Prevention Strategies and Interventions for Internet Use Disorders Due to Addictive Behaviors Based on an Integrative Conceptual Model
AbstractPurpose of ReviewWith increasing use of the Internet throughout our daily lives, Internet use disorders (IUDs) due to addictive behaviors are gaining recognition. As an umbrella term, IUD covers an array of online behaviors that are potentially addictive. The growing population of Internet and smartphone users also raised public health concerns over IUD in regard to adverse cognitive, developmental, psychosocial, and physical consequences. While scientific literature to date has tended to focus on specific forms of IUD such as gaming or pornography, confining our attention to only these specific areas may impede re...
Source: Current Addiction Reports - July 15, 2019 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

Applying Data Science to Behavioral Analysis of Online Gambling
AbstractPurpose of ReviewGambling operators ’ capacity to track gamblers in the online environment may enable identification of those users experiencing gambling harm. This review provides an update on research testing behavioral variables against indicators of disordered gambling. We consider the utility of machine learning algorithms in r isk prediction, and challenges to be overcome.Recent FindingsDisordered online gambling is associated with a range of behavioral variables, as well as other predictors including demographic and payment-related information. Machine learning is ideally suited to the task of combinin...
Source: Current Addiction Reports - July 15, 2019 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

Treatment of Opioid Use Disorder in the Acute Hospital Setting: a Critical Review of the Literature (2014 –2019)
AbstractPurpose of ReviewPatients with opioid use disorder (OUD) often have concomitant medical conditions requiring hospitalization. This review describes the treatment of patients with OUD in acute care hospitals. Topics addressed include screening hospitalized patients for OUD, hospital initiation of medications for OUD (MOUD), Addiction Medicine Consult Services (AMCS), managing infectious complications of intravenous opioid use, and clinical innovations.Recent FindingsManagement of opioid withdrawal and initiation of MOUD in hospitalized patients improves engagement in post-discharge addiction treatment. Implementatio...
Source: Current Addiction Reports - July 13, 2019 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

Epidemiological Challenges in the Study of Behavioral Addictions: a Call for High Standard Methodologies
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThe 5th edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5) categorizes gambling disorder in the section on substance-related and addictive disorders, and the 11th revision of the International Classification of Diseases (ICD-11) includes both gambling and gaming disorder as disorders due to addictive behaviors. However, there is less evidence for other putative behavioral addictions. This review focuses on requirements for epidemiological studies of disorders that may be considered as behavioral addictions and compares the current state of research with principles of sound...
Source: Current Addiction Reports - June 27, 2019 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

Towards a Translational Approach to Food Addiction: Implications for Bulimia Nervosa
AbstractPurpose of ReviewIn recent years, the food addiction hypothesis of loss-of-control eating has gained traction in the field of eating disorders. In particular, the neural process of food addiction plays a dominant role in the recently formulated “addictive appetite” model of bulimia nervosa and binge eating disorder. Nonetheless, several components of the food addiction hypothesis, including the presence of withdrawal and tolerance effects, as well as the proposition that some foods possess “addicting” properties, remain highly cont roversial. In response, the current review synthesises exist...
Source: Current Addiction Reports - June 25, 2019 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

The Casualties Left Behind in Tobacco ’s Cinders of Combustion
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThis paper (1) defines the scope of tobacco-related health disparities; (2) reviews population-based approaches aimed to eliminate disparities —Medicaid, the U.S. Preventive Health Service Task Force, and the Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act; and (3) discusses their potential role in reducing tobacco use and lung cancer disparities.Recent FindingsThe implementation of population-based approaches aimed to reduce tobacco use and chronic diseases has been inequitable. The poor are predominately affected by limited access to comprehensive tobacco cessation coverage. Moreover, lun...
Source: Current Addiction Reports - June 12, 2019 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

Ten Years of the Yale Food Addiction Scale: a Review of Version 2.0
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThe Yale Food Addiction Scale (YFAS) is a self-report questionnaire for the assessment of addiction-like consumption of high-calorie, processed foods. The original scale was developed in 2009 and —for its tenth anniversary—we now review studies using its revised version—the YFAS 2.0.Recent FindingsThe 11 symptoms of food addiction as measured with the YFAS 2.0 demonstrated high internal reliability and a unidimensional structure in several studies, supporting construct validity. Similar to the original YFAS, highest prevalence rates of YFAS 2.0 diagnoses were found in individuals ...
Source: Current Addiction Reports - June 11, 2019 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

Gaming Disorder Is a Disorder due to Addictive Behaviors: Evidence from Behavioral and Neuroscientific Studies Addressing Cue Reactivity and Craving, Executive Functions, and Decision-Making
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThis narrative review is aimed at summarizing the scientific evidence suggesting that the core psychological and neurobiological mechanisms underlying substance use disorders and gambling disorder are also involved in gaming disorder.Recent FindingsTheoretical models that aim to explain the development and maintenance of gaming disorder focus on cue reactivity and craving as well as on reduced inhibitory control processes and dysfunctional decision-making as core processes underlying symptoms of gaming disorder. The empirical evidence, including studies and meta-analyses with patients with gaming d...
Source: Current Addiction Reports - May 30, 2019 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

Association of Exercise with Control of Eating and Energy Intake
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThis narrative review examines the association of acute and chronic exercise with control of eating and energy intake, which could provide important insights for interventions targeting weight loss and weight management.Recent FindingsDespite considerable variability in study results, acute exercise is generally associated with a decline in appetite. This effect, however, is short-lived, and changes in 24-h energy intake in response to exercise have been limited. Chronic exercise may induce some compensatory increase in energy intake due to an increase in hunger. Nevertheless, higher activity level...
Source: Current Addiction Reports - May 28, 2019 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

Cognitive- and Emotion-Related Dysfunctional Coping Processes: Transdiagnostic Mechanisms Explaining Depression and Anxiety ’s Relations with Problematic Smartphone Use
AbstractPurpose of ReviewDepression and anxiety symptoms typically demonstrate relationships with problematic smartphone use (PSU) across the literature. However, mechanisms involved in these relationships have not been widely reported. In this paper, we focus on important but relatively neglected transdiagnostic mechanisms between depression and anxiety with PSU, involving maladaptive cognitive and emotion processes. Cognitive processes we discuss include repetitive negative thinking (i.e., rumination and worry), boredom proneness, and the fear of missing out (FOMO). Emotion processes we discuss include emotion dysregulat...
Source: Current Addiction Reports - May 27, 2019 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

Tobacco Smoking, Eating Behaviors, and Body Weight: a Review
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThis narrative review provides an overview of the relationships among tobacco smoking, eating behaviors, and body weight. The aims are to (1) examine the concurrent and longitudinal associations between tobacco smoking and body weight, (2) describe potential mechanisms underlying the relationships between smoking and body weight, with a focus on mechanisms related to eating behaviors and appetite, and (3) discuss management of concomitant tobacco smoking and obesity.Recent FindingsAdolescents who smoke tobacco tend to have body mass indexes (BMI) the same as or higher than nonsmokers. However, adul...
Source: Current Addiction Reports - May 25, 2019 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

A Review of the Evidence for Considering Gambling Disorder (and Other Behavioral Addictions) as a Disorder Due to Addictive Behaviors in the ICD-11: a Focus on Case-Control Studies
AbstractPurpose of ReviewTo conduct a systematic review of recent case-control studies investigating the similarities and differences between gambling disorder (GD), substance use disorders (SUDs), and behavioral addictions (BAs).Recent FindingsA total of 36 studies were identified for synthesis, with 56% comparing GD to SUDs, 36.11% comparing GD to other BAs, and 8.33% comparing to both. The results indicated that GD and SUDs/BAs do not present with overall differences in neurocognitive, clinical, and impulsivity dimensions. Rather, GD is associated with more nuanced differences in these dimensions. In contrast, GD was li...
Source: Current Addiction Reports - May 23, 2019 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

High Involvement Versus Pathological Involvement in Video Games: a Crucial Distinction for Ensuring the Validity and Utility of Gaming Disorder
AbstractPurpose of reviewThe year 2018 was marked by the official recognition of Gaming Disorder (GD) as a mental condition with its inclusion in the proposed eleventh edition of the International Classification of Diseases (ICD-11). Recently, a group of scholars has repeatedly criticized the notion of GD proposed by the World Health Organization (WHO), arguing that its inclusion in ICD-11 would pathologize highly involved but healthy gamers. It is therefore of crucial importance to clarify the characteristics of high involvement versus pathological involvement in video games, the boundaries between these constructs, and t...
Source: Current Addiction Reports - May 23, 2019 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

Behavioral Addictions: Some Developmental Considerations
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThe American Psychiatric Association and World Health Organization have begun to recognize a number of behavioral disorders in their revised diagnostic criteria of mental health disorders. The current review focuses upon examining developmental trajectories associated with gambling, gaming, and Internet disorders.Recent FindingsWhile epidemiological studies indicate a growing number of individuals are experiencing a variety of behavioral disorders, many of these disorders have their etiology and origins during childhood and adolescence. The research suggests the importance of considering developmen...
Source: Current Addiction Reports - May 20, 2019 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

A Review of the Use and Appeal of Flavored Electronic Cigarettes
AbstractPurpose of ReviewE-cigarettes are available in a variety of flavors not found in traditional tobacco products (i.e., “nontraditional flavors”), which is a commonly cited reason for e-cigarette use. This review examines the prevalence of nontraditional-flavored e-cigarette use, mechanisms through which flavorings enhance product appeal, use of nontraditional-flavored e-cigarettes for smoking cessation, and diff erences in these findings between youth and adults.Recent FindingsNontraditional-flavored e-cigarettes are used at e-cigarette initiation by the majority of youth. These flavors enhance the appeal...
Source: Current Addiction Reports - May 17, 2019 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

Assessment of Automatically Activated Approach –Avoidance Biases Across Appetitive Substances
AbstractPurpose of ReviewAutomatic approach –avoidance tendencies drive excessive intake of drugs and unhealthy food. Dual-process models of behaviour propose that strong approach biases predict excessive intake when reflective processes are weak. Consistent with theory, early findings indicated that approach biases predicted excessive use of drugs, including alcohol and tobacco. Given that reviews on approach bias for appetitive substances are lacking, the current review aimed to synthesise the recent findings on automatic approach biases across three of the most commonly assessed substances: alcohol, food and tobac...
Source: Current Addiction Reports - May 14, 2019 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

Correction to: Social Media for Tobacco Smoking Cessation Intervention: a Review of the Literature
The original version of this article unfortunately contained a mistake. (Source: Current Addiction Reports)
Source: Current Addiction Reports - May 10, 2019 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

Mobile Applications for the Treatment of Tobacco Use and Dependence
AbstractPurpose of ReviewSmoking remains a leading preventable cause of premature death in the world; thus, developing effective and scalable smoking cessation interventions is crucial. This review uses the Obesity-Related Behavioral Intervention Trials (ORBIT) model for early phase development of behavioral interventions to conceptually organize the state of research of mobile applications (apps) for smoking cessation, briefly highlight their technical and theory-based components, and describe available data on efficacy and effectiveness.Recent FindingsOur review suggests that there is a need for more programmatic efforts...
Source: Current Addiction Reports - May 9, 2019 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

Correction to: New Psychoactive Substances (NPS), Psychedelic Experiences and Dissociation: Clinical and Clinical Pharmacological Issues
The original version of this article unfortunately contained a mistake. (Source: Current Addiction Reports)
Source: Current Addiction Reports - May 7, 2019 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

Letter to the Editor for ‘Current Addiction Reports’—Game Transfer Phenomena and Dissociation: a Reply to Guglielmucci et al. (2019)
(Source: Current Addiction Reports)
Source: Current Addiction Reports - May 1, 2019 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

E-Cigarettes: Tobacco Policy and Regulation
AbstractPurpose of the ReviewThe purpose of this review is to describe current trends in e-cigarette use, provide an overview of the potential health risks and benefits, and discuss tobacco policy and regulatory considerations.Recent FindingsE-cigarette use is popular among youth and adults, despite limited evidence about the long-term risks or benefits. Internationally, there is wide variability in how e-cigarettes are classified, which has also led to large differences in regulations on these products. Regulatory policies that strike a balance between the potential benefit of these devices for adult smokers who are tryin...
Source: Current Addiction Reports - April 27, 2019 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

Mechanisms and Clinical Features of Co-Occurring Opioid and Nicotine Use
AbstractPurpose of ReviewTo review the literature addressing shared pathophysiological and clinical features of opioid and nicotine use to inform etiology and treatment, and highlight areas for future research.Recent FindingsOpioid and nicotine use co-occur at an alarmingly high rate, and this may be driven in part by interactions between the opioid and cholinergic systems underlying drug reward and the transition to dependence. Pain, among other shared risk factors, is strongly implicated in both opioid and nicotine use and appears to play an important role in their co-occurrence. Additionally, there are important sex/gen...
Source: Current Addiction Reports - April 27, 2019 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

Social Media for Tobacco Smoking Cessation Intervention: A Review of the Literature
This article seeks to evaluate the current literature on the use of social media interventions to support smoking cessation.Recent FindingsFindings suggest that social media interventions are feasible and can be utilized effectively for smoking cessation treatment. Greater participant engagement with intervention content appears to be associated with positive changes in smoking behaviors in most, but not all studies reviewed.SummarySmoking cessation interventions on social media hold promise to help smokers quit. Future randomized trials with longer follow-up intervals are needed to expand the current evidence base, as are...
Source: Current Addiction Reports - April 26, 2019 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

New Psychoactive Substances (NPS), Psychedelic Experiences and Dissociation: Clinical and Clinical Pharmacological Issues
ConclusionsAlthough the complex link between NPS and psychiatric illnesses is yet to be fully understood, NPS misuse is now a significant clinical issue and an increasing challenge for clinicians working in both mental health and emergency departments. (Source: Current Addiction Reports)
Source: Current Addiction Reports - April 23, 2019 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

Gambling and Homelessness: Prevalence and Pathways
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThe review sought to present research pertaining to gambling and homelessness. Findings mapping the prevalence of disordered gambling within the homeless and those exploring the bi-directional nature of the relationship are discussed. The review explores theoretical explanations for the appeal of gambling to homeless individuals and discusses future directions.Recent FindingsResearch indicates the prevalence of disordered gambling is significantly higher in the homeless, comparable to the general population. Further research indicates that gambling is more commonly a factor contributing to homeless...
Source: Current Addiction Reports - April 16, 2019 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

Dopamine and Gambling Disorder: Prospects for Personalized Treatment
AbstractPurpose of ReviewTo address variation in the severity of gambling disorder, this review evaluates the contribution of mesocorticolimbic dopamine neurons to potential behavioral endophenotypes, the influence of individual differences in the dopamine system on gambling and related behaviors, and the possible role for dopaminergic medications in the treatment of gambling disorder.Recent FindingsNewer work has suggested that dopaminergic dysfunction can lead to increased reward anticipation and a greater sensitivity to uncertainty, which in turn may drive addictive gambling behaviors. In addition, increased impulsivity...
Source: Current Addiction Reports - March 7, 2019 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

Gambling Marketing from 2014 to 2018: a Literature Review
AbstractPurpose of ReviewLegislation and technology have led to unprecedented changes in the frequency and content of gambling marketing in many countries. We build upon previous reviews by exploring research on gambling marketing from between 2014 and 2018.Recent FindingsMost literature reviewed was from the UK or Australia, with three key findings identified. First, gambling marketing is highly targeted and ubiquitous around sport, with the most popular strategies being increasing brand awareness, advertising complex financial incentives for participation and advertising complex betting odds. Second, perceptions of gambl...
Source: Current Addiction Reports - March 6, 2019 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

Brain Stimulation as a Method for Understanding, Treating, and Preventing Disorders of Indulgent Food Consumption
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThis review is intended to describe the role of brain stimulation in knowledge generation, treatment, and prevention of clinical disorders of indulgent eating (e.g., obesity, bulimia, binge eating).Recent FindingsAlthough both invasive and non-invasive variants of brain stimulation have been evaluated as treatments for disorders of indulgent eating, only non-invasive variants have been studied extensively. Among these, both repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) and transcranial electrical stimulation (tES) have been evaluated in randomized trials; recent findings for both have been pr...
Source: Current Addiction Reports - March 5, 2019 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

Dissociation in Problematic Gaming: a Systematic Review
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThe present article consists of a systematic review of recent (2007 –2018) empirical studies addressing the relationship between problematic gaming and dissociation. Nineteen peer-reviewed empirical studies that examined the relationship between problematic gaming and dissociation were identified.Recent FindingsThe findings suggest that excessive video game use is linked to a variety of dissociative phenomena (e.g. depersonalisation experiences, escapism, psychotic-like experiences, game transfer phenomena).SummaryDissociative experiences are associated with problematic gaming. The findings s...
Source: Current Addiction Reports - February 11, 2019 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

Hot Topic: Global Trends in the Use of Opioid Analgesics
This study aimed to contribute to the debate on the availability of opioids for pain management by comparing regional and global trends for controlled strong opioids most commonly used for pain over the past 21  years. We conducted a series of analyses on the use of 12 opioids, with a focus on fentanyl, hydrocodone, hydromorphone, morphine, and oxycodone over the 21-year period of 1995–2015, at a regional and global level with country-level data, using random intercept mixed models to assess for change over time and interactions, and controlling for country economic development.Recent FindingsDespite the suffici...
Source: Current Addiction Reports - January 25, 2019 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

Dissociative Experiences in Gambling Disorder
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThis review provides a summary of the literature (2012 –2018) regarding dissociative experiences in Gambling Disorder (GD). We provide an overview of conceptualizations of dissociation, its relationship to GD, dissociation within specific types of gambling, and harm reduction strategies targeting gambling-related dissociative experiences.Recent FindingsThe gambling literature lacks a unified conceptualization of dissociative experiences, and measures different aspects of dissociation across studies. The propensity of some individuals toward general and in-game dissociation appears to be invol...
Source: Current Addiction Reports - January 21, 2019 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

The Relationship Between Dissociative Experiences and Cannabis Use: a Systematic Review
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThis systematic review aimed to investigate the relation between cannabis use and dissociation.Recent FindingsFour analytical and 14 descriptive cross-sectional studies were included. There is no variation in the rates of cannabis use among individuals with dissociative experiences compared with the general population. In addition, the prevalence of dissociative disorders in subjects using cannabis is not different from those not using cannabis. The majority of the studies employed inadequate sampling procedures and a concurrent or retrospective assessment of the two variables, which might have inc...
Source: Current Addiction Reports - January 15, 2019 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

Trauma, Dissociation, and Opiate Use Disorder
The objective of this article is to identify the role of opioid use among survivors of trauma and to characterize the dissociative functions associated with this class of substances. More precisely, this paper will evaluate if the biochemical impact of opioid substances, such as heroin, has particular psychological effects on traumatized users, pertinent to their emotional needs.Recent FindingsReviewed studies demonstrated not only that the vast majority of opioid use disorder (OUD) patients reported a history of childhood trauma but that dissociation played an important role in both the experience of opioid use and abstin...
Source: Current Addiction Reports - January 15, 2019 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

Revisiting the Consequences of Adolescent Cannabinoid Exposure Through the Lens of the Endocannabinoid System
AbstractPurpose of the ReviewAdolescence is a period of culmination during which there is a neurodevelopment through processes such as synaptic potentiation and pruning, myelination, and improved connectivity. Recent studies posit a vital role of endocannabinoid signaling in regulating and fine-tuning these processes. Adolescence is also a period of heightened vulnerability for exposure to exogenous cannabinoids (cannabis) which can potentially disrupt the regulatory function of endocannabinoids.Recent FindingsWhile studies in animal models provide more compelling evidence for residual and persistent effects of cannabinoid...
Source: Current Addiction Reports - November 7, 2018 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

Motives to Engage in Online Sexual Activities and Their Links to Excessive and Problematic Use: a Systematic Review
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThis systematic review examines the motives behind online sexual activities (OSAs) and their relationship with excessive and problematic engagement in OSAs.Recent FindingsFew studies have explored the motives fueling healthy and problematic engagement in OSAs, despite the evident relevance of motives for understanding these activities. Disparities in methodology and lack of validated tools have hindered the comparability and generalizability of results.SummaryWe retained and analyzed 30 studies, from which seven categories of motives emerged: (1) those related to the structural characteristics of t...
Source: Current Addiction Reports - November 6, 2018 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

The Opioid Epidemic in Africa and Its Impact
AbstractPurpose of ReviewOpioid use disorder (OUD) is a global phenomenon and is on the rise in Africa, denoting a shift from historical patterns of drug transport to internal consumption. In contrast, opioids for clinical pain management in Africa remain among the least available globally. This region also has the highest HIV and HCV disease burden, and the greatest shortages of health workers and addiction treatment. We undertook a systematic review of the literature to describe opioid use in Africa and how it is being addressed.Recent FindingsA total of 84 articles from 2000 to 2018 were identified. Descriptions of coun...
Source: Current Addiction Reports - October 30, 2018 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

The Deepening Opioid Crisis in North America: Historical Context and Current Solutions
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThe purpose of this review is to (1) detail the historical context behind the rise of opioid use disorder (OUD) and opioid-related harms in the United States (US) and Canada, (2) describe the epidemiology of OUD in these two countries, and (3) discuss current strategies being employed to address this public health emergency in North America.Recent FindingsOpioid-related overdose has become a leading cause of unintentional injury related death in North America. Deaths have risen in parallel with opioid prescribing and the rising prevalence of unintentional exposure to highly potent synthetic opioids...
Source: Current Addiction Reports - October 17, 2018 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

Current Opioid Access, Use, and Problems in Australasian Jurisdictions
AbstractPurpose of ReviewTo summarize current patterns of pharmaceutical opioid use, extra-medical use, and harms across Australasia, with a focus on Australia and New Zealand. Treatment for opioid dependence and recent changes to the regulatory environment governing opioid access and treatment are also discussed.Recent FindingsA fourfold increase in opioid use has occurred across Australia and New Zealand between 2001 –2003 and 2011–2013, with significant increases in the use of strong opioids. Documented harms include opioid dependence, hospitalization and other health service use, and non-fatal and fatal ove...
Source: Current Addiction Reports - September 28, 2018 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

The Threat of an International Opioid Crisis
AbstractPurpose of ReviewWhile the epidemiology of North America ’s opioid crisis has been well understood, a need exists to evaluate the potential for its expansion to other international settings. Thus, a comprehensive summary of the factors that have contributed to North America’s opioid crisis, their impact on global opioid markets, and relevance in other international settings is described.Recent FindingsIncreased opioid prescribing for pain management and the emergence of highly potent synthetic opioids (e.g., fentanyl) in North America ’s illicit drug market have been identified as key drivers of i...
Source: Current Addiction Reports - September 26, 2018 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

Early Intervention in Gaming Disorder: What Can We Learn from Findings in the Substance Abuse Field?
AbstractPurpose of ReviewGaming disorder (GD) is considered as a condition related to severe functional impairment, and its prevalence reaches meaningful proportions of the general population in many countries. Besides treatment and prevention, early interventions could play a major role to curb this rising public health concern. This review summarizes the available knowledge in this field.Recent FindingsAmong current systematic reviews on treatment approaches with respect to GD or Internet-related disorders (IDs), only two studies have been found that can be characterized as early interventions. However, findings from the...
Source: Current Addiction Reports - September 24, 2018 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

Has the Legalisation of Medical and Recreational Cannabis Use in the USA Affected the Prevalence of Cannabis Use and Cannabis Use Disorders?
AbstractPurpose of ReviewSince California legalised medical use of cannabis in 1996, 29 other US states have done so. Eight US states have legalised the retail sale of cannabis to adults over the age of 21  years since 2012. Critics of these policy changes have suggested that they will increase the prevalence of cannabis use and cannabis use disorders. This paper (1) briefly describes the types of regulatory regimes for medical and recreational cannabis use in the USA, (2) describes possible effects of these policies on cannabis use and (3) assesses the impacts to date of the legalisation of medical and recreational c...
Source: Current Addiction Reports - September 21, 2018 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

Cannabis Use Disorder: Recent Findings and Future Directions
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThe purpose of this review was to examine the definition of cannabis use disorder (CUD) and recent findings regarding the risks for developing CUD and the associated outcomes.Recent FindingsFrequent use of cannabis, use of other substances, and mental health disorders are associated with CUD. Although few individuals seek treatment, addressing CUD is associated with improved health outcomes and quality of life.SummaryPublic health officials and policymakers need to be aware of the potential consequences of more permissive cannabis use policies and to take the appropriate intervention and prevention...
Source: Current Addiction Reports - September 17, 2018 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

Dissociative Tendencies and Alcohol Use Disorder
AbstractPurpose of the ReviewTo review the literature on the association between a lack of coherent sense of self (i.e., dissociation) and alcohol use disorder (AUD).Recent FindingsChild maltreatment leads to abnormal development of brain regions associated with possible mediators and moderators of the relationship between early life stress and AUD. People with a propensity to dissociate or to seek dissociative experiences (e.g., chemical dissociation) could have a higher risk of AUD and more generally of actions undertaken with limited conscious awareness (i.e., habits and routines).SummaryThe study of the relationship be...
Source: Current Addiction Reports - September 13, 2018 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

Current Opioid Access, Use, and Problems in Central and Western European Jurisdictions
AbstractPurpose of the ReviewTo provide recent data on opioid use in Central and Western Europe and available treatments, with focus on Spain and Switzerland.Recent FindingsThe prevalence of opioid use in Europe is around 0.4%, which represents 1.3 million individuals. Heroin use remains the main reason for treatment among patients with an opioid use disorder (>  80%). Opioid agonist treatment (OAT) is generally available, with methadone and buprenorphine being the most often used treatments. In some European countries, pharmaceutical heroin (diacetylmorphine, DAM) is also available as an OAT option.SummaryThe pr...
Source: Current Addiction Reports - September 12, 2018 Category: Addiction Source Type: research