Effects of stress exposure in captivity on physiology and infection in avian hosts: no evidence of increased Borrelia burgdorferi s.l. infectivity to vector ticks

Microb Ecol. 2021 Mar 23. doi: 10.1007/s00248-021-01738-3. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTExposure to environmental stressors, an increasingly recurring event in natural communities due to anthropogenic-induced environmental change, profoundly impacts disease emergence and spread. One mechanism through which this occurs is through stress-induced immunosuppression increasing disease susceptibility, prevalence, intensity and reactivation in hosts. We experimentally evaluated how exposure to stressors affected both the physiology of avian hosts and the prevalence of the zoonotic bacteria Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (s.l.), in two model species-the blackbird Turdus merula and the robin Erithacus rubecula captured in the wild, using xenodiagnoses and analysis of skin biopsies and blood. Although exposure to stressors in captivity induced physiological stress in birds (increased the number of circulating heterophils), there was no evidence of increased infectivity to xenodiagnostic ticks. However, Borrelia detection in the blood for both experimental groups of blackbirds was higher by the end of the captivity period. The infectivity and efficiency of transmission were higher for blackbirds than robins. When comparing different methodologies to determine infection status, xenodiagnosis was a more sensitive method than skin biopsies and blood samples, which could be attributed to mild levels of infection in these avian hosts and/or dynamics and timing of Borrelia infection relapse...
Source: Microbial Ecology - Category: Microbiology Authors: Source Type: research

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At least eight types of bird flu, all of which can kill humans, are circulating around the world ’s factory farms – and they could be worse than Covid-19One day last December, 101,000 chickens at a gigantic farm near the city of Astrakhan in southern Russiastarted to collapse and die. Tests by the state research centre showed that a relatively new strain of lethal avian flu known as H5N8 was circulating, and within days 900,000 birds at the Vladimirskaya plant werehurriedly slaughtered to prevent an epidemic.Avian flu is the world ’s other ongoing pandemic and H5N8 is just one strain that has torn through...
Source: Guardian Unlimited Science - Category: Science Authors: Tags: Global health Food Bird flu Coronavirus Farming Environment Infectious diseases Medical research Microbiology Science Society World news Wildlife & drink industry Business China Asia Pacific Global development Source Type: news
Contributors : Steve Horvath ; Vera Gorbunova ; Andrei SeluanovSeries Type : Methylation profiling by arrayOrganism : Heterocephalus glaber ; Homo sapiens ; Mus musculus ; Rattus norvegicusAn Infinium microarray platform (GPL28271, HorvathMammalMethylChip40) was used to generate DNA methylation data from many tissues of the naked mole ratWe generated DNA methylation data from n=289 tissues. All tissues except for skin biopsies and blood were obtained from frozen tissue collection that were euthanized for other studies. Skin biopsies (2 mm punch) were collected from the backs of the animals under local anesthesia. Blood sam...
Source: GEO: Gene Expression Omnibus - Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Tags: Methylation profiling by array Heterocephalus glaber Homo sapiens Mus musculus Rattus norvegicus Source Type: research
In this study, we therefore analysed the influence of lithium treatment on lifespan and parameters of health during ageing in mice. To determine the concentration of lithium suitable to be administered in a longitudinal ageing study, we first tested the effects of lithium chloride (LiCl) in doses from 0.01 to 2.79 g LiCl per kg chow. C57Bl/6J mice fed with 1.05-2.79 g/kg LiCL in the diet showed lithium plasma levels between 0.4 and 0.8 mM/l. While plasma levels to 0.4 and 0.8 mM/l are well tolerated by human patients, at doses above 1.44 g LiCl/kg, we observed an obvious dose-dependent polydipsia combined with a dis...
Source: Fight Aging! - Category: Research Authors: Tags: Newsletters Source Type: blogs
H, Heylen D Abstract Wild birds are frequently exposed to the zoonotic tick-borne bacteria Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (s.l.), and some bird species act as reservoirs for some Borrelia genospecies. Studying the tropism of Borrelia in the host, how it is sequestered in different organs, and whether it is maintained in circulation and/or in the host's skin is important to understand pathogenicity, infectivity to vector ticks and reservoir competency.We evaluated tissue dissemination of Borrelia in blackbirds (Turdus merula) and great tits (Parus major), naturally and experimentally infected with Borrelia genospe...
Source: Microbial Ecology - Category: Microbiology Authors: Tags: Microb Ecol Source Type: research
In this study, bird species migrating through Bulgaria were investigated as carriers of zoonotic pathogens. In total, 706 birds belonging to 46 species were checked for the presence of various bacterial pathogens (Campylobacter, Yersin ia, Salmonella, Listeria, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Francisella tularensis, Coxiella burnetii, Borrelia burgdorferi, and Brucella spp.). From 673 birds we investigated fecal samples, from the remaining 33, blood samples. We detected Campylobacter 16S rDNA gene in 1.3% of birds, but no ne were of pathogenic Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli species. Escherichia coli 1...
Source: Canadian Journal of Microbiology - Category: Microbiology Authors: Source Type: research
CONCLUSIONS: The obtained results show that the pheasants had developed antibodies to the investigated tick-borne agents. For this reason, they seem to be involved in the epidemiology of the studied tick-borne bacteria. PMID: 28378988 [PubMed - in process]
Source: Annals of Agricultural and Environmental Medicine : AAEM - Category: Environmental Health Authors: Tags: Ann Agric Environ Med Source Type: research
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Source: Healthy Living - The Huffington Post - Category: Consumer Health News Source Type: news
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