The Digital Health Landscape in Addiction and Substance Use Research: Will Digital Health Exacerbate or Mitigate Health Inequities in Vulnerable Populations?
AbstractPurpose of ReviewNovel and emerging digital health technologies are increasingly used in substance use and addiction-related self-management and treatment research. The promise of digital health is exciting, yet there are important factors regarding population characteristics to consider prior to using novel technologies with vulnerable populations. This paper reports a review of scientific literature published between 2015 and early 2020 on the use of digital health strategies in research focused on substance use and addiction in vulnerable populations.Recent FindingsUsing 13 search terms, three databases were scr...
Source: Current Addiction Reports - July 23, 2020 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

Understanding the Overlap Between Cannabis Use and Gambling Behaviour: A Systematic Review of Empirical Findings and Consideration of Policy Implications
AbstractPurpose of the ReviewGiven recent changes in cannabis legalization across North America, understanding cannabis-gambling relationships is of increasing interest. This review examines the current state of the research literature on the co-occurrence of cannabis and gambling. Specifically, the relationship between cannabis and gambling is examined in youth, adults, treatment-seeking individuals, as well as in specific populations.Recent FindingsLiterature search findings show that the majority of studies to date examining gambling and cannabis are epidemiological investigations conducted in youth. Overall, studies su...
Source: Current Addiction Reports - July 21, 2020 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

Directional Effects of Anxiety and Depressive Disorders with Substance Use: a Review of Recent Prospective Research
AbstractPurpose of ReviewAnxiety and depressive disorders are highly prevalent, frequently comorbid, and contribute to high rates of disability and death globally. They also commonly co-occur with substance use, including alcohol, cigarettes, and cannabis. Yet, the directionality for the onset and progression of these conditions is not fully understood. The present review highlights key findings from recent longitudinal studies on the prospective associations between anxiety and depressive disorders and the most commonly used substances (alcohol, tobacco, and cannabis). Additionally, this article reviews the potential of e...
Source: Current Addiction Reports - July 14, 2020 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

Parental and Family Factors Associated with Problematic Gaming and Problematic Internet Use in Adolescents: a Systematic Literature Review
AbstractPurpose of ReviewSome adolescents may develop problematic gaming (PG) or problematic Internet use (PIU). We reviewed the literature on associations between specific parental/family (PF) characteristics and adolescents ’ PG and PIU.Recent FindingsIncreasingly, links are being reported between PF factors and PG and PIU. However, questions remain about the nature of the factors involved and the strength of their link with PG and PIU. We addressed these questions in the present review.SummaryOur systematic literature search identified 27 research papers on PG and 73 on PIU and distinguished six categories of pare...
Source: Current Addiction Reports - July 12, 2020 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

Developments in Mobile Health Just-in-Time Adaptive Interventions for Addiction Science
We describe the design of five mHealth JITAIs in addiction and three MRT studies, and discuss challenges and future directions.SummaryThis review aims to provide guidance for constructing effective JITAIs to support addiction treatment and recovery. (Source: Current Addiction Reports)
Source: Current Addiction Reports - June 27, 2020 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

(Neuro)therapeutic Approaches in the Field of Alcohol Use Disorders
This article discusses these learning mechanisms and modification thereof as possible targets of (neuro)therapeutic interventions for AUD.Recent FindingsPsychological therapies that target dysregulated neurocognitive processes underlying addictive behavior may hold promise as effective treatments for AUD.SummaryDespite the progression in psychological and neuroscience research in the field of AUD, many behavioral interventions fail to systematically integrate and apply such findings into treatment development. Future research should focus on the targeted modification of the aforementioned processes. (Source: Current Addiction Reports)
Source: Current Addiction Reports - June 27, 2020 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

Digital Health for Assessment and Intervention Targeting Tobacco and Cannabis Co-Use
This article aims to summarize current research on digital health for assessment and intervention targeting tobacco and cannabis co-use and to answer the following questions: Which digital tools have been used? Which populations have been targeted? And what are the implications for future research?Recent FindingsEcological momentary assessment (EMA) via text messages or interactive voice response calls has been used to capture co-use patterns within a time window or co-administration of both substances via blunts among young adults. Feasibility of multicomponent interventions targeting dual cessation of both substances amo...
Source: Current Addiction Reports - June 19, 2020 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

Evaluating the Quality of Smartphone Apps for Overeating, Stress, and Craving-Related Eating Using the Mobile Application Rating Scale
This study included 19 apps, and app quality scores ranged from 2.58 to 4.87, with a mean score of 3.52 out of 5. The large discrepancy in quality is a concern given that these apps are aimed at addressing eating-related behaviors and influence health outcomes. As a result, a high burden is put on consumers to vigilantly screen apps to determine if information provided is based on scientific evidence. (Source: Current Addiction Reports)
Source: Current Addiction Reports - June 19, 2020 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

Choosing the Optimal Brain Target for Neuromodulation Therapies as Alcohol Addiction Progresses —Insights From Pre-Clinical Studies
AbstractPurpose of the ReviewDevelopment of addiction involves a transition from reward-driven to habitual behavior, mediated by neuroplastic changes. Based on preclinical findings, this article article reviews the current knowledge on the use of neuromodulation therapies to target alcohol addiction and essentially reduce relapse.Recent FindingsTo date, only a limited number of preclinical studies have investigated the use of neuromodulation in alcohol addiction, with the focus being on targeting the brain reward system. However, as addiction develops, additional circuits are recruited. Therefore, a differential setup may ...
Source: Current Addiction Reports - June 12, 2020 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

Wearable and Wireless mHealth Technologies for Substance Use Disorder
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThe goal of this scoping review is to evaluate the advances in wearable and other wireless mobile health (mHealth) technologies in the treatment of substance use disorders.Recent FindingsThere are a variety of wireless technologies under investigation for the treatment of substance use disorder. Wearable sensors are the most commonly used technology. They can be used to decrease heavy substance use, mitigate factors related to relapse, and monitor for overdose. New technologies pose distinct advantages over traditional therapies by increasing geographic availability and continuously providing feedb...
Source: Current Addiction Reports - June 11, 2020 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

Risk and Protective Factors for Alcohol Use Disorders Across the Lifespan
AbstractPurpose of ReviewLosing and regaining control over alcohol intake varies as a function of individual-level predictors across the lifespan. Specifically, the interplay of protective and risk factors for losing and regaining control, particularly in real-life settings, is thus far poorly understood. Individual differences in cognition, affect, emotion regulation, social factors, and personality traits, together with individual differences in brain structure and function, and biological markers of stress exposure may have different effects on alcohol consumption in different age groups. We will review current evidence...
Source: Current Addiction Reports - June 4, 2020 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

Considering Food Addiction Through a Cultural Lens
AbstractPurpose of ReviewResearch suggests that cultural factors influence eating behaviors; however, little is known about the relationship between food addiction and culture. This narrative review aimed to (i) review theoretically related work on the relationship between sociocultural demographic variables, food cravings, and eating disorders; (ii) review the available literature assessing cultural aspects of food addiction, specifically the rates of food addiction across the globe and notable differences in relevant sociodemographic variables: race, ethnicity, gender, and acculturation level; (iii) discuss the potential...
Source: Current Addiction Reports - May 24, 2020 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

eHealth Treatments for Compulsive Overeating: a Narrative Review
AbstractPurpose of ReviewElectronic or eHealth technologies have resulted in a progressive transformation of healthcare delivery, leading to greater treatment access, and more informed and individualized clinician-patient relationships. These characteristics are especially important for individuals who suffer from compulsive overeating and related disorders such as binge-eating disorder and bulimia nervosa —where personal feelings of shame and fear, high costs and low treatment availability may deter individuals from obtaining appropriate care. In the following narrative review, the efficacy of eHealth interventions ...
Source: Current Addiction Reports - May 23, 2020 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

Cognitive Correlates in Gaming Disorder and Social Networks Use Disorder: a Comparison
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThis overview aims at summarizing studies, which investigated cognitive correlates of gaming disorder and of a problematic use of social networks by using behavioral experimental paradigms and brain imaging techniques.Recent FindingsBased on theoretical models, inhibition/inhibitory control, attentional bias, executive functions, decision-making, and working memory capabilities have been identified as cognitive components, which are assumed to play a crucial role in the development and maintenance of an addictive behavior. A systematic search shows that various studies have already examined the inv...
Source: Current Addiction Reports - May 21, 2020 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

The Assessment of Cyberchondria: Instruments for Assessing Problematic Online Health-Related Research
AbstractPurpose of ReviewCyberchondria is a problematic, i.e. distressing or anxiety-increasing pattern of online health information seeking. The development of psychometrically sound instruments for the assessment of cyberchondria is imperative for better understanding of this construct. The aim of the present article is to provide a systematic literature review of cyberchondria instruments.Recent FindingsAlthough several measures of cyberchondria have been developed, the Cyberchondria Severity Scale (CSS) has been used most often. The CSS is based on a solid theoretical framework, with very good to excellent reliability ...
Source: Current Addiction Reports - April 30, 2020 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

“Who Am I” and “How Should I Be”: a Systematic Review on Self-Concept and Avatar Identification in Gaming Disorder
AbstractPurpose of ReviewGaming disorder (GD) appears to be associated with self-concept deficits and increased identification with one ’s avatar. The goal of this literature review is to highlight study findings assessing psychological and neurobiological correlates of self-concept-related characteristics and avatar identification in GD.Recent FindingsThe review was based on three literature researches on GD: (1) self-esteem, (2) emotional, social, and academic self-concept domains and avatar identification, and (3) neurobiological correlates of self-concept and avatar identification. The results indicate that GD is...
Source: Current Addiction Reports - April 25, 2020 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

Gambling Problems in US Military Veterans
AbstractPurpose of ReviewGambling disorder (GD) is a debilitating mental illness characterized by persistent patterns of dysregulated gambling behaviors. Recent evidence suggests that US military veterans are a high-risk population vulnerable to the development of problem gambling. This systemic review examined the published literature on the rates, correlates, comorbidities, treatment, and genetic contributions to US veterans ’ gambling behaviors in 39 studies.Recent FindingsOverall, we found that US military veterans have higher rates of GD (including subthreshold problem gambling/at-risk problem gambling) compared...
Source: Current Addiction Reports - April 24, 2020 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

Skill-Based Electronic Gaming Machines: a Review of Product Structures, Risks of Harm, and Policy Issues
AbstractPurpose of ReviewSkill-based gaming machines (SGMs) add interactive and/or skill features to electronic gaming machines (EGMs), often modelled on elements from arcade, video, online, or mobile games. Availability of SGMs is expanding in the USA and internationally, but evidence of the impacts of these machines is lacking. To provide direction to policymakers and the scientific community, this review critically evaluates the relevant literature and suggests future avenues for research and consumer protection measures.Recent FindingsEarly data suggests that SGMs are most appealing to younger demographics and are like...
Source: Current Addiction Reports - April 22, 2020 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

Adolescent Land-Based and Internet Gambling: Australian and International Prevalence Rates and Measurement Issues
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThis review summarizes recent studies of adolescent gambling in Australia and overseas. Its purpose is to examine variations in participation in gambling activities, including land-based and Internet gambling, and in measurement approaches to studying gambling-related problems.Recent FindingsBetween 15 and 80% of young people report past-year gambling participation, typically involving scratch cards, lotteries, card games and sports betting. Around 5% report past-year Internet gambling. Estimates of problem gambling among adolescents vary, with Australian figures generally between 1 and 5%, and stu...
Source: Current Addiction Reports - April 18, 2020 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

Posttraumatic Stress Symptoms Predict Transition to Future Adolescent and Young Adult Moderate to Heavy Drinking in the NCANDA Sample
We described trauma experienced by the National Consortium on Alcohol and Neurodevelopment in Adolescence (NCANDA) longitudinal sample (N = 831) participants and examined drinking over 4 years. We hypothesize that more traumatic events and PTSS will predict transition to moderate/heavy drinking.SummaryA total of 658 no/low drinkers at baseline were followed yearly for 4  years for transition to moderate/heavy drinking using logistic regression models. Youth were grouped by no trauma (n = 257), trauma (n = 348), and trauma with PTSS (n = 53). Those with traum...
Source: Current Addiction Reports - March 28, 2020 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

Problematic Internet Use and Loneliness: How Complex Is the Relationship? A Short Literature Review
AbstractPurposeThe Internet has become embedded into the life of billions of people worldwide. In some individuals, excessive Internet use impacts negatively on psychological and social functioning. Several studies over the last decades have focused on the relationship between Problematic Internet Use (PIU) and loneliness. The present review aims to provide an overview of the recent literature in this field and to suggest some critical questions.Recent FindingsA small-medium positive association between loneliness and PIU has been reported in several cross-sectional studies. However, the association becomes weaker when oth...
Source: Current Addiction Reports - March 7, 2020 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

The Role of Affect in Psychosocial Treatments for Substance Use Disorders
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThis paper provides a narrative review of studies published over the past 5  years that have examined the role of affect, including both affective symptoms and affective disorders, in psychosocial treatments for substance use disorder.Recent FindingsA growing body of literature suggests that affective symptoms and affective disorders may moderate substance use disorder treatment efficacy, mediate the effects of treatment on substance use outcomes, and may be directly changed by substance use disorder treatment.SummarySubstance use disorders and affective disorders commonly co-occur, and both a...
Source: Current Addiction Reports - March 2, 2020 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

Addictive Use of Online Sexual Activities and its Comorbidities: a Systematic Review
AbstractPurpose of the ReviewThis systematic review explores comorbidities related to the problematic use of online sexual activities (OSAs) in the absence of any published synthesis on the subject. These comorbidities are commonly confused with problems associated with offline addictive sexual disorders, even though it is not clear whether they are strictly similar.Recent FindingsThis is the first systematic review of the literature synthesizing data on the comorbidities of problematic OSA use. The pattern of comorbidities that was evidenced supports the hypothesis that problematic OSA use is part of a spectrum of related...
Source: Current Addiction Reports - March 2, 2020 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

Addictive Behavior Change and Mindfulness-Based Interventions: Current Research and Future Directions
This article discusses the history of mindfulness-based interventions for addictive behaviors and recent advances in treatment.Recent FindingsMindfulness-based interventions are as effective as existing evidence-based treatments for addictive behaviors. Further understanding of the neurobiological changes that occur could help identify the components of mindfulness-based interventions that are most helpful and which individuals may benefit most from mindfulness-based intervention.SummaryAdditional large-scale randomized controlled trials are needed for a better understanding of the effectiveness of mindfulness-based interv...
Source: Current Addiction Reports - February 15, 2020 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

Twenty Years of the Food Cravings Questionnaires: a Comprehensive Review
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThe Food Cravings Questionnaires (FCQs; Cepeda-Benito, Gleaves, Williams,& Erath, 2000) are among the most widely used instruments for measuring food cravings. In addition to the Food Cravings Questionnaire –Trait (FCQ–T) and the Food Cravings Questionnaire–State (FCQ–S), several modified versions have been developed as well. For their 20th anniversary, this article provides a comprehensive description of the FCQs and reviews studies on their psychometric properties and correlates.Recent FindingsThe FCQs and their modified versions have excellent internal reliability. Ex...
Source: Current Addiction Reports - February 12, 2020 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

Advancing Preventive Interventions for Pregnant Women Who Are Opioid Using via the Integration of Addiction and Mental Health Research
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThis review examines how research focused on treatment for opioid use in perinatal populations and preventive interventions for postpartum psychopathology have remained separate, despite significant overlap.Recent FindingsGuidelines for best practice in caring for pregnant women with opioid use disorder suggest the use of medication-assisted treatment with additional comprehensive care, including behavioral and mental health interventions. However, intervention research often mutually excludes these two populations, with studies of behavioral interventions for opioid use excluding women with psycho...
Source: Current Addiction Reports - January 28, 2020 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

Child Sexual Abuse and Compulsive Sexual Behavior: A Systematic Literature Review
AbstractPurpose of ReviewInformation on potential risk factors and clinical correlates of compulsive sexual behavior (CSB) may help inform more effective prevention and treatment measures. Sexual victimization, specifically, child sexual abuse (CSA), has been associated with CSB.Recent FindingsThis systematic review describes 21 studies on the relationship between CSA and CSB. Most studies identified a significant association between CSA and CSB. However, variability in measurements, potential differences in links among community versus clinical samples, relevance of research among college samples, lack of support for gend...
Source: Current Addiction Reports - January 28, 2020 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

Psychosocial Interventions for Food Addiction: a Systematic Review
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThe current systematic review examined the empirical literature on psychosocial interventions for food addiction with the goal of providing recommendations for clinical practice and future research. A PsycINFO and PubMed search of publications was conducted in September 2019. Two authors assessed retrieved titles and abstracts to determine topic relevance and rated the quality of the included studies using an established checklist.Recent FindingsEight studies met the study inclusion criteria, and study quality ranged from “poor” to “fair”. Most studies were pilot and feasibi...
Source: Current Addiction Reports - January 17, 2020 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

Food Addiction, Skating on Thin Ice: a Critical Overview of Neuroimaging Findings
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThe food addiction model suggests the compelling hypothesis that compulsive overeating and drug addictions share common neurobiological underpinnings. However, neuroimaging results are inconsistent, and they are difficult to integrate with each other. This mini-review provides a critical overview of the human neuroimaging literature in food addiction and binge eating symptoms.Recent FindingsNeuroanatomical studies suggest the involvement of the orbitofrontal cortex in food addiction. Functional imaging studies have examined whether food addiction is associated with alterations during reward process...
Source: Current Addiction Reports - January 16, 2020 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

Binge-Watching: What Do we Know So Far? A First Systematic Review of the Evidence
AbstractPurpose of ReviewAlong with the expansion of on-demand viewing technology, the practice of binge-watching (i.e., watching multiple episodes of TV series back-to-back) has recently gained increasing research interest, given its potential harmfulness and presumed addictive characteristics. The present article provides the first systematic review of the evidence regarding this increasingly widespread behavior.Recent FindingsThe results of this systematic review (including 24 studies and 17,545 participants) show that binge-watching remains an ill-defined construct as no consensus exists on its operationalization and m...
Source: Current Addiction Reports - January 16, 2020 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

Problematic and Non-problematic Pornography Use and Compulsive Sexual Behaviors Among Understudied Populations: Children and Adolescents
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThe aim of the current review is to define problematic and non-problematic pornography use, and to show that this definition is dependent on the perspective that one adopts —mental health, feminist, and/or religious.Recent FindingsThe definition of problematic and non-problematic pornography use among adolescents is highly dependent on perspective. Pornography use is not reliably linked with mental health problems. However, pornography use is linked with objectification processes, sexual permissiveness, and risky sexual behavior. The current review suggests that to define pornography use as p...
Source: Current Addiction Reports - January 13, 2020 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

Bariatric Surgery as a Treatment for Food Addiction? A Review of the Literature
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThe purpose of this literature review is to explore a potentially controversial hypothesis – that bariatric surgery could be used as a “treatment” for food addiction.Recent FindingsTwo small studies have examined food addiction pre- and post-bariatric surgery and suggest that the prevalence of symptoms is reduced within the first-year post-operatively. Many physiological, metabolic, and neurobiological changes occur following bariatric surgery. Theoretically, these changes that modify the factors associated with obesity and eating behaviors related to obesity could also impact foo...
Source: Current Addiction Reports - January 11, 2020 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

Identifying Early Risk Factors for Addiction Later in Life: a Review of Prospective Longitudinal Studies
AbstractPurpose of ReviewTo review prospective longitudinal studies that have identified risk factors for the development of substance use disorders in adulthood from individual differences during childhood and adolescence.Recent FindingsRisk factors during childhood and adolescence that have been consistently linked to increased risk for addiction include externalizing and internalizing symptoms, early substance use, and environmental influences, such as parental behavior and exposure to traumatic experiences.SummarySince the etiology of substance use disorders is complex and likely is attributable to many causal pathways...
Source: Current Addiction Reports - December 12, 2019 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

Correction to: Gambling and Social Cognition: a Systematic Review
The original article unfortunately contained a mistake. Some references mentioned in Table 1 have been misplaced and not included in the final bibliography. (Source: Current Addiction Reports)
Source: Current Addiction Reports - December 5, 2019 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

What Have Been the Public Health Impacts of Cannabis Legalisation in the USA? A Review of Evidence on Adverse and Beneficial Effects
AbstractPurpose of ReviewTo summarise empirical research on the adverse and beneficial public health impacts of cannabis legalisation in states in the USA.Recent FindingsThe most consistent finding from surveys of drug use is that the legalisation of medical cannabis has so far not had an effect on rates of use or cannabis use disorders among youth, but it has increased the frequency of use among adult cannabis users. There are conflicting findings on the impact of legalisation of medical and recreational cannabis use on the following: cannabis use disorders in adults, rates of motor vehicle accidents in which the driver w...
Source: Current Addiction Reports - November 22, 2019 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

Measuring Within-Individual Cannabis Reduction in Clinical Trials: a Review of the Methodological Challenges
AbstractPurpose of ReviewCannabis abstinence, traditionally, is the primary outcome in cannabis use disorder (CUD) treatment trials. Due to the changing legality of cannabis, patient goals, and preliminary evidence suggesting that individuals who reduce their cannabis use may show functional improvements, cannabis reduction is a desirable alternative outcome in CUD trials. We review challenges in measuring cannabis reduction and the evidence to support various definitions of reduction.Recent FindingsReduction in number of cannabis use days was associated with improvements in functioning across several studies. Reductions i...
Source: Current Addiction Reports - November 19, 2019 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

Behavioral Treatments for Adolescent Cannabis Use Disorder: a Rationale for Cognitive Retraining
AbstractPurpose of ReviewAdolescent cannabis use represents a significant public health concern. Cannabis experimentation typically begins in adolescence and increases the odds of meeting criteria for cannabis use disorder. Cannabis use disorder is associated with numerous short- and long-term adverse consequences for adolescents, highlighting the critical need for efficacious behavioral treatments. This brief review aims to synthesize the state of the behavioral treatment literature on adolescents with cannabis use disorder and to discuss new pathways to leverage neuroscience to inform novel targets for behavioral interve...
Source: Current Addiction Reports - November 15, 2019 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

Medications for Opioid Use Disorder Among Incarcerated Individuals: a Review of the Literature and Focus on Patient Preference
AbstractPurpose of ReviewOpioid use disorder (OUD) is a common diagnosis among incarcerated people. Despite strong evidence for use in correctional facilities, medications for OUD (MOUD) are infrequently used, and when they are, continuity after release is low. Patient preferences regarding treatment in other chronic health conditions can impact outcomes and is an emerging focus in patient-centered research. We review the extent that patient preference is incorporated in MOUD effectiveness studies among incarcerated people and how patient perceptions of MOUD may impact treatment utilization using the Gelberg-Anderson frame...
Source: Current Addiction Reports - October 28, 2019 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

A narrative Overview About Psychosocial Characteristics as Risk Factors of a Problematic Social Networks Use
AbstractPurpose of ReviewSocial networks use disorder describes the problematic use of social networking sites and online-communication applications. Social characteristic of social networks use emphasizes the special relevance of psychosocial factors and social cognitions in this context. The current review aims at summarizing findings on individual psychosocial characteristics to analyze the relevance of social processes as potential mechanisms of a social networks use disorder.Recent FindingsThe empirical overview illustrates that, aside from psychopathological factors, individual psychosocial characteristics and social...
Source: Current Addiction Reports - October 28, 2019 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

Determining Risks for Cannabis Use Disorder in the Face of Changing Legal Policies
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThis review aims to summarize and critically evaluate the current literature on the associations between individual and socio-cultural factors that increase risk for cannabis use disorder (CUD), and policy change.Recent findingsEpidemiological studies show that areas with permissive legal cannabis climates are associated with greater individual risk factors for CUD. This includes (1) higher rates of edible consumption and vaping, (2) higher delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) potency and lower cannabidiol (CBD) levels, and (3) younger age of initiation of use.SummaryA change in the socio-cultural le...
Source: Current Addiction Reports - October 24, 2019 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

Problematic and Non-Problematic Pornography Use Among LGBTQ Adolescents: a Systematic Literature Review
AbstractPurpose of ReviewPornography use is highly prevalent among adolescents, yet lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer (LGBTQ) adolescents remain an understudied population and knowledge about their pornography use is limited. Therefore, we aimed to provide an overview of LGBTQ adolescents ’ pornography use patterns and compare them with those of heterosexual adolescents.Recent FindingsDespite the fact that there is limited data to draw conclusions, pornography may be viewed at a younger age for LGBTQ girls, be more prevalent, and be more frequent among LGBTQ adolescents than among their heterosexual coun...
Source: Current Addiction Reports - October 24, 2019 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

A Systematic Review of the Neurocognitive Effects of Cannabis Use in Older Adults
AbstractPurpose of ReviewOlder adults currently represent the fastest growing demographic of cannabis users, yet few studies have investigated the effects of cannabis use on cognitive functioning in aging. We conducted a systematic review of the recent literature examining cognitive outcomes associated with cannabis use in older adults, with and without neurocognitive disorders, to clarify the potential neuroprotective benefits or risks of cognitive decline in this population.Recent FindingsWe identified 26 studies examining cognitive outcomes associated with medical and recreational use of cannabis in healthy aging, demen...
Source: Current Addiction Reports - October 22, 2019 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

Cannabis and Anxiety: a Biopsychosocial Model
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThe current paper presents a biopsychosocial model of cannabis use and anxiety that focuses explicitly on aspects of anxiety that may contribute to cannabis use and use-related problems among individuals with elevated anxiety.Recent FindingsElevated anxiety and anxiety disorders are common among individuals who use cannabis and those with cannabis use disorder (CUD). One possible explanation for this co-occurrence may be that symptoms associated with anxiety disorders (i.e., physiological arousal, subjective anxiety, and avoidance) may place anxious individuals at risk of using cannabis to cope wit...
Source: Current Addiction Reports - October 19, 2019 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

Treatment of Opioid Use Disorder in Pediatric Medical Settings
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThe purpose of this review is to examine the impact of the opioid epidemic in adolescents and young adults and recent findings regarding the treatment of opioid use disorder (OUD) in pediatric medical settings.Recent FindingsExisting guidelines for the treatment of chronic pain in adults are not intended to be applied to adolescents, who arguably may need different interventions that balance the need to mitigate the long-term impact of chronic pain with the need to limit opioid misuse. Screening, brief intervention, and referral to treatment is an important upstream strategy to prevent opioid misus...
Source: Current Addiction Reports - October 7, 2019 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

Gambling and Social Cognition: a Systematic Review
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThe aim of this article was to review current research regarding social cognition (SC) in gambling disorder (GD), to (i) compile and synthetize the current state of existing literature on this topic, and (ii) propose cognitive remediation therapy approaches focused on SC for clinicians.Recent FindingsIt is well known that disordered gamblers show impairment regarding non-social cognitive functions such as inhibition, attention, and decision-making. Furthermore, patients with substance use disorders also present certain deficits regarding social information processing which are difficult to differen...
Source: Current Addiction Reports - September 16, 2019 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

Correction to: Lost in Translation? On the Need for Convergence in Animal and Human Studies on the Role of Dopamine in Diet-Induced Obesity
The original article unfortunately contained a mistake. In the online version of the paper, the entire Box 1 is missing, and the labels of the 2 tables are swapped. The original version has been corrected. (Source: Current Addiction Reports)
Source: Current Addiction Reports - September 14, 2019 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

Methodological Advances in Leveraging Neuroimaging Datasets in Adolescent Substance Use Research
AbstractPurpose of ReviewRecent innovations in the statistical analysis of neuroimaging data related to adolescent substance use are highlighted. Going beyond assumptions of homogeneity in small studies of regional localization, the focus is on novel approaches that integrate across regions of the brain and levels of analysis in order to detect individual differences in use along with antecedents and consequences.Recent FindingsThree analysis approaches are considered. Multimodal approaches like the construct-network framework combine neural, behavioral (including cognitive), and self-report indicators to create comprehens...
Source: Current Addiction Reports - September 9, 2019 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

A Systematic Review of the Co-occurrence of Gaming Disorder and Other Potentially Addictive Behaviors
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThe playing of videogames has become an everyday occurrence among many adolescents and emerging adults. However, gaming can be problematic and potentially addictive and problematic gamers can experience co-occurring behavioral or substance use-related problems. The aims of the present review were to (i) determine the co-occurrence of potentially addictive behaviors with problematic and disordered gaming, and (ii) elucidate the potential risk factors in the development and maintenance of co-occurrence within disordered gaming.Recent FindingsThe main findings demonstrated that there are few empirical...
Source: Current Addiction Reports - September 7, 2019 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

The Impact of Genes on Adolescent Substance Use: a Developmental Perspective
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThis review discusses the importance of understanding the impact of genetic factors on adolescent substance use within a developmental framework. Methods for identifying genetic factors, relevant endophenotypes and intermediate phenotypes, and gene-environment interplay effects will be reviewed.Recent FindingsPrior work supports the role of polygenic variation on adolescent substance use. Mechanisms through which genes impact adolescent phenotypes consist of differences in neural structure and function, early temperamental differences, and problem behavior. Gene-environment interactions are charact...
Source: Current Addiction Reports - September 3, 2019 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

Relevance of Sleep and Circadian Rhythms to Adolescent Substance Use
AbstractPurpose of ReviewAdolescents are particularly vulnerable to sleep and circadian disturbances, which is a risk factor for substance use initiation and involvement. In this review, we briefly describe normal changes in adolescent sleep and circadian rhythms and then describe evidence that identifies sleep and circadian disturbances as a predictor of substance use in adolescence. We also describe possible mechanisms for the relationship between sleep/circadian disturbances and substance use, as well as modifying factors, through recent longitudinal studies.Recent FindingsAccumulating longitudinal studies support an ar...
Source: Current Addiction Reports - August 31, 2019 Category: Addiction Source Type: research