Controversies and Clinical Recommendations for the Treatment of Compulsive Sexual Behavior Disorder
AbstractPurpose of ReviewCompulsive sexual behavior disorder is defined as a persistent pattern of failure to control intense, repetitive sexual impulses or urges resulting in repetitive sexual behaviors that cause marked distress or impairment in personal, family, social, educational, occupational, or other important areas of functioning. Although compulsive sexual behavior has been identified in the literature for a considerable period of time, it remains a controversial and understudied condition. For the past several decades, compulsive sexual behavior has been labeled and classified in numerous ways.Recent FindingsRes...
Source: Current Addiction Reports - September 13, 2021 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

“A Window of Opportunity”: Parenting and Addiction in the Context of Pregnancy
This article aims to synthesize the evidence on the specific prenatal risk factors affecting the development of early parenting of substance-using mothers, as well as interventions focusing on those factors.Recent FindingsBoth neurobiological and psychosocial risk factors affect the prenatal development of parenting in the context of maternal substance use. Maternal –fetal attachment, mentalization, self-regulation, and psychosocial risks are important in treatment and highly intertwined with abstinence. Although parenting interventions seem to be highly beneficial, most studies have not differentiated between pre- a...
Source: Current Addiction Reports - September 12, 2021 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

Problematic Pornography Use: Legal and Health Policy Considerations
AbstractPurpose of ReviewReports of sexual violence, especially towards women and children, are rapidly increasing. At the same time, rates of problematic pornography use (PPU) are accelerating across the world too. The purpose of this review is to consider the recent research on PPU and its contribution to sexual violence. The article offers guidance to governments on possible health policy interventions and legal actions to prevent the development of PPU and to reduce the incidence of sexual violence in society.Recent FindingsWorking from the consumer ’s point of view, we identify PPU and ask how much pornography i...
Source: Current Addiction Reports - September 9, 2021 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

A Translation from Goal-Directed to Habitual Control: the Striatum in Drug Addiction
AbstractPurpose of ReviewDrug addiction starts from recreational drug use, gradually becomes habitual or even compulsive. However, after exposure to addictive drugs, only 20% of individuals finally fall into a vicious cycle of addiction. As the number of addicts worldwide increases year by year, the need for understanding the neural basis underlying addiction is in high demand.Recent FindingsThe intrastriatal functional shifts have been widely recognized to contribute to addiction development, where the nucleus accumbens permits the devolution of its control over behaviour to the dorsal striatum. In addition, compulsive dr...
Source: Current Addiction Reports - September 1, 2021 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

Substance Use and Addiction Affect More Than the Brain: the Promise of Neurocardiac Interventions
AbstractPurpose of ReviewAddiction and excessive substance use contribute to poor mental and physical health. Much research focuses tightly on neural underpinnings and centrally acting interventions. To broaden this perspective, this review focuses on bidirectional pathways between the brain and cardiovascular system that are well-documented and provide innovative, malleable targets to bolster recovery and alter substance use behaviors.Recent FindingsCardiovascular signals are integrated via afferent pathways in networks of distributed brain regions that contribute to cognition, as well as emotion and behavior regulation, ...
Source: Current Addiction Reports - August 9, 2021 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

Safer Tripping: Serotonergic Psychedelics and Drug Checking. Submission and Detection Rates, Potential Harms, and Challenges for Drug Analysis
AbstractPurpose of ReviewWith the continuous emergence of new psychoactive substances, drug checking (DC) services are challenged by an increasingly complex drug market. Considering the resumed scientific and public interest in serotonergic psychedelics (SPs) like LSD, psilocybin, and 2C-B, we present the results of a literature search investigating the presence and proportion of SPs in DC samples.Recent FindingsIn 15 identified reports, submission and detection rates of SPs were comparably low, but increasing. Samples contained considerable amounts of adulterations or analogues, mostly novel SPs with unknown toxicological...
Source: Current Addiction Reports - July 27, 2021 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

Neonatal Abstinence Syndrome: Management Advances and Therapeutic Approaches
AbstractPurpose of ReviewIn this review, we discuss the epidemiology, pathophysiology, and clinical presentation of opioid-exposed infants with particular focus on birth hospitalization and outpatient management.Recent FindingsThe opioid crisis has spread rapidly throughout the USA and has led to increasing numbers of infants born with neonatal abstinence syndrome (NAS). Inpatient management for NAS should optimize non-pharmacologic care with use of pharmacologic agents if needed. Clinical pathways that aim to optimize non-pharmacologic interventions and utilize functional assessments over numerical scoring tools have show...
Source: Current Addiction Reports - July 23, 2021 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

Electronic Nicotine Delivery Systems (ENDS) Use and Pregnancy II: Perinatal Outcomes Following ENDS Use During Pregnancy
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThis review examines the risk of adverse perinatal outcomes following electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS) use during pregnancy, and considers whether there are sufficient data to support ENDS as a harm reduction approach during pregnancy.Recent FindingsSeven papers assessed perinatal outcomes following ENDS use during pregnancy. There was evidence that ENDS use was associated with increased risk for some adverse perinatal outcomes (e.g., small for gestational age). However, the repeated use of data sets, insufficient data (e.g., timing of ENDS use, type of ENDS products used), and limited s...
Source: Current Addiction Reports - July 21, 2021 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

Mothering from the Inside Out: Addressing the Intersection of Addiction, Adversity, and Attachment with Evidence-Based Parenting Intervention
AbstractPurpose of ReviewMothers with substance use disorders are often referred for parenting support, though commonly available programs may miss the mark for families impacted by addiction. This may be related to a lack of attention to children ’s emotional needs, mothers’ histories of adversity, and the neurobiological differences seen in mothers with addictions. We review the implications of addiction, adversity, and attachment for parenting interventions. We then describe Mothering from the Inside Out (MIO), an evidence-based parent ing intervention designed specifically for mothers with addictions.Recent...
Source: Current Addiction Reports - July 15, 2021 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

Electronic Nicotine Delivery Systems (ENDS) Use and Pregnancy I: ENDS Use Behavior During Pregnancy
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThis review examines Electronic Nicotine Delivery Systems (ENDS) use behavior during pregnancy, including the prevalence of and transitions in use during pregnancy.Recent FindingsTwenty-two papers addressed the prevalence of and/or transitions in ENDS use during pregnancy. Findings show a complex landscape of ENDS use. A minority (0.4 –7.0%) of pregnant persons use ENDS; most commonly this occurs in the form of dual use (ENDS and combustible cigarettes (CC); 75%). Many pregnant persons report using ENDS because they perceive them to be a lower-risk alternative and/or potential cessation aide ...
Source: Current Addiction Reports - July 13, 2021 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

Parenting and Addictions: Current Insights From Human Neuroscience
AbstractPurpose of ReviewA growing body of human research has documented associations between the maternal brain and maternal substance use and addictions. This neuroscience-informed approach affords the opportunity to unpack potential neurobiological mechanisms that may underscore challenges in maternal caregiving behavior among mothers with addictions and provide new directions for parenting interventions.Recent FindingsConsistent with theoretical models of parenting and addictions, five studies evidence both hypo- and hyper-reactivity to infant affective cues across neuroimaging methods and tasks that incorporate both i...
Source: Current Addiction Reports - July 9, 2021 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

Virtual Reality-Based Treatment Approaches in the Field of Substance Use Disorders
AbstractPurposeSubstance use disorders (SUD) are burdening chronic conditions characterized by high relapse rates despite severe negative consequences. Substance-related cues that elicit craving by means of automatic physiological and behavioural responses have long been suggested to predict relapse. One major mechanism contributing to relapse behaviour are cue-induced behavioural approach tendencies towards the addictive agent. Recently, there has been an emerging interest in virtual reality (VR)-based approaches to assess and modify craving and its related responses. This review aims at elucidating (1) VR techniques appl...
Source: Current Addiction Reports - July 9, 2021 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

Diagnostic and Classification Considerations Related to Compulsive Sexual Behavior Disorder and Problematic Pornography Use
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThere are ongoing debates about specific features of compulsive sexual behavior disorder (CSBD) relating to classification and diagnoses. We aim to address current discussions relating to potential subtypes of CSBD, the aspect of compulsivity in CSBD, and the aspect of moral incongruence and CSBD.Recent FindingsCSBD includes multiple specific sexual behaviors that might be related to specific psychological processes. Problematic pornography use may be considered a subtype of CSBD, which may have multiple parallels with addictive behaviors. The feature of compulsivity in CSBD may be different from c...
Source: Current Addiction Reports - July 9, 2021 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

Characteristics of Gamers who Purchase Loot Box: a Systematic Literature Review
AbstractPurpose of ReviewResearch has indicated that loot boxes are risky gaming components that could exacerbate Internet gaming disorder due to a link between loot box purchasing and gambling. We conducted a systematic review to identify the characteristics of people who purchase loot boxes with real money, focusing on the relationships (a) between loot boxes and gaming, (b) between loot boxes and gambling, and (c) between loot boxes and other variables.Recent FindingsOf the 201 studies examined for eligibility, we reviewed 20 studies that met the predefined criteria, which were extracted by searching electronic database...
Source: Current Addiction Reports - July 8, 2021 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

The Potential of Digital Phenotyping and Mobile Sensing for Psycho-Diagnostics of Internet Use Disorders
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThe present paper provides an accessible overview on the potential ofdigital phenotyping andmobile sensing not only shedding light on the nature of Internet Use Disorders (IUD), but also to provide new ideas on how to improve psycho-diagnostics of mental processes linked to IUD.Recent FindingsIn detail, the psycho-diagnostic areas of prevention, treatment, and aftercare in the realm of IUDs are focused upon in this work. Before each of these areas is presented in more specificity, the termsdigital phenotyping andmobile sensing are introduced against the background of an interdisciplinary research e...
Source: Current Addiction Reports - July 8, 2021 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

Lost in Translation: the Gap Between Neurobiological Mechanisms and Psychosocial Treatment Research for Substance Use Disorders
AbstractPurpose of ReviewTo provide an overview of the state of translational substance use disorder (SUD) research by evaluating the extent to which psychosocial interventions target neurobiological processes known to contribute to the maintenance of SUD.Recent FindingsA limited number of studies have investigated neurobiological mechanisms of action for commonly utilized SUD treatment approaches. Restrictive samples, post-treatment-only designs, and failure to include substance use outcomes significantly limit the interpretation of these findings.SummaryMuch work is needed to bridge the translational gap between neurosci...
Source: Current Addiction Reports - July 7, 2021 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

Religion, Morality, Ethics, and Problematic Pornography Use
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThe present review focuses on relationships between sexuality and religion, moral values, and ethics.Recent FindingsReligious and ethical beliefs and moral values may influence sexuality including perception of pornography and its frequency of use, and engagement in sexual behaviors including pornography viewing may impact these domains.SummaryWithin this context, implications for sexuality and related psychiatric conditions and models (e.g., relating to compulsive sexual behavior disorder and moral incongruence) are considered. (Source: Current Addiction Reports)
Source: Current Addiction Reports - July 6, 2021 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

Pornography Use and Holistic Sexual Functioning: a Systematic Review of Recent Research
AbstractPurpose of ReviewPornography use is a common recreational activity in most developed nations with unrestricted internet access. As public awareness of pornography ’s popularity has grown, so have concerns about potentially deleterious effects of pornography. One domain of particular concern has been the impact of pornography use and online sexual behaviors on sexual wellbeing. Over recent years, a number of studies have examined how pornography use relates to sexual wellbeing. The present work seeks to review such literature, with a particular focus on the effects of pornography on sexual functioning and sexu...
Source: Current Addiction Reports - July 1, 2021 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

Our Voices Matter: Using Lived Experience to Promote Equity in Problem Gambling Prevention
This article demonstrates an innovative approach to connect the field of problem gambling prevention to the community experience, using a public health and social justice lens. Others in the field should acknowledge the disconnect between problem gambling and the lived experience of those disproportionately impacted by creating opportunities for community voice to be at the center of programming. (Source: Current Addiction Reports)
Source: Current Addiction Reports - May 28, 2021 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

Racial Associations Between Gambling and Suicidal Behaviors Among Black and White Adolescents and Young Adults
AbstractPurpose of ReviewSuicide is the second leading cause of death among Black youth ages 10 –19 years. Between 1991 and 2017, rates of suicide among Black youth have been increasing faster than rates among any other race/ethnic group. There are many factors that may explain this increase, with gambling being suggested as one such potential risk factor. This review examines the associatio n between gambling and suicide behaviors, and how these associations may vary between Black and White youth and young adults. The current review examines these associations using data from the Missouri Family Study (MOFAM).Recent...
Source: Current Addiction Reports - May 27, 2021 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

New Approaches in Drug Dependence: Opioids
This article aims to provide an overview of standard and adjunctive treatment options in opioid dependence in consideration of therapy-refractory courses. The relevance of oral opioid substitution treatment (OST) and measures of harm reduction as well as heroin-assisted therapies are discussed alongside non-pharmacological approaches.Recent FindingsCurrently, recommendation can be given for OST with methadone, buprenorphine, slow-release oral morphine (SROM), and levomethadone. Heroin-assisted treatment using diamorphine shall be considered as a cost-effective alternative for individuals not responding to the afore-mention...
Source: Current Addiction Reports - May 26, 2021 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

Mindfulness in Treatment Approaches for Addiction — Underlying Mechanisms and Future Directions
AbstractPurpose of ReviewWhile the treatment of addictive disorders proves to be challenging, new treatment approaches that evolved around the concepts of mindfulness and acceptance have been utilized and investigated in recent years. Our goal is to summarize the efficacy and possible underlying mechanisms of mindfulness-based interventions (MBI) in addictive disorders.Recent FindingsVarious meta-analyses have suggested that MBIs show clinical efficacy in the treatment of addictive disorders. Considering the factors that impact addictive disorders, MBIs have been indicated to augment responsiveness to natural rewards in co...
Source: Current Addiction Reports - May 15, 2021 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

The Use of Social Media in Research on Gambling: a Systematic Review
AbstractPurpose of ReviewSocial media enables a range of possibilities in the way gamblers and gambling operators interact and content communicate with gambling. The purpose of this systematic review was to synthesise the extant literature to identify the ways in which social media has been investigated in the context of gambling.Recent FindingsA systematic review of the literature identified 41 papers that collected primary data pertinent to gambling and social media from multiple disciplines. These papers broadly fell into three themes: communication, community and calculation (of sentiment). Papers on communication focu...
Source: Current Addiction Reports - May 11, 2021 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

How Do State Gambling Monopolies Affect Levels of Gambling Harm?
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThis systematic literature review evaluates the potential of gambling monopolies to affect gambling harms. It compares the occurrence of gambling harms in jurisdictions with gambling monopolies to jurisdictions with license-based regimes.Recent FindingsThe review identified 21 publications concerning three gambling-related harm indicators: problem gambling prevalence, total consumption, and the appearance of conflicts of interest. Due to the dearth of literature, concept papers and older publications were also included.SummaryResults show that there is a paucity of empirical research on the effecti...
Source: Current Addiction Reports - May 8, 2021 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

Understanding the Slot Machine Zone
This article summarizes two prominent theoretical accounts of this state and articulates a new account that seeks to integrate them.Recent FindingsZone experiences are correlated with gambling problems and may be amplified by specific features of EGMs and other modern gambling formats. Links with excitement, relaxation, and depression have been found, implicating both positive and negative reinforcement processes. Emerging evidence suggests gamblers in the zone are more focused on EGM use ( ‘zoned in’). Models rooted in either Flow Theory or dissociation do not fully account for these effects.SummaryIntegrating...
Source: Current Addiction Reports - May 1, 2021 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

Contribution of Game Genre and Structural Game Characteristics to the Risk of Problem Gaming and Gaming Disorder: a Systematic Review
AbstractPurpose of ReviewWith its inclusion in the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems, 11th Revision, gaming disorder (GD) has been officially recognized as a behavioral addiction. Etiological models of GD refer to the interaction of personal, environmental, and game-related risk factors. However, the role of video game characteristics in the development of problem gaming and GD is not well understood. This systematic review summarizes the literature that examines the association between video game genres and structural characteristics and GD symptoms.Recent FindingsRecent stud...
Source: Current Addiction Reports - April 23, 2021 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

New and Emerging Opioid Overdose Risk Factors
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThe purpose of this review is to provide a review of the current literature surrounding opioid overdose risk factors, focusing on relatively new factors in the opioid crisis.Recent FindingsBoth a market supply driving force and a subpopulation of people who use opioids actively seeking out fentanyl are contributing to its recent proliferation in the opioid market. Harm reduction techniques such as fentanyl testing strips, naloxone education and distribution, drug sampling behaviors, and supervised injection facilities are all seeing expanded use with increasing amounts of research being published r...
Source: Current Addiction Reports - April 22, 2021 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

The Role of Mu-Opioids for Reward and Threat Processing in Humans: Bridging the Gap from Preclinical to Clinical Opioid Drug Studies
AbstractPurpose of ReviewOpioid receptors are widely expressed in the human brain. A number of features commonly associated with drug use disorder, such as difficulties in emotional learning, emotion regulation and anhedonia, have been linked to endogenous opioid signalling. Whereas chronic substance use and misuse are thought to alter the function of the mu-opioid system, the specific mechanisms are not well understood. We argue that understanding exogenous and endogenous opioid effects in the healthy human brain is an essential foundation for bridging preclinical and clinical findings related to opioid misuse. Here, we w...
Source: Current Addiction Reports - April 15, 2021 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

Sources of Bias in Research on Gambling Among Older Adults: Considerations for a Growing Field
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThe purpose of this review was to identify possible sources of bias in the study of gambling among older adults. These sources of bias included social desirability bias including issues of increased stigmatization of gambling behaviors in older adults, recall bias including deficits in the recall of negative experiences, and selection bias including increased reliance on survey methods that are more likely to exclude older adults.Recent FindingsDue to the paucity of research directly examining sources of bias in the study of older adult gambling, this review took recent developments in the field of...
Source: Current Addiction Reports - April 14, 2021 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

Effects of Acute Drug Administration on Emotion: a Review of Pharmacological MRI Studies
AbstractPurpose of ReviewMany drug users claim to use drugs to cope with negative emotions, which may, in turn, result in persistent emotional blunting or anhedonia even when they are not using drugs. The purpose of this review is to describe the ways acute administration of psychoactive drugs impacts brain regions during emotion-related tasks, as a first step in understanding how drugs influence emotion processing in the brain.Recent FindingsDrugs have varying effects on neural responses to emotional stimuli. In general, alcohol, analgesics, and psychedelics reduce neural reactivity to negative emotional stimuli in the am...
Source: Current Addiction Reports - March 14, 2021 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

Suicide Risk and Addiction: The Impact of Alcohol and Opioid Use Disorders
AbstractPurpose of ReviewSuicide is a major public health concern and a leading cause of death in the US. Alcohol and opioid use disorders (AUD/OUD) significantly increase risk for suicidal ideation, attempts, and death, and are the two most frequently implicated substances in suicide risk. We provide a brief overview of shared risk factors and pathways in the pathogenesis of AUD/OUD and suicidal thoughts and behaviors. We also review clinical recommendations on inpatient care, pharmacotherapy, and psychotherapeutic interventions for people with AUD/OUD and co-occurring suicidal ideation and behavior.Recent FindingsAmong p...
Source: Current Addiction Reports - March 14, 2021 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

Image-Based Sexual Abuse: Social and Legal Implications
This article covers the current state of social scientific knowledge on this key variant of digitized sexual violence and suggests new direc tions in empirical work.Recent FindingsA rapidly growing body of research shows that image-based sexual abuse is committed mainly by men against women and it often co-occurs with offline forms of male-to-female assaults like rape, stalking, and beatings. Additionally, to further understand the scope of factors that contribute to the problems of online image-based sexual abuse online, researchers should examine the relationship between image-based sexual abuse and pornography consumpti...
Source: Current Addiction Reports - March 6, 2021 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

Cardiorespiratory and Immunologic Effects of Electronic Cigarettes
AbstractPurpose of ReviewAlthough e-cigarettes have become popular, especially among youth, the health effects associated with e-cigarette use remain unclear. This review discusses current evidence relating to the cardiovascular, pulmonary, and immunological effects of e-cigarettes.Recent FindingsThe use of e-cigarettes by healthy adults has been shown to increase blood pressure, heart rate, and arterial stiffness, as well as resistance to air flow in lungs. Inhalation of e-cigarette aerosol has been shown to elicit immune responses and increase the production of immunomodulatory cytokines in young tobacco-na ïve indi...
Source: Current Addiction Reports - March 5, 2021 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

A Gender Perspective of Addictive Disorders
AbstractPurpose of ReviewSubstance use disorders (SUD) affect differentially women and men. Although the prevalence has been reported higher in men, those women with addictive disorders present a more vulnerable profile and are less likely to enter treatment than men. The aim of this paper is to present an overview of how sex and gender may influence epidemiology, clinical manifestations, social impact, and the neurobiological basis of these differences of women with SUD, based on human research.Recent FindingsThe differences in prevalence rates between genders are getting narrower; also, women tend to increase the amount ...
Source: Current Addiction Reports - February 16, 2021 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

Exercise Addiction and Perfectionism: A Systematic Review of the Literature
ConclusionPerfectionism is related to exercise addiction, but the strength of the relationship varies in different circumstances, which should be examined in future research. (Source: Current Addiction Reports)
Source: Current Addiction Reports - February 9, 2021 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

Financially Focused Self-concept in Disordered Gambling
AbstractPurpose of ReviewPeople can place preponderant importance on a single life domain (e.g., relationships, appearance, financial success). The result is that success (or failure) in that domain has significant influence on the self-concept and thus judgments of self-worth. A focused self-concept has also been shown to be a core feature of various psychiatric disorders, including depression, body image disorders, and obsessive-compulsive and related disorders. Herein, we summarize mounting evidence indicating that a self-concept focused on financial success is important for understanding the etiology and maintenance of...
Source: Current Addiction Reports - February 4, 2021 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

Alcohol Use and Gender-Based Violence
AbstractPurpose of reviewThe evidence for association of alcohol and gender-based violence (GBV) is quite strong; however, the exact pathways of this association need further study. Areas that need more research include the role of alcohol in any type of intimate partner violence and the risks for violence when alcohol is combined with other psychoactive substances. This will help in developing targeted interventions for different groups. This paper aims at reviewing existing literature on alcohol-related GBV and intimate partner violence (IPV) and provide a reference for future research.Recent FindingsAlcohol plays an imp...
Source: Current Addiction Reports - January 28, 2021 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

Emotional Intelligence: Relevance and Implications for Addiction
AbstractPurpose of ReviewEmotional intelligence (EI) is widely regarded as an important predictor of a diverse set of health and life success outcomes. There is growing evidence to demonstrate the role that EI plays in the development of both substance use and behavioral addictions. The aim of this article is to provide an overview of the still limited, but growing research literature on the relevance of EI and related constructs to addictions.Recent FindingsThere is substantial empirical evidence to suggest that EI is an important risk factor for the development of addictions. This points to a need for greater research at...
Source: Current Addiction Reports - January 21, 2021 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

Gender Differences in Addiction
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThis review is aimed at reviewing gender differences in addictive disorders. A brief overview of the topic is given and then the review is broken down into substances. As a full overview of each substance would not be possible, this review is aimed at looking at the most commonly seen substances as well as behavioral addictions that have robust literature.Recent FindingsGender differences in substance use disorders and behavioral addictions appear to be multifactorial, with intrinsic hormonal factors of the reward system and external factors such as the expectations and gender roles or norms of a g...
Source: Current Addiction Reports - January 18, 2021 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

The Impact of Chronic Pain on Opioid Use Disorder Treatment Outcomes
AbstractPurpose of ReviewChronic pain among individuals diagnosed with opioid use disorder (OUD) receiving opioid agonist treatment (OAT) is common. We review extant literature on the impact of chronic pain on OAT outcomes (i.e., illicit opioid use and OAT retention).Recent FindingsWe found 13 manuscripts using 9 datasets. The relationship between chronic pain and OAT outcomes is mixed. Most studies reported no relationship between chronic pain and illicit opioid use, but definitions of chronic pain were inconsistent. There was some evidence that chronic pain is associated with higher likelihood of drug use, and associatio...
Source: Current Addiction Reports - January 13, 2021 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

Improving Translational Research Outcomes for Opioid Use Disorder Treatments
AbstractPurpose of ReviewPharmacotherapies are the most effective means of reducing the harms associated with opioid use disorder (OUD). Translational research seeking to develop novel medications to treat OUD has been challenging due to the complex etiology of addiction. Preclinical outcome measures are often behavioral, and it is difficult, if not impossible, to fully mirror the various emotional and cognitive processes that motivate opioid use in humans. The goal of the current narrative review was to summarize the translational progression of three potential medications for OUD, which had varying levels of success.Rece...
Source: Current Addiction Reports - January 12, 2021 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

Prevalence and Correlates of Disinhibited Eating in Youth from Marginalized Racial/Ethnic Groups
AbstractPurpose of ReviewEvidence suggests that youth from marginalized racial/ethnic groups (i.e., Latino, Black, Asian American, Native American youth) engage in disinhibited eating at greater rates than their non-Latino White peers. This review aims to discuss the prevalence of disinhibited eating among youth of color, identify culturally-specific correlates that may represent promising targets for prevention or treatment, and provide recommendations for future research.Recent FindingsWe restricted our literature review to studies published between 2010 and 2020 using samples of children and adolescents of color living ...
Source: Current Addiction Reports - January 8, 2021 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

Anxiety and Opioid Use Disorder: Potential Targets for Treatment and Prevention
AbstractPurpose of ReviewAnxiety is among the most common symptoms and disorders in people with opioid use disorder. Although anxiety disorders have been understudied in opioid use disorder, research supports an important role of anxious responding to distress (e.g., distress intolerance) in problem opioid use. In this review, we provide an overview of the literature on the role of anxious responding to distress in opioid misuse.Recent FindingsAnxious responding to distress is elevated in people with problem opioid use, is associated with severity of misuse, and appears to amplify risk via an increase in motivation for see...
Source: Current Addiction Reports - January 6, 2021 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

Prenatal Alcohol Exposure and Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal Axis Activity of the Offspring in Humans: a Systematic Review
AbstractPurpose of ReviewWe aimed to conduct a systematic review of studies exploring the relationship between prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis functioning in the offspring in humans.Recent FindingsAnimal studies have demonstrated that PAE has long-term consequences in HPA axis activity in the offspring. Fewer studies have been conducted in humans.SummaryOur systematic review identified 9 studies including infants/toddlers (n = 6) and children/adolescents (n = 3). Cortisol responses to stress were only studied in infants/toddlers (3 studies: painful s...
Source: Current Addiction Reports - January 5, 2021 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

Ambulatory Assessment Methods to Examine Momentary State-Based Predictors of Opioid Use Behaviors
AbstractPurpose of ReviewAddiction scientists have begun using ambulatory assessment methods —including ecological momentary assessment (EMA), experience sampling, and daily diaries—to collect real-time or near-real-time reports of participants’ internal states in their natural environments. The goal of this short review is to synthesize EMA findings from our research group, which has studied several hundred outpatients during treatment for opioid-use disorder (OUD). (We cite pertinent findings from other groups, but have not tried to be comprehensive.) One of our main goals in using EMA is to examine mom...
Source: Current Addiction Reports - January 2, 2021 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

Advertising Unhealthy Food to Children: on the Importance of Regulations, Parenting Styles, and Media Literacy
AbstractPurpose of ReviewChildhood obesity is a global health concern. And a number of studies have indicated that food promotions affect children ’s food attitudes, preferences, and food choices for foods high in fat and sugar, which potentially impacts children’s body weight development. This review showcases how children are affected by food promotions, why companies even target children with their promotional efforts, and what makes ch ildren so susceptible to promotion of unhealthy food. In addition, this review discusses how regulations, parental styles, and individual media literacy skills can help to co...
Source: Current Addiction Reports - November 21, 2020 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

Hooked on Junk: Emerging Evidence on How Food Marketing Affects Adolescents ’ Diets and Long-Term Health
AbstractPurpose of ReviewExamine current research on how adolescents are influenced by junk food marketing; inform proposed policies to expand food marketing restrictions to protect children up to age 17.Recent FindingsPrevious food marketing effects research focused primarily on TV advertising to younger children. However, recent research with adolescents demonstrates the following: (a) unique effects of food marketing on adolescents; (b) extensive exposure to social media and other digital marketing “disguised” as entertainment and messages from peers; (c) adolescents’ still-developing and hypersensitiv...
Source: Current Addiction Reports - November 13, 2020 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

A Breath of Knowledge: Overview of Current Adolescent E-cigarette Prevention and Cessation Programs
ConclusionsAlthough the programs reviewed largely incorporated theory and included key components known to be effective, there are some gaps in the programs ’ overall ability to prevent and stop adolescents from using e-cigarettes, such as lack of dedicated e-cigarette materials. More evidence-based tools, resources, and evaluations are needed to best inform adolescent e-cigarette cessation. Addressing the gaps that existing prevention and cessation p rograms present requires intervening at multiple systematic levels, conducting more rigorous program evaluations, and bolstering the availability of cessation programs....
Source: Current Addiction Reports - November 12, 2020 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

Risks Versus Consequences of Adolescent and Young Adult Substance Use: a Focus on Executive Control
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThis review examines the role of executive control processes in the liability for substance misuse and whether substance use, once initiated, leads to subsequent decrements as proposed by neurotoxicity models of substance use disorder (SUD).Recent FindingsAs indicated by a number of recent meta-analyses, executive control processes, which include working memory, cognitive flexibility, and numerous aspects of attentional, behavioral, and emotional control, are impaired in the context of active SUD. Longitudinal studies of behaviorally disinhibited children, individuals with familial risks for SUD, a...
Source: Current Addiction Reports - November 12, 2020 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

Review of Popularity and Quality Standards of Opioid-Related Smartphone Apps
AbstractPurpose of ReviewOpioid misuse, addiction, and related harm are a global crisis that affects public health and social and economic welfare. Many of the strategies being used to combat the opioid crisis could benefit from improved access and dissemination, such as that afforded by smartphone apps. The goal of this study was to characterize the purpose, audience, quality, and popularity of opioid-related smartphone apps. Using web scraping, available information from 619 opioid-related apps (e.g., popularity metrics) was downloaded from Google Play, and 59 apps met criteria for review. The apps were additionally code...
Source: Current Addiction Reports - November 10, 2020 Category: Addiction Source Type: research