source: Current Addiction Reports - April 23, 2020 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

Skill-Based Electronic Gaming Machines: a Review of Product Structures, Risks of Harm, and Policy Issues
AbstractPurpose of ReviewSkill-based gaming machines (SGMs) add interactive and/or skill features to electronic gaming machines (EGMs), often modelled on elements from arcade, video, online, or mobile games. Availability of SGMs is expanding in the USA and internationally, but evidence of the impacts of these machines is lacking. To provide direction to policymakers and the scientific community, this review critically evaluates the relevant literature and suggests future avenues for research and consumer protection measures.Recent FindingsEarly data suggests that SGMs are most appealing to younger demographics and are like...
Source: Current Addiction Reports - April 21, 2020 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

Adolescent Land-Based and Internet Gambling: Australian and International Prevalence Rates and Measurement Issues
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThis review summarizes recent studies of adolescent gambling in Australia and overseas. Its purpose is to examine variations in participation in gambling activities, including land-based and Internet gambling, and in measurement approaches to studying gambling-related problems.Recent FindingsBetween 15 and 80% of young people report past-year gambling participation, typically involving scratch cards, lotteries, card games and sports betting. Around 5% report past-year Internet gambling. Estimates of problem gambling among adolescents vary, with Australian figures generally between 1 and 5%, and stu...
Source: Current Addiction Reports - April 17, 2020 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

Posttraumatic Stress Symptoms Predict Transition to Future Adolescent and Young Adult Moderate to Heavy Drinking in the NCANDA Sample
We described trauma experienced by the National Consortium on Alcohol and Neurodevelopment in Adolescence (NCANDA) longitudinal sample (N = 831) participants and examined drinking over 4 years. We hypothesize that more traumatic events and PTSS will predict transition to moderate/heavy drinking.SummaryA total of 658 no/low drinkers at baseline were followed yearly for 4  years for transition to moderate/heavy drinking using logistic regression models. Youth were grouped by no trauma (n = 257), trauma (n = 348), and trauma with PTSS (n = 53). Those with traum...
Source: Current Addiction Reports - March 27, 2020 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

Problematic Internet Use and Loneliness: How Complex Is the Relationship? A Short Literature Review
AbstractPurposeThe Internet has become embedded into the life of billions of people worldwide. In some individuals, excessive Internet use impacts negatively on psychological and social functioning. Several studies over the last decades have focused on the relationship between Problematic Internet Use (PIU) and loneliness. The present review aims to provide an overview of the recent literature in this field and to suggest some critical questions.Recent FindingsA small-medium positive association between loneliness and PIU has been reported in several cross-sectional studies. However, the association becomes weaker when oth...
Source: Current Addiction Reports - March 6, 2020 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

The Role of Affect in Psychosocial Treatments for Substance Use Disorders
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThis paper provides a narrative review of studies published over the past 5  years that have examined the role of affect, including both affective symptoms and affective disorders, in psychosocial treatments for substance use disorder.Recent FindingsA growing body of literature suggests that affective symptoms and affective disorders may moderate substance use disorder treatment efficacy, mediate the effects of treatment on substance use outcomes, and may be directly changed by substance use disorder treatment.SummarySubstance use disorders and affective disorders commonly co-occur, and both a...
Source: Current Addiction Reports - March 1, 2020 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

Addictive Use of Online Sexual Activities and its Comorbidities: a Systematic Review
AbstractPurpose of the ReviewThis systematic review explores comorbidities related to the problematic use of online sexual activities (OSAs) in the absence of any published synthesis on the subject. These comorbidities are commonly confused with problems associated with offline addictive sexual disorders, even though it is not clear whether they are strictly similar.Recent FindingsThis is the first systematic review of the literature synthesizing data on the comorbidities of problematic OSA use. The pattern of comorbidities that was evidenced supports the hypothesis that problematic OSA use is part of a spectrum of related...
Source: Current Addiction Reports - March 1, 2020 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

Addictive Behavior Change and Mindfulness-Based Interventions: Current Research and Future Directions
This article discusses the history of mindfulness-based interventions for addictive behaviors and recent advances in treatment.Recent FindingsMindfulness-based interventions are as effective as existing evidence-based treatments for addictive behaviors. Further understanding of the neurobiological changes that occur could help identify the components of mindfulness-based interventions that are most helpful and which individuals may benefit most from mindfulness-based intervention.SummaryAdditional large-scale randomized controlled trials are needed for a better understanding of the effectiveness of mindfulness-based interv...
Source: Current Addiction Reports - February 14, 2020 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

Twenty Years of the Food Cravings Questionnaires: a Comprehensive Review
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThe Food Cravings Questionnaires (FCQs; Cepeda-Benito, Gleaves, Williams,& Erath, 2000) are among the most widely used instruments for measuring food cravings. In addition to the Food Cravings Questionnaire –Trait (FCQ–T) and the Food Cravings Questionnaire–State (FCQ–S), several modified versions have been developed as well. For their 20th anniversary, this article provides a comprehensive description of the FCQs and reviews studies on their psychometric properties and correlates.Recent FindingsThe FCQs and their modified versions have excellent internal reliability. Ex...
Source: Current Addiction Reports - February 11, 2020 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

Advancing Preventive Interventions for Pregnant Women Who Are Opioid Using via the Integration of Addiction and Mental Health Research
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThis review examines how research focused on treatment for opioid use in perinatal populations and preventive interventions for postpartum psychopathology have remained separate, despite significant overlap.Recent FindingsGuidelines for best practice in caring for pregnant women with opioid use disorder suggest the use of medication-assisted treatment with additional comprehensive care, including behavioral and mental health interventions. However, intervention research often mutually excludes these two populations, with studies of behavioral interventions for opioid use excluding women with psycho...
Source: Current Addiction Reports - January 27, 2020 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

Child Sexual Abuse and Compulsive Sexual Behavior: A Systematic Literature Review
AbstractPurpose of ReviewInformation on potential risk factors and clinical correlates of compulsive sexual behavior (CSB) may help inform more effective prevention and treatment measures. Sexual victimization, specifically, child sexual abuse (CSA), has been associated with CSB.Recent FindingsThis systematic review describes 21 studies on the relationship between CSA and CSB. Most studies identified a significant association between CSA and CSB. However, variability in measurements, potential differences in links among community versus clinical samples, relevance of research among college samples, lack of support for gend...
Source: Current Addiction Reports - January 27, 2020 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

Psychosocial Interventions for Food Addiction: a Systematic Review
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThe current systematic review examined the empirical literature on psychosocial interventions for food addiction with the goal of providing recommendations for clinical practice and future research. A PsycINFO and PubMed search of publications was conducted in September 2019. Two authors assessed retrieved titles and abstracts to determine topic relevance and rated the quality of the included studies using an established checklist.Recent FindingsEight studies met the study inclusion criteria, and study quality ranged from “poor” to “fair”. Most studies were pilot and feasibi...
Source: Current Addiction Reports - January 16, 2020 Category: Addiction Source Type: research