The Use of Social Media in Research on Gambling: a Systematic Review
AbstractPurpose of ReviewSocial media enables a range of possibilities in the way gamblers and gambling operators interact and content communicate with gambling. The purpose of this systematic review was to synthesise the extant literature to identify the ways in which social media has been investigated in the context of gambling.Recent FindingsA systematic review of the literature identified 41 papers that collected primary data pertinent to gambling and social media from multiple disciplines. These papers broadly fell into three themes: communication, community and calculation (of sentiment). Papers on communication focu...
Source: Current Addiction Reports - May 11, 2021 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

How Do State Gambling Monopolies Affect Levels of Gambling Harm?
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThis systematic literature review evaluates the potential of gambling monopolies to affect gambling harms. It compares the occurrence of gambling harms in jurisdictions with gambling monopolies to jurisdictions with license-based regimes.Recent FindingsThe review identified 21 publications concerning three gambling-related harm indicators: problem gambling prevalence, total consumption, and the appearance of conflicts of interest. Due to the dearth of literature, concept papers and older publications were also included.SummaryResults show that there is a paucity of empirical research on the effecti...
Source: Current Addiction Reports - May 8, 2021 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

Understanding the Slot Machine Zone
This article summarizes two prominent theoretical accounts of this state and articulates a new account that seeks to integrate them.Recent FindingsZone experiences are correlated with gambling problems and may be amplified by specific features of EGMs and other modern gambling formats. Links with excitement, relaxation, and depression have been found, implicating both positive and negative reinforcement processes. Emerging evidence suggests gamblers in the zone are more focused on EGM use ( ‘zoned in’). Models rooted in either Flow Theory or dissociation do not fully account for these effects.SummaryIntegrating...
Source: Current Addiction Reports - May 1, 2021 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

Contribution of Game Genre and Structural Game Characteristics to the Risk of Problem Gaming and Gaming Disorder: a Systematic Review
AbstractPurpose of ReviewWith its inclusion in the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems, 11th Revision, gaming disorder (GD) has been officially recognized as a behavioral addiction. Etiological models of GD refer to the interaction of personal, environmental, and game-related risk factors. However, the role of video game characteristics in the development of problem gaming and GD is not well understood. This systematic review summarizes the literature that examines the association between video game genres and structural characteristics and GD symptoms.Recent FindingsRecent stud...
Source: Current Addiction Reports - April 23, 2021 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

New and Emerging Opioid Overdose Risk Factors
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThe purpose of this review is to provide a review of the current literature surrounding opioid overdose risk factors, focusing on relatively new factors in the opioid crisis.Recent FindingsBoth a market supply driving force and a subpopulation of people who use opioids actively seeking out fentanyl are contributing to its recent proliferation in the opioid market. Harm reduction techniques such as fentanyl testing strips, naloxone education and distribution, drug sampling behaviors, and supervised injection facilities are all seeing expanded use with increasing amounts of research being published r...
Source: Current Addiction Reports - April 22, 2021 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

The Role of Mu-Opioids for Reward and Threat Processing in Humans: Bridging the Gap from Preclinical to Clinical Opioid Drug Studies
AbstractPurpose of ReviewOpioid receptors are widely expressed in the human brain. A number of features commonly associated with drug use disorder, such as difficulties in emotional learning, emotion regulation and anhedonia, have been linked to endogenous opioid signalling. Whereas chronic substance use and misuse are thought to alter the function of the mu-opioid system, the specific mechanisms are not well understood. We argue that understanding exogenous and endogenous opioid effects in the healthy human brain is an essential foundation for bridging preclinical and clinical findings related to opioid misuse. Here, we w...
Source: Current Addiction Reports - April 15, 2021 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

Sources of Bias in Research on Gambling Among Older Adults: Considerations for a Growing Field
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThe purpose of this review was to identify possible sources of bias in the study of gambling among older adults. These sources of bias included social desirability bias including issues of increased stigmatization of gambling behaviors in older adults, recall bias including deficits in the recall of negative experiences, and selection bias including increased reliance on survey methods that are more likely to exclude older adults.Recent FindingsDue to the paucity of research directly examining sources of bias in the study of older adult gambling, this review took recent developments in the field of...
Source: Current Addiction Reports - April 14, 2021 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

Effects of Acute Drug Administration on Emotion: a Review of Pharmacological MRI Studies
AbstractPurpose of ReviewMany drug users claim to use drugs to cope with negative emotions, which may, in turn, result in persistent emotional blunting or anhedonia even when they are not using drugs. The purpose of this review is to describe the ways acute administration of psychoactive drugs impacts brain regions during emotion-related tasks, as a first step in understanding how drugs influence emotion processing in the brain.Recent FindingsDrugs have varying effects on neural responses to emotional stimuli. In general, alcohol, analgesics, and psychedelics reduce neural reactivity to negative emotional stimuli in the am...
Source: Current Addiction Reports - March 14, 2021 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

Suicide Risk and Addiction: The Impact of Alcohol and Opioid Use Disorders
AbstractPurpose of ReviewSuicide is a major public health concern and a leading cause of death in the US. Alcohol and opioid use disorders (AUD/OUD) significantly increase risk for suicidal ideation, attempts, and death, and are the two most frequently implicated substances in suicide risk. We provide a brief overview of shared risk factors and pathways in the pathogenesis of AUD/OUD and suicidal thoughts and behaviors. We also review clinical recommendations on inpatient care, pharmacotherapy, and psychotherapeutic interventions for people with AUD/OUD and co-occurring suicidal ideation and behavior.Recent FindingsAmong p...
Source: Current Addiction Reports - March 14, 2021 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

Image-Based Sexual Abuse: Social and Legal Implications
This article covers the current state of social scientific knowledge on this key variant of digitized sexual violence and suggests new direc tions in empirical work.Recent FindingsA rapidly growing body of research shows that image-based sexual abuse is committed mainly by men against women and it often co-occurs with offline forms of male-to-female assaults like rape, stalking, and beatings. Additionally, to further understand the scope of factors that contribute to the problems of online image-based sexual abuse online, researchers should examine the relationship between image-based sexual abuse and pornography consumpti...
Source: Current Addiction Reports - March 6, 2021 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

Cardiorespiratory and Immunologic Effects of Electronic Cigarettes
AbstractPurpose of ReviewAlthough e-cigarettes have become popular, especially among youth, the health effects associated with e-cigarette use remain unclear. This review discusses current evidence relating to the cardiovascular, pulmonary, and immunological effects of e-cigarettes.Recent FindingsThe use of e-cigarettes by healthy adults has been shown to increase blood pressure, heart rate, and arterial stiffness, as well as resistance to air flow in lungs. Inhalation of e-cigarette aerosol has been shown to elicit immune responses and increase the production of immunomodulatory cytokines in young tobacco-na ïve indi...
Source: Current Addiction Reports - March 5, 2021 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

A Gender Perspective of Addictive Disorders
AbstractPurpose of ReviewSubstance use disorders (SUD) affect differentially women and men. Although the prevalence has been reported higher in men, those women with addictive disorders present a more vulnerable profile and are less likely to enter treatment than men. The aim of this paper is to present an overview of how sex and gender may influence epidemiology, clinical manifestations, social impact, and the neurobiological basis of these differences of women with SUD, based on human research.Recent FindingsThe differences in prevalence rates between genders are getting narrower; also, women tend to increase the amount ...
Source: Current Addiction Reports - February 16, 2021 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

Exercise Addiction and Perfectionism: A Systematic Review of the Literature
ConclusionPerfectionism is related to exercise addiction, but the strength of the relationship varies in different circumstances, which should be examined in future research. (Source: Current Addiction Reports)
Source: Current Addiction Reports - February 9, 2021 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

Financially Focused Self-concept in Disordered Gambling
AbstractPurpose of ReviewPeople can place preponderant importance on a single life domain (e.g., relationships, appearance, financial success). The result is that success (or failure) in that domain has significant influence on the self-concept and thus judgments of self-worth. A focused self-concept has also been shown to be a core feature of various psychiatric disorders, including depression, body image disorders, and obsessive-compulsive and related disorders. Herein, we summarize mounting evidence indicating that a self-concept focused on financial success is important for understanding the etiology and maintenance of...
Source: Current Addiction Reports - February 4, 2021 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

Alcohol Use and Gender-Based Violence
AbstractPurpose of reviewThe evidence for association of alcohol and gender-based violence (GBV) is quite strong; however, the exact pathways of this association need further study. Areas that need more research include the role of alcohol in any type of intimate partner violence and the risks for violence when alcohol is combined with other psychoactive substances. This will help in developing targeted interventions for different groups. This paper aims at reviewing existing literature on alcohol-related GBV and intimate partner violence (IPV) and provide a reference for future research.Recent FindingsAlcohol plays an imp...
Source: Current Addiction Reports - January 28, 2021 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

Emotional Intelligence: Relevance and Implications for Addiction
AbstractPurpose of ReviewEmotional intelligence (EI) is widely regarded as an important predictor of a diverse set of health and life success outcomes. There is growing evidence to demonstrate the role that EI plays in the development of both substance use and behavioral addictions. The aim of this article is to provide an overview of the still limited, but growing research literature on the relevance of EI and related constructs to addictions.Recent FindingsThere is substantial empirical evidence to suggest that EI is an important risk factor for the development of addictions. This points to a need for greater research at...
Source: Current Addiction Reports - January 21, 2021 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

Gender Differences in Addiction
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThis review is aimed at reviewing gender differences in addictive disorders. A brief overview of the topic is given and then the review is broken down into substances. As a full overview of each substance would not be possible, this review is aimed at looking at the most commonly seen substances as well as behavioral addictions that have robust literature.Recent FindingsGender differences in substance use disorders and behavioral addictions appear to be multifactorial, with intrinsic hormonal factors of the reward system and external factors such as the expectations and gender roles or norms of a g...
Source: Current Addiction Reports - January 18, 2021 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

The Impact of Chronic Pain on Opioid Use Disorder Treatment Outcomes
AbstractPurpose of ReviewChronic pain among individuals diagnosed with opioid use disorder (OUD) receiving opioid agonist treatment (OAT) is common. We review extant literature on the impact of chronic pain on OAT outcomes (i.e., illicit opioid use and OAT retention).Recent FindingsWe found 13 manuscripts using 9 datasets. The relationship between chronic pain and OAT outcomes is mixed. Most studies reported no relationship between chronic pain and illicit opioid use, but definitions of chronic pain were inconsistent. There was some evidence that chronic pain is associated with higher likelihood of drug use, and associatio...
Source: Current Addiction Reports - January 13, 2021 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

Improving Translational Research Outcomes for Opioid Use Disorder Treatments
AbstractPurpose of ReviewPharmacotherapies are the most effective means of reducing the harms associated with opioid use disorder (OUD). Translational research seeking to develop novel medications to treat OUD has been challenging due to the complex etiology of addiction. Preclinical outcome measures are often behavioral, and it is difficult, if not impossible, to fully mirror the various emotional and cognitive processes that motivate opioid use in humans. The goal of the current narrative review was to summarize the translational progression of three potential medications for OUD, which had varying levels of success.Rece...
Source: Current Addiction Reports - January 12, 2021 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

Prevalence and Correlates of Disinhibited Eating in Youth from Marginalized Racial/Ethnic Groups
AbstractPurpose of ReviewEvidence suggests that youth from marginalized racial/ethnic groups (i.e., Latino, Black, Asian American, Native American youth) engage in disinhibited eating at greater rates than their non-Latino White peers. This review aims to discuss the prevalence of disinhibited eating among youth of color, identify culturally-specific correlates that may represent promising targets for prevention or treatment, and provide recommendations for future research.Recent FindingsWe restricted our literature review to studies published between 2010 and 2020 using samples of children and adolescents of color living ...
Source: Current Addiction Reports - January 8, 2021 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

Anxiety and Opioid Use Disorder: Potential Targets for Treatment and Prevention
AbstractPurpose of ReviewAnxiety is among the most common symptoms and disorders in people with opioid use disorder. Although anxiety disorders have been understudied in opioid use disorder, research supports an important role of anxious responding to distress (e.g., distress intolerance) in problem opioid use. In this review, we provide an overview of the literature on the role of anxious responding to distress in opioid misuse.Recent FindingsAnxious responding to distress is elevated in people with problem opioid use, is associated with severity of misuse, and appears to amplify risk via an increase in motivation for see...
Source: Current Addiction Reports - January 6, 2021 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

Prenatal Alcohol Exposure and Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal Axis Activity of the Offspring in Humans: a Systematic Review
AbstractPurpose of ReviewWe aimed to conduct a systematic review of studies exploring the relationship between prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis functioning in the offspring in humans.Recent FindingsAnimal studies have demonstrated that PAE has long-term consequences in HPA axis activity in the offspring. Fewer studies have been conducted in humans.SummaryOur systematic review identified 9 studies including infants/toddlers (n = 6) and children/adolescents (n = 3). Cortisol responses to stress were only studied in infants/toddlers (3 studies: painful s...
Source: Current Addiction Reports - January 5, 2021 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

Ambulatory Assessment Methods to Examine Momentary State-Based Predictors of Opioid Use Behaviors
AbstractPurpose of ReviewAddiction scientists have begun using ambulatory assessment methods —including ecological momentary assessment (EMA), experience sampling, and daily diaries—to collect real-time or near-real-time reports of participants’ internal states in their natural environments. The goal of this short review is to synthesize EMA findings from our research group, which has studied several hundred outpatients during treatment for opioid-use disorder (OUD). (We cite pertinent findings from other groups, but have not tried to be comprehensive.) One of our main goals in using EMA is to examine mom...
Source: Current Addiction Reports - January 2, 2021 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

Advertising Unhealthy Food to Children: on the Importance of Regulations, Parenting Styles, and Media Literacy
AbstractPurpose of ReviewChildhood obesity is a global health concern. And a number of studies have indicated that food promotions affect children ’s food attitudes, preferences, and food choices for foods high in fat and sugar, which potentially impacts children’s body weight development. This review showcases how children are affected by food promotions, why companies even target children with their promotional efforts, and what makes ch ildren so susceptible to promotion of unhealthy food. In addition, this review discusses how regulations, parental styles, and individual media literacy skills can help to co...
Source: Current Addiction Reports - November 21, 2020 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

Hooked on Junk: Emerging Evidence on How Food Marketing Affects Adolescents ’ Diets and Long-Term Health
AbstractPurpose of ReviewExamine current research on how adolescents are influenced by junk food marketing; inform proposed policies to expand food marketing restrictions to protect children up to age 17.Recent FindingsPrevious food marketing effects research focused primarily on TV advertising to younger children. However, recent research with adolescents demonstrates the following: (a) unique effects of food marketing on adolescents; (b) extensive exposure to social media and other digital marketing “disguised” as entertainment and messages from peers; (c) adolescents’ still-developing and hypersensitiv...
Source: Current Addiction Reports - November 13, 2020 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

A Breath of Knowledge: Overview of Current Adolescent E-cigarette Prevention and Cessation Programs
ConclusionsAlthough the programs reviewed largely incorporated theory and included key components known to be effective, there are some gaps in the programs ’ overall ability to prevent and stop adolescents from using e-cigarettes, such as lack of dedicated e-cigarette materials. More evidence-based tools, resources, and evaluations are needed to best inform adolescent e-cigarette cessation. Addressing the gaps that existing prevention and cessation p rograms present requires intervening at multiple systematic levels, conducting more rigorous program evaluations, and bolstering the availability of cessation programs....
Source: Current Addiction Reports - November 12, 2020 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

Risks Versus Consequences of Adolescent and Young Adult Substance Use: a Focus on Executive Control
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThis review examines the role of executive control processes in the liability for substance misuse and whether substance use, once initiated, leads to subsequent decrements as proposed by neurotoxicity models of substance use disorder (SUD).Recent FindingsAs indicated by a number of recent meta-analyses, executive control processes, which include working memory, cognitive flexibility, and numerous aspects of attentional, behavioral, and emotional control, are impaired in the context of active SUD. Longitudinal studies of behaviorally disinhibited children, individuals with familial risks for SUD, a...
Source: Current Addiction Reports - November 12, 2020 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

Review of Popularity and Quality Standards of Opioid-Related Smartphone Apps
AbstractPurpose of ReviewOpioid misuse, addiction, and related harm are a global crisis that affects public health and social and economic welfare. Many of the strategies being used to combat the opioid crisis could benefit from improved access and dissemination, such as that afforded by smartphone apps. The goal of this study was to characterize the purpose, audience, quality, and popularity of opioid-related smartphone apps. Using web scraping, available information from 619 opioid-related apps (e.g., popularity metrics) was downloaded from Google Play, and 59 apps met criteria for review. The apps were additionally code...
Source: Current Addiction Reports - November 10, 2020 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

Evidence for the Endocannabinoid System as a Therapeutic Target in the Treatment of Cannabis Use Disorder
AbstractPurpose of ReviewCannabis use disorder (CUD) is highly prevalent. Psychotherapeutic treatment alone is not adequately effective, with few individuals achieving abstinence. Pharmacotherapeutic supplementation may improve efficacy, and the endocannabinoid system presents a target specifically dysregulated by heavy cannabis use. This review compiles current literature evaluating endocannabinoid modulation as a treatment strategy for CUD, with implications for future research.Recent FindingsCannabinoid receptor agonists have been found to reduce cannabis withdrawal symptoms without a notable effect on relapse, and anta...
Source: Current Addiction Reports - November 9, 2020 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

Lived Experience and Defining Addictive-Like Eating: a Synthesis of Qualitative Research
AbstractPurpose of ReviewAddictive-like eating has engendered much controversy, in part because it has been ill-defined. Qualitative research has described individuals ’ experiences and definitions of addictive-like eating, providing insights about its central features. The aim of the present review was to synthesize the latest qualitative research on addictive-like eating, to identify features that are common across individuals’ experiences. We sought to unde rstand how people with lived experience of addictive-like eating define and conceptualize this phenomenon, to answer the question, “What is addicti...
Source: Current Addiction Reports - November 9, 2020 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

Gaming Disorder in Children and Adolescents: Risk Factors and Preventive Approaches
AbstractPurpose of ReviewGaming disorder can play a role in child and adolescent psychopathology, as research has associated gaming disorder with a range of negative psychosocial outcomes. Since any dysfunctional behavior can have important long-term consequences, approaches to prevent gaming behavior in youth from becoming problematic are clearly called for. In this paper, we discuss some of the risk factors that have been associated with gaming disorder in youth.Recent FindingsPotential risk factors for gaming disorder in youth include attention problems, emotion dysregulation, problematic family relationships, and in-ga...
Source: Current Addiction Reports - October 28, 2020 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

Electronic Cigarette Use Among Youth: Understanding Unique Risks in a Vulnerable Population
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThis review discusses prevalence rates of electronic (e-)cigarette use among youth and factors that likely contribute to their growing popularity among this population. Trends shaping the e-cigarette landscape, the appeal of e-cigarettes among youth, perceptions contributing to the initiation of e-cigarettes, available assessments capturing the usage of and attitudes towards e-cigarettes, and e-cigarette policies and regulations are reviewed.Recent FindingsE-cigarette use among this vulnerable group may relate to factors associated with the promotion of social status, individuality, and enjoyment, ...
Source: Current Addiction Reports - October 22, 2020 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

Gaming Disorder Across the Lifespan: a Scoping Review of Longitudinal Studies
AbstractPurpose of reviewGaming disorder is a mental disorder characterized by impaired control over gaming behaviors resulting in the escalation of gaming despite significant negative consequences and functional impairments. This scoping review aims to synthesize empirical evidence for the development of gaming disorder based solely on extant findings from longitudinal studies.Recent findingsAlthough research efforts investigating gaming disorder are expanding, there is a need to conceptualize this disorder from a developmental framework in order to identify trajectories of this disorder across the lifespan while accounti...
Source: Current Addiction Reports - October 21, 2020 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

Instrumental and Pavlovian Mechanisms in Alcohol Use Disorder
AbstractPurpose of ReviewCurrent theories of alcohol use disorders (AUD) highlight the importance of Pavlovian and instrumental learning processes mainly based on preclinical animal studies. Here, we summarize available evidence for alterations of those processes in human participants with AUD with a focus on habitual versus goal-directed instrumental learning, Pavlovian conditioning, and Pavlovian-to-instrumental transfer (PIT) paradigms.Recent FindingsThe balance between habitual and goal-directed control in AUD participants has been studied using outcome devaluation or sequential decision-making procedures, which have f...
Source: Current Addiction Reports - October 19, 2020 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

Food Marketing in an Obesogenic Environment: a Narrative Overview of the Potential of Healthy Food Promotion to Children and Adults
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThere is abundant evidence that food marketing influences children ’s and adults’ food preferences and consumption. As such, exposure to unhealthy food marketing is a widely acknowledged risk factor contributing to the development of overweight and obesity. Less is known about the effects of healthy food promotion on people’s dietary behavior. This narrative review describes research from the past 5 years focused on the effects of healthy food marketing on children’s and adults’ food preferences and dietary intake. Our aim is to gain insight into the potential eff...
Source: Current Addiction Reports - October 10, 2020 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

Interventions for Alcohol and Drug Use Disorders in Young People: 10 Key Evidence-Based Approaches to Inform Service Delivery
AbstractPurpose of ReviewEffective treatment of alcohol and drug disorders in young people is critical to reducing substance-related harm; however, research examining treatment for young people often trails the adult literature. This review identifies 10 evidence-based treatment and service delivery principles that can be applied to treatment settings for young people.Recent FindingsScreening and brief intervention is effective across a range of settings. Incorporating peer networks in service delivery can improve treatment engagement and outcomes, and a harm reduction approach may be beneficial. Treatment outcomes are imp...
Source: Current Addiction Reports - October 6, 2020 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

Neural and Behavioral Correlates Associated with Adolescent Marijuana Use
AbstractPurpose of ReviewMarijuana (MJ) is one of the most commonly used drugs among adolescents. Exposure to MJ during adolescence can lead to alterations in brain development, and subsequently, to the behavioral correlates regulated by the affected brain regions. In this review, we discuss findings from preclinical and human studies examining the relationship between adolescent MJ use and the neurobiological and behavioral correlates associated with it.Recent FindingsCurrent findings indicate that adolescent MJ use is associated with alterations in brain structure and function, especially in regions that express high lev...
Source: Current Addiction Reports - October 1, 2020 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

Treatment Implications Associated With Cannabis and Tobacco Co-use
This article will highlight the limitations to co-use captured in the literature and offer considerations and directives for co-use research and treatment moving forward.Recent FindingsThe degree to which co-use affects cessation for a single, targeted substance remains in question, as the literature is largely mixed. Cannabis treatment trials are better equipped to answer these questions given that they do not typically exclude tobacco users. While the relationship between tobacco use and poorer cannabis outcomes appears to have some evidence, the reverse relationship (cannabis use affecting tobacco outcomes) is not consi...
Source: Current Addiction Reports - October 1, 2020 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

Prospects of Genetics and Epigenetics of Alcohol Use Disorder
In this study, we illustrate recent findings regarding the genetics and epigenetics of alcohol use disorder (AUD). We further outline the future direction of genetic and epigenetic research in AUD.Recent FindingsRecent genome- and epigenome-wide studies allow new insight into genetic and epigenetic variation associated with AUD. The largest EWAS of AUD so far/to date found evidence for altered glucocorticoid receptor regulation. Longitudinal studies provide insight into the dynamics of the disease. Analyses of postmortem brain tissue reveal the impact of chronic alcohol consumption on DNA methylation in the brain.SummaryGe...
Source: Current Addiction Reports - September 14, 2020 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

A Literature Review on International E-cigarette Regulatory Policies
AbstractPurpose of ReviewJurisdictions around the world have adopted different policies in order to regulate e-cigarette products, to allow for the use of e-cigarettes by cigarette smokers for cessation or harm reduction and to reduce the likelihood of non-smokers initiating e-cigarette use. The purpose of this review is to provide a brief overview of different e-cigarette regulations across the world, focusing on regulations of sales, product standards, nicotine concentrations, flavours and marketing restrictions. This review was conducted between February and April 2020.Recent FindingsThere are a large range of policies ...
Source: Current Addiction Reports - September 7, 2020 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

Bio-Behavioral Indices of Emotion Regulation: Potential Targets for Treatment in Addiction
ConclusionsThe biological construct of emotion regulation has helped to provide an important heuristic framework within which to develop novel treatment markers. However, there remains a need for more contextual and situational-based research to achieve a more holistic understanding of emotion regulation for improved clinical application. (Source: Current Addiction Reports)
Source: Current Addiction Reports - August 27, 2020 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

Neural Underpinnings of Social Contextual Influences on Adolescent Risk-Taking
In this report, we discuss how the developing brain serves as both a link between and a susceptibility factor for, social contextual factors and risk-taking in adolescence.Recent FindingsNeural activity in regions related to affective processing, cognitive control, and social cognition, which continue to develop across the adolescent years, shapes the relationship between adolescents ’ social environment and their risk-taking.SummaryExamining neural patterns of adolescent brain development enriches our understanding of how adolescents ’ complex social environment modulates their risk-taking behavior, which may ...
Source: Current Addiction Reports - August 14, 2020 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

Intensive Longitudinal Methods for Studying the Role of Self-Regulation Strategies in Substance Use Behavior Change
AbstractPurpose of ReviewMany psychosocial interventions for substance use disorders (SUDs) focus on teaching self-regulation strategies. Research using intensive longitudinal methods (ILM), such as ecological momentary assessment and daily diaries, is critical for elucidating if and how these strategies function as mechanisms of change among individuals with SUDs. We review this emerging area of research.Recent FindingsWe found a small number of studies using ILM to study self-regulation strategies in SUD (n = 18 studies), with most conducted among college student drinkers (n = 9) and cigarette...
Source: Current Addiction Reports - August 12, 2020 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

The Ups and Downs of Relating Nondrug Reward Activation to Substance Use Risk in Adolescents
AbstractPurpose of ReviewA wealth of epidemiological and cohort research, together with a healthy dose of anecdote, has characterized late adolescence and emerging adulthood as a time of increased substance use and other risky behaviors. This review will address whether differences between adolescents or between adolescents and other age groups in dopaminergic mesolimbic recruitment by (nondrug) rewards inferred from functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) could partially explain morbidity and mortality from risky-behavior-related causes in adolescents.Recent FindingsRecent findings do not suggest a definitive directi...
Source: Current Addiction Reports - August 6, 2020 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

Therapeutic Efficacy of Cannabidiol (CBD): a Review of the Evidence From Clinical Trials and Human Laboratory Studies
AbstractPurpose of ReviewGlobal policy changes have increased access to products containing cannabidiol (CBD), a primary constituent of hemp and cannabis. The CBD product industry has experienced tremendous growth, in part, because CBD is widely touted as an effective therapeutic for myriad health conditions. However, only 1 CBD product (Epidiolex ®) has been approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to date. There is substantial interest among consumers and the medical and scientific communities regarding the therapeutic potential of CBD, including for indications that are not recognized by the FDA. The pu...
Source: Current Addiction Reports - July 24, 2020 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

The Digital Health Landscape in Addiction and Substance Use Research: Will Digital Health Exacerbate or Mitigate Health Inequities in Vulnerable Populations?
AbstractPurpose of ReviewNovel and emerging digital health technologies are increasingly used in substance use and addiction-related self-management and treatment research. The promise of digital health is exciting, yet there are important factors regarding population characteristics to consider prior to using novel technologies with vulnerable populations. This paper reports a review of scientific literature published between 2015 and early 2020 on the use of digital health strategies in research focused on substance use and addiction in vulnerable populations.Recent FindingsUsing 13 search terms, three databases were scr...
Source: Current Addiction Reports - July 22, 2020 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

Understanding the Overlap Between Cannabis Use and Gambling Behaviour: A Systematic Review of Empirical Findings and Consideration of Policy Implications
AbstractPurpose of the ReviewGiven recent changes in cannabis legalization across North America, understanding cannabis-gambling relationships is of increasing interest. This review examines the current state of the research literature on the co-occurrence of cannabis and gambling. Specifically, the relationship between cannabis and gambling is examined in youth, adults, treatment-seeking individuals, as well as in specific populations.Recent FindingsLiterature search findings show that the majority of studies to date examining gambling and cannabis are epidemiological investigations conducted in youth. Overall, studies su...
Source: Current Addiction Reports - July 20, 2020 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

Directional Effects of Anxiety and Depressive Disorders with Substance Use: a Review of Recent Prospective Research
AbstractPurpose of ReviewAnxiety and depressive disorders are highly prevalent, frequently comorbid, and contribute to high rates of disability and death globally. They also commonly co-occur with substance use, including alcohol, cigarettes, and cannabis. Yet, the directionality for the onset and progression of these conditions is not fully understood. The present review highlights key findings from recent longitudinal studies on the prospective associations between anxiety and depressive disorders and the most commonly used substances (alcohol, tobacco, and cannabis). Additionally, this article reviews the potential of e...
Source: Current Addiction Reports - July 13, 2020 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

Parental and Family Factors Associated with Problematic Gaming and Problematic Internet Use in Adolescents: a Systematic Literature Review
AbstractPurpose of ReviewSome adolescents may develop problematic gaming (PG) or problematic Internet use (PIU). We reviewed the literature on associations between specific parental/family (PF) characteristics and adolescents ’ PG and PIU.Recent FindingsIncreasingly, links are being reported between PF factors and PG and PIU. However, questions remain about the nature of the factors involved and the strength of their link with PG and PIU. We addressed these questions in the present review.SummaryOur systematic literature search identified 27 research papers on PG and 73 on PIU and distinguished six categories of pare...
Source: Current Addiction Reports - July 11, 2020 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

Developments in Mobile Health Just-in-Time Adaptive Interventions for Addiction Science
We describe the design of five mHealth JITAIs in addiction and three MRT studies, and discuss challenges and future directions.SummaryThis review aims to provide guidance for constructing effective JITAIs to support addiction treatment and recovery. (Source: Current Addiction Reports)
Source: Current Addiction Reports - June 26, 2020 Category: Addiction Source Type: research