Responses of Rhizospheric Microbial Communities of Native and Alien Plant Species to Cuscuta Parasitism.
Abstract Parasitic plants have major impacts on host fitness. In the case of species of the holoparasitic Cuscuta genus, these impacts were shown to be particularly strong in some invasive alien plants, which has raised interest in the underlying mechanism. We hypothesized that Cuscuta parasitization may exert strong influence in shaping the diversity patterns in the host rhizosphere microbiome and that this may vary between native (coevolved) and alien (non-coevolved) plants. Here, we report on a field study exploring the effect of parasitization by Cuscuta australis on the rhizosphere microbiota (16S and ITS rDN...
Source: Microbial Ecology - October 9, 2019 Category: Microbiology Authors: Brunel C, Beifen Y, Pouteau R, Li J, van Kleunen M Tags: Microb Ecol Source Type: research

Diversity, Tissue Localization, and Infection Pattern of Bacterial Symbionts of the White-Backed Planthopper, Sogatella furcifera (Hemiptera: Delphacidae).
This study was designed to examine the bacterial symbionts of the WBPH using 16S rDNA high-throughput sequencing. A total of 63 and 177 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) were identified in females and males of three WBPH populations, respectively. These OTUs included bacteria of 75 genera from 11 phyla, where Wolbachia, Cardinium, and Asaia were the dominant genera, accounting for over 97.99% of all the symbiotic bacteria. Fluorescence in situ hybridization detected Wolbachia, Cardinium, and Asaia in the salivary glands, guts, testes, and eggs of the WBPH, indicating the potential for both horizontal and vertical transmis...
Source: Microbial Ecology - October 8, 2019 Category: Microbiology Authors: Li F, Li P, Hua H, Hou M, Wang F Tags: Microb Ecol Source Type: research

Gut Microbiota of Migrating Wild Rabbit Fish (Siganus guttatus) Larvae Have Low Spatial and Temporal Variability.
Abstract We investigated the gut microbiota of rabbit fish larvae at three locations in Vietnam (ThuanAn-northern, QuangNam-intermediate, BinhDinh-southern sampling site) over a three-year period. In the wild, the first food for rabbit fish larvae remains unknown, while the juveniles and adults are herbivores, forming schools near the coasts, lagoons, and river mouths, and feeding mainly on filamentous algae. This is the first study on the gut microbiota of the wild fish larvae and with a large number of individuals analyzed spatially and temporally. The Clostridiales order was the most predominant in the gut, and...
Source: Microbial Ecology - October 7, 2019 Category: Microbiology Authors: Le D, Nguyen P, Nguyen D, Dierckens K, Boon N, Lacoere T, Kerckhof FM, De Vrieze J, Vadstein O, Bossier P Tags: Microb Ecol Source Type: research

Niche and Neutrality Work Differently in Microbial Communities in Fluidic and Non-fluidic Ecosystems.
Abstract This data-intensive study investigated the delicate balance of niche and neutrality underlying microbial communities in freshwater ecosystems through comprehensive application of high-throughput sequencing, species abundance distribution (SAD), and the neutral community model (NCM), combined with species diversity and phylogenetic measures, which unite the traditional and microbial ecology. On the genus level, 45.10% and 41.18% of the water samples could be explained by the log-normal and Volkov model respectively, among which 31.37% could fit both models. Meanwhile, 55.56% of the sediment samples could b...
Source: Microbial Ecology - September 11, 2019 Category: Microbiology Authors: Wang L, Han M, Li X, Ginawi A, Ning K, Yan Y Tags: Microb Ecol Source Type: research

Feeding Honeybee Colonies with Honeybee-Specific Lactic Acid Bacteria (Hbs-LAB) Does Not Affect Colony-Level Hbs-LAB Composition or Paenibacillus larvae Spore Levels, Although American Foulbrood Affected Colonies Harbor a More Diverse Hbs-LAB Community.
Abstract The main current methods for controlling American Foulbrood (AFB) in honeybees, caused by the bacterial pathogen Paenibacillus larvae, are enforced incineration or prophylactic antibiotic treatment, neither of which is fully satisfactory. This has led to an increased interest in the natural relationships between the pathogenic and mutualistic microorganisms of the honeybee microbiome, in particular, the antagonistic effects of Honeybee-Specific Lactic Acid Bacteria (hbs-LAB) against P. larvae. We investigated whether supplemental administration of these bacteria affected P. larvae infection at colony leve...
Source: Microbial Ecology - September 10, 2019 Category: Microbiology Authors: Lamei S, Stephan JG, Nilson B, Sieuwerts S, Riesbeck K, de Miranda JR, Forsgren E Tags: Microb Ecol Source Type: research

Endogenous NO Is Involved in Dissimilar Responses to Rehydration and Pb(NO3)2 in Ramalina farinacea Thalli and Its Isolated Phycobionts.
In conclusion, Pb hormetic effect seems to depend on NO solely in TR9, while is doubtful for T. jamesii and the whole thalli. PMID: 31492977 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Microbial Ecology)
Source: Microbial Ecology - September 6, 2019 Category: Microbiology Authors: Expósito JR, Coello AJ, Barreno E, Casano LM, Catalá M Tags: Microb Ecol Source Type: research

Changes in the Potential Activity of Nitrite Reducers and the Microbial Community Structure After Sediment Dredging and Plant Removal in the Empuriabrava FWS-CW.
Bañeras L Abstract In constructed wetlands (CW), denitrification usually accounts for> 60% of nitrogen removal and is supposedly affected by wetland management practices, such as dredging (and plant removal). These practices cause an impact in sediment properties and microbial communities living therein. We have quantified the effects of a sediment dredging event on dissimilatory nitrite reduction by analysing the structure and activities of the microbial community before and after the event. Potential rates for nitrate reduction to ammonia and denitrification were in accordance with changes in t...
Source: Microbial Ecology - September 5, 2019 Category: Microbiology Authors: Hernández-Del Amo E, Ramió-Pujol S, Gich F, Trias R, Bañeras L Tags: Microb Ecol Source Type: research

Historical Drought Affects Microbial Population Dynamics and Activity During Soil Drying and Re-Wet.
Abstract A history of drought exposure promoted by variable precipitation regimes can select for drought-tolerant soil microbial taxa, but the mechanisms of survival and death of microbial populations through the selective stresses of soil drying and re-wet are not well understood. We subjected soils collected from a 15-year field drought experiment ("Altered" precipitation history with extended dry periods, versus the "Ambient" field control) to a laboratory drying/re-wetting experiment, to learn whether selective population survival, death, or maintenance of protein synthesis potent...
Source: Microbial Ecology - September 3, 2019 Category: Microbiology Authors: Veach AM, Zeglin LH Tags: Microb Ecol Source Type: research

Rapid Colonization of Uranium Mining-Impacted Waters, the Biodiversity of Successful Lineages of Phytoplankton Extremophiles.
In this study, we examined the phytoplankton diversity, community structure, and possible determining factors in separate uranium mining-impacted waters. Some of these human-induced extreme environments may be able to sustain indigenous facultative extremophile phytoplankton species, as well as alleged obligate extremophiles. Therefore, we investigated the adaptation capacity of three laboratory strains, two Chlamydomonas reinhardtii and a Dictyosphaerium chlorelloides, to uranium-polluted waters. The biodiversity among the sampled waters was very low, and despite presenting unique taxonomic records, ecological patterns ca...
Source: Microbial Ecology - August 29, 2019 Category: Microbiology Authors: Baselga-Cervera B, García-Balboa C, Díaz-Alejo HM, Costas E, López-Rodas V Tags: Microb Ecol Source Type: research

Early Colonization of Weathered Polyethylene by Distinct Bacteria in Marine Coastal Seawater.
Abstract Plastic debris in aquatic environments is rapidly colonized by a diverse community of microorganisms, often referred to as the "Plastisphere." Given that common plastics are derived from fossil fuels, one would expect that Plastispheres should be enriched with obligate hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria (OHCB). So far, though, different polymer types do not seem to exert a strong effect on determining the composition of the Plastisphere, and putative biodegrading bacteria are only found as rare taxa within these biofilms. Here, we show through 16S rRNA gene sequencing that the enrichment of a promin...
Source: Microbial Ecology - August 29, 2019 Category: Microbiology Authors: Erni-Cassola G, Wright RJ, Gibson MI, Christie-Oleza JA Tags: Microb Ecol Source Type: research

Fusarium Head Blight Modifies Fungal Endophytic Communities During Infection of Wheat Spikes.
Collinge DB Abstract Fusarium head blight (FHB) is a devastating disease of wheat heads. It is caused by several species from the genus Fusarium. Several endophytic fungi also colonize wheat spikes asymptomatically. Pathogenic and commensal fungi share and compete for the same niche and thereby influence plant performance. Understanding the natural dynamics of the fungal community and how the pre-established species react to pathogen attack can provide useful information on the disease biology and the potential use of some of these endophytic organisms in disease control strategies. Fungal community composition wa...
Source: Microbial Ecology - August 26, 2019 Category: Microbiology Authors: Rojas EC, Sapkota R, Jensen B, Jørgensen HJL, Henriksson T, Jørgensen LN, Nicolaisen M, Collinge DB Tags: Microb Ecol Source Type: research

Community Composition of  Nitrite Reductase Gene Sequences in an Acid Mine Drainage Environment.
This study examined denitrifying microbes within sediments impacted by acidic and metal-rich AMD or ARD in the Iron Springs Mining District (10 sites across four regions over four time points) located in Southwest Colorado, USA. Denitrification functional gene sequences (nirS and nirK coding for nitrite reductase) had a high number of observed OTUs (260 for nirS and 253 for nirK) and were observed at sites with pH as low as 3.5 and metals> 2 mg/L (including aluminum, iron, manganese, strontium, and zinc). A majority of the nirK and nirS OTUs (> 60%) were present in only one sampling region. Ap...
Source: Microbial Ecology - August 24, 2019 Category: Microbiology Authors: Wise BR, Roane TM, Mosier AC Tags: Microb Ecol Source Type: research

Bacterial Succession in Salt Marsh Soils Along a Short-term Invasion Chronosequence of Spartina alterniflora in the Yellow River Estuary, China.
Abstract As an exotic plant species, Spartina alterniflora seriously threatens native ecosystem function in Chinese coastal regions. Unveiling the dynamics of soil bacteria community during its invasion is essential for a better understanding of related biogeochemical processes, while the shift in soil bacterial community over invasive time remains unclear. A short-term chronosequence was identified to assess the impacts of Spartina alterniflora invasion on soil nutrients and bacterial community composition and structure (using 16S rRNA gene high-throughput sequencing) over the time of invasion (i.e., (1) at least...
Source: Microbial Ecology - August 24, 2019 Category: Microbiology Authors: Zhang G, Bai J, Zhao Q, Jia J, Wang W, Wang X Tags: Microb Ecol Source Type: research

Early Life Stages of a Common Broadcast Spawning Coral Associate with Specific Bacterial Communities Despite Lack of Internalized Bacteria.
n MJH Abstract Coral-associated bacteria are critical for the well-being of their host and may play essential roles during ontogeny, as suggested by the vertical transmission of some bacteria in brooding corals. Bacterial acquisition patterns in broadcast spawners remain uncertain, as 16S rRNA gene metabarcoding of coral early life stages suggests the presence of bacterial communities, which have not been detected by microscopic examinations. Here, we combined 16S rRNA gene metabarcoding with fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) microscopy to analyze bacterial assemblages in Acropora tenuis egg-sperm bundles,...
Source: Microbial Ecology - August 21, 2019 Category: Microbiology Authors: Damjanovic K, Menéndez P, Blackall LL, van Oppen MJH Tags: Microb Ecol Source Type: research

Behind the Organic Veil: Assessing the Impact of Chemical Deflocculation on Organic Content Reduction and Lacustrine Arcellinida (Testate Amoebae) Analysis.
Abstract Arcellinida (testate lobose amoebae) are widely used as bio-indicators of lacustrine environmental change. Too much obscuring organic material in a gridded wet Petri dish preparation makes it difficult to observe all specimens present and slows quantification as the organic material has to be carefully worked through with a dissection probe. Chemical deflocculation using soda ash (Na2CO3·H2O), potassium hydroxide (KOH), or sodium hexametaphosphate ((NaPO3)6) has previously been shown to disaggregate and reduce organic content in lake sediments, but to date, no attempt has been made to comparatively...
Source: Microbial Ecology - August 20, 2019 Category: Microbiology Authors: Nasser NA, Gregory BRB, Steele RE, Patterson RT, Galloway JM Tags: Microb Ecol Source Type: research

Perspectives on Cultivation Strategies of Archaea.
Abstract Archaea have been recognized as a major domain of life since the 1970s and occupy a key position in the tree of life. Recent advances in culture-independent approaches have greatly accelerated the research son Archaea. However, many hypotheses concerning the diversity, physiology, and evolution of archaea are waiting to be confirmed by culture-base experiments. Consequently, archaeal isolates are in great demand. On the other hand, traditional approaches of archaeal cultivation are rarely successful and require urgent improvement. Here, we review the current practices and applicable microbial cultiva...
Source: Microbial Ecology - August 20, 2019 Category: Microbiology Authors: Sun Y, Liu Y, Pan J, Wang F, Li M Tags: Microb Ecol Source Type: research

A Tripartite Microbial-Environment Network Indicates How Crucial Microbes Influence the Microbial Community Ecology.
In this study, we developed a tripartite microbial-environment network (TMEN) analysis method that integrates microbial abundance, metabolic function, and environmental data as a tripartite network to investigate the combined ecological effects of microbes. Applying TMEN to analyzing the microbial-environment community structure in the sediments of Hangzhou Bay, one of the most seriously polluted coastal areas in China, we found that microbes were well-organized into 4 bacterial communities and 9 archaeal communities. The total organic carbon, sulfate, chemical oxygen demand, salinity, and nitrogen-related indexes were det...
Source: Microbial Ecology - August 19, 2019 Category: Microbiology Authors: Tang Y, Dai T, Su Z, Hasegawa K, Tian J, Chen L, Wen D Tags: Microb Ecol Source Type: research

What Goes Up Might Come Down: the Spectacular Spread of an Endosymbiont Is Followed by Its Decline a Decade Later.
Abstract Facultative, intracellular bacterial symbionts of arthropods may dramatically affect host biology and reproduction. The length of these symbiont-host associations may be thousands to millions of years, and while symbiont loss is predicted, there have been very few observations of a decline of symbiont infection rates. In a population of the sweet potato whitefly species (Bemisia tabaci MEAM1) in Arizona, USA, we documented the frequency decline of a strain of Rickettsia in the Rickettsia bellii clade from near-fixation in 2011 to 36% of whiteflies infected in 2017. In previous studies, Rickettsia had been...
Source: Microbial Ecology - August 12, 2019 Category: Microbiology Authors: Bockoven AA, Bondy EC, Flores MJ, Kelly SE, Ravenscraft AM, Hunter MS Tags: Microb Ecol Source Type: research

Fungal Succession During the Decomposition of Ectomycorrhizal Fine Roots.
Abstract Ectomycorrhizal (ECM) fine roots account for a substantial proportion of forest production and their decomposition releases large amounts of nutrients to the soil ecosystem. However, little is known about the fungi involved in ECM decomposition, including assemblages of fungal saprotrophs, endophytes, and the ECM fungi themselves. To follow fungal succession during the degradation of senescing fine roots, understory seedlings of Abies balsamea and Picea rubens at two sites in the Acadian forest of Nova Scotia were either severed at the root collar or left as controls. Root systems were collected sequentia...
Source: Microbial Ecology - August 8, 2019 Category: Microbiology Authors: Gray L, Kernaghan G Tags: Microb Ecol Source Type: research

Oceanic Microplankton Do Not Adhere to the Latitudinal Diversity Gradient.
Abstract A latitudinal biodiversity gradient has captivated ecologists for years, and has become a widely recognized pattern in biogeography, manifest as an increase in biodiversity from the poles to the tropics. Oceanographers have attempted to discern whether these distribution patterns are shared with marine biota, and a lively debate has emerged concerning the global distribution of microbes. Limitations in sampling resolution for such large-scale assessments have often prohibited definitive conclusions. We evaluated microbial planktonic communities along a ~ 15,400-km Pacific Ocean transect with DNA fr...
Source: Microbial Ecology - August 7, 2019 Category: Microbiology Authors: Moss JA, Henriksson NL, Pakulski JD, Snyder RA, Jeffrey WH Tags: Microb Ecol Source Type: research

Salmonella from a Microtidal Estuary Are Capable of Invading Human Intestinal Cell Lines.
Abstract Faecal contamination poses health risks for the recreational users of urban estuaries. However, our understanding of the potential pathogenicity of faecal microbes in these environments is limited. To this end, a study was conducted to understand the spatial and seasonal distribution of Salmonella in water and sediments of the Yarra River estuary, Melbourne, Australia. Among 210 samples in total, culturable Salmonella were recovered from 27%, 17%, and 19% of water, bank, and bed sediment samples, respectively. The combined detection increased from 15% in winter to 32% in summer (p
Source: Microbial Ecology - August 5, 2019 Category: Microbiology Authors: Siddiqee MH, Henry R, Deletic A, Bulach DM, Coleman RA, McCarthy DT Tags: Microb Ecol Source Type: research

Variation in the Microbiota Associated with Daphnia magna Across Genotypes, Populations, and Temperature.
In this study, we assess differences in the microbiome among genotypes of D. magna collected from three regions along a large latitudinal gradient (Finland, Germany, and Israel). After being reared in the lab for many years, we sought to characterize any differences in genotype- or population-specific microbial communities, and to assess whether the microbiota varied among temperatures. Our study is similar to a recent comparison of the microbial communities among D. magna genotypes raised in different temperatures published by Sullam et al. (Microb Ecol 76(2):506-517, 2017), and as such represents one of the first example...
Source: Microbial Ecology - August 3, 2019 Category: Microbiology Authors: Frankel-Bricker J, Song MJ, Benner MJ, Schaack S Tags: Microb Ecol Source Type: research

Biological Soil Crusts from Different Soil Substrates Harbor Distinct Bacterial Groups with the Potential to Produce Exopolysaccharides and Lipopolysaccharides.
z S Abstract Biological soil crusts (biocrusts) play an important role in improving soil stability and resistance to erosion by promoting aggregation of soil particles. During initial development, biocrusts are dominated by bacteria. Some bacterial members of the biocrusts can contribute to the formation of soil aggregates by producing exopolysaccharides and lipopolysaccharides that act as "glue" for soil particles. However, little is known about the dynamics of "soil glue" producers during the initial development of biocrusts. We hypothesized that different types of initial biocrusts harbor di...
Source: Microbial Ecology - August 1, 2019 Category: Microbiology Authors: Cania B, Vestergaard G, Kublik S, Köhne JM, Fischer T, Albert A, Winkler B, Schloter M, Schulz S Tags: Microb Ecol Source Type: research

Tropical Rainforest Restoration Plantations Are Slow to Restore the Soil Biological and Organic Carbon Characteristics of Old Growth Rainforest.
Abstract Widespread and continuing losses of tropical old-growth forests imperil global biodiversity and alter global carbon (C) cycling. Soil organic carbon (SOC) typically declines with land use change from old-growth forest, but the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. Ecological restoration plantations offer an established means of restoring aboveground biomass, structure and diversity of forests, but their capacity to recover the soil microbial community and SOC is unknown due to limited empirical data and consensus on the mechanisms of SOC formation. Here, we examine soil microbial community response...
Source: Microbial Ecology - August 1, 2019 Category: Microbiology Authors: Bonner MTL, Allen DE, Brackin R, Smith TE, Lewis T, Shoo LP, Schmidt S Tags: Microb Ecol Source Type: research

N-Acyl Homoserine Lactones and Lux Solos Regulate Social Behaviour and Virulence of Pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae.
Abstract The phyllosphere is a complex environment where microbes communicate through signalling molecules in a system, generally known as quorum sensing (QS). One of the most common QS systems in Gram-negative proteobacteria is based on the production of N-acyl homoserine lactones (AHLs) by a LuxI synthase and their perception by a LuxR sensor. Pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae (Psa), the aetiological agent of the bacterial canker of kiwifruit, colonises plant phyllosphere before penetrating via wounds and natural openings. Since Psa genome encodes three LuxR solos without a cognate LuxI, this bacterium may per...
Source: Microbial Ecology - July 29, 2019 Category: Microbiology Authors: Cellini A, Donati I, Fiorentini L, Vandelle E, Polverari A, Venturi V, Buriani G, Vanneste JL, Spinelli F Tags: Microb Ecol Source Type: research

Alterations in the Endophyte-Enriched Root-Associated Microbiome of Rice Receiving Growth-Promoting Treatments of Urea Fertilizer and Rhizobium Biofertilizer.
We examined the bacterial endophyte-enriched root-associated microbiome within rice (Oryza sativa) 55 days after growth in soil with and without urea fertilizer and/or biofertilization with a growth-promotive bacterial strain (Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. trifolii E11). After treatment to deplete rhizosphere/rhizoplane communities, washed roots were macerated and their endophyte-enriched communities were analyzed by 16S ribosomal DNA 454 amplicon pyrosequencing. This analysis clustered 99,990 valid sequence reads into 1105 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) with 97% sequence identity, 133 of which represented a consolidated...
Source: Microbial Ecology - July 25, 2019 Category: Microbiology Authors: Jha PN, Gomaa AB, Yanni YG, El-Saadany AY, Stedtfeld TM, Stedtfeld RD, Gantner S, Chai B, Cole J, Hashsham SA, Dazzo FB Tags: Microb Ecol Source Type: research

Phosphorus Input Alters the Assembly of Rice (Oryza sativa L.) Root-Associated Communities.
Abstract Rice root-associated microbial community play an important role in plant nutrient acquisition, biomass production, and stress tolerance. Herein, root-associated community assembly was investigated under different phosphate input levels in phosphorus (P)-deficient paddy soil. Rice was grown in a long-term P-depleted paddy soil with 0 (P0), 50 (PL), or 200 (PH) mg P2O5 kg-1 application. DNA from root endophytes was isolated after 46 days, and PCR amplicons from archaea, bacteria, and fungi were sequenced by an Illumina Miseq PE300 platform, respectively. P application had no significant effect on rice root ...
Source: Microbial Ecology - July 24, 2019 Category: Microbiology Authors: Long XE, Yao H Tags: Microb Ecol Source Type: research

Trophic Ecology of the Tropical Pacific Sponge Mycale grandis Inferred from Amino Acid Compound-Specific Isotopic Analyses.
Abstract Many sponges host abundant and active microbial communities that may play a role in the uptake of dissolved organic matter (DOM) by the sponge holobiont, although the mechanism of DOM uptake and metabolism is uncertain. Bulk and compound-specific isotopic analysis of whole sponge, isolated sponge cells, and isolated symbiotic microbial cells of the shallow water tropical Pacific sponge Mycale grandis were used to elucidate the trophic relationships between the host sponge and its associated microbial community. δ15N and δ13C values of amino acids in M. grandis isolated sponge cells are not dif...
Source: Microbial Ecology - July 17, 2019 Category: Microbiology Authors: Shih JL, Selph KE, Wall CB, Wallsgrove NJ, Lesser MP, Popp BN Tags: Microb Ecol Source Type: research

Endosymbiotic Bacteria Are Prevalent and Diverse in Agricultural Spiders.
Abstract Maternally inherited bacterial endosymbionts are common in arthropods, but their distribution and prevalence are poorly characterized in many host taxa. Initial surveys have suggested that vertically transmitted symbionts may be particularly common in spiders (Araneae). Here, we used diagnostic PCR and high-throughput sequencing to evaluate symbiont infection in 267 individual spiders representing 14 species (3 families) of agricultural spiders. We found 27 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) that are likely endosymbiotic, including multiple strains of Wolbachia, Rickettsia, and Cardinium, which are all ve...
Source: Microbial Ecology - July 12, 2019 Category: Microbiology Authors: White JA, Styer A, Rosenwald LC, Curry MM, Welch KD, Athey KJ, Chapman EG Tags: Microb Ecol Source Type: research

Correction to: Long-Term Recovery of Microbial Communities in the Boreal Bryosphere Following Fire Disturbance.
ca TH Abstract The original version of this article contained an error in the Molecular Analysis subsection of the Methods. PMID: 31286169 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Microbial Ecology)
Source: Microbial Ecology - July 8, 2019 Category: Microbiology Authors: Cutler NA, Arróniz-Crespo M, Street LE, Jones DL, Chaput DL, DeLuca TH Tags: Microb Ecol Source Type: research

Dynamics of Abundant and Rare Bacteria During Degradation of Lignocellulose from Sugarcane Biomass.
es JF Abstract Microorganisms play a crucial role in lignocellulosic degradation. Many enriched microbial communities have demonstrated to reach functional and structural stability with effective degrading capacities of industrial interest. These microbial communities are typically composed by only few dominant species and a high number of usually overlooked rare species. Here, we used two sources of lignocellulose (sugarcane bagasse and straw) in order to obtain lignocellulose-degrading bacteria through an enriched process, followed the selective trajectory of both abundant and rare bacterial communities by 16S r...
Source: Microbial Ecology - July 8, 2019 Category: Microbiology Authors: Puentes-Téllez PE, Salles JF Tags: Microb Ecol Source Type: research

A Metagenomic Study of Intestinal Microbial Diversity in Relation to Feeding Habits of Surface and Cave-Dwelling Sinocyclocheilus Species.
This study improves our understanding of mechanisms of adaptation in cave habitats and may contribute to the protection of these habitats from water pollution. PMID: 31280331 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Microbial Ecology)
Source: Microbial Ecology - July 6, 2019 Category: Microbiology Authors: Chen H, Li C, Liu T, Chen S, Xiao H Tags: Microb Ecol Source Type: research

Metal-Tolerant Fungal Communities Are Delineated by High Zinc, Lead, and Copper Concentrations in Metalliferous Gobi Desert Soils.
Abstract The soil fungal ecology of the southern Gobi region of Mongolia has been little studied. We utilized the ITS1 region from soil DNA to study possible influences soil metal concentrations on soil fungal community variation. In the sample network, a distinctive fungal community was closely associated with high zinc (Zn), lead (Pb), and copper (Cu) concentrations. The pattern of occurrence suggests that high metal concentrations are natural and not a product of mining activities. The metal-associated fungal community differs little from the "normal" community in its major OTUs, and in terms of ...
Source: Microbial Ecology - July 4, 2019 Category: Microbiology Authors: Kerfahi D, Ogwu MC, Ariunzaya D, Balt A, Davaasuren D, Enkhmandal O, Purevsuren T, Batbaatar A, Tibbett M, Undrakhbold S, Boldgiv B, Adams JM Tags: Microb Ecol Source Type: research

Alkaline phosphatase activities and regulation in three harmful Prorocentrum species from the coastal waters of the East China Sea.
Abstract Harmful blooms of Prorocentrum donghaiense occur annually in the phosphorus-scarce coastal waters of the East China Sea (ECS). The enzymatic activities of alkaline phosphatase (AP) and its regulation by external phosphorus were studied during a P. donghaiense bloom in this area. The AP characteristics of P. donghaiense was further compared with Prorocentrum minimum and Prorocentrum micans in monocultures with both bulk and single-cell enzyme-labeled fluorescence AP assays. Concentrations of dissolved inorganic phosphorus (DIP) varied between 0.04 and 0.73 μmol l-1, with more than half recording station...
Source: Microbial Ecology - July 2, 2019 Category: Microbiology Authors: Ou L, Qin X, Shi X, Feng Q, Zhang S, Lu S, Qi Y Tags: Microb Ecol Source Type: research

Soil Microbial Community Responses After Amendment with Thermally Altered Pinus radiata Needles.
Abstract Post-fire litter layers are composed of leaves and woody debris that predominantly fall during or soon after the fire event. These layers are distinctly different to pre-fire litters due to their common origin and deposition time. However, heterogeneity can arise from the variable thermal conditions in the canopy during fire. Therefore, in this study, we used thermally altered pine needles (heated to 40 °C, 150 °C, 260 °C and 320 °C for 1 h) in a laboratory incubation study for 43 days. These samples were measured for respiration throughout and extracted for DNA at the experiment's end; so...
Source: Microbial Ecology - July 2, 2019 Category: Microbiology Authors: Stirling E, Macdonald LM, Smernik RJ, Cavagnaro TR Tags: Microb Ecol Source Type: research

Identification of Novel Butyrate- and Acetate-Oxidizing Bacteria in Butyrate-Fed Mesophilic Anaerobic Chemostats by DNA-Based Stable Isotope Probing.
In this study, two anaerobic chemostats fed with butyrate as the sole carbon source were operated at different dilution rates (0.01/day and 0.05/day). Butyrate- and acetate-oxidizing bacteria in both chemostats were investigated, combining DNA-Stable Isotope Probing (DNA-SIP) and 16S rRNA gene high-throughput sequencing. The results showed that, in addition to known SBOB, Syntrophomonas, other species of unclassified Syntrophomonadaceae were putative butyrate-oxidizing bacteria. Species of Mesotoga, Aminivibrio, Acetivibrio, Desulfovibrio, Petrimonas, Sedimentibacter, unclassified Anaerolineae, unclassified Synergistaceae,...
Source: Microbial Ecology - July 1, 2019 Category: Microbiology Authors: Yi Y, Wang H, Chen Y, Gou M, Xia Z, Hu B, Nie Y, Tang Y Tags: Microb Ecol Source Type: research

Taxon-Specific Effects of Lactobacillus on Drosophila Host Development.
This study may aid our understanding of the basic principles underlying the beneficial effects of probiotic commensal bacteria on metazoan development. PMID: 31250075 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Microbial Ecology)
Source: Microbial Ecology - June 27, 2019 Category: Microbiology Authors: Lee J, Han G, Kim JW, Jeon CO, Hyun S Tags: Microb Ecol Source Type: research

Effects of Quorum Quenching on Biofilm Metacommunity in a Membrane Bioreactor.
Abstract Quorum quenching (QQ) has received attention for the control of biofilms, e.g., biofilms that cause biofouling in membrane bioreactors (MBRs). Despite the efficacy of QQ on biofouling, it is elusive how QQ influences biofilm formation on membranes. A pilot-scale QQ-MBR and non-QQ-MBR were identically operated for 4 days and 8 days to destructively sample the membranes. QQ prolonged the membrane filterability by 43% with no harmful influence on MBR performance. qPCR showed no effect of QQ on microbial density during either of these time periods. Community comparisons revealed that QQ influenced the bacteri...
Source: Microbial Ecology - June 27, 2019 Category: Microbiology Authors: Jeong SY, Lee CH, Yi T, Kim TG Tags: Microb Ecol Source Type: research

Ecological Processes Shaping Bulk Soil and Rhizosphere Microbiome Assembly in a Long-Term Amazon Forest-to-Agriculture Conversion.
Abstract Forest-to-agriculture conversion has been identified as a major threat to soil biodiversity and soil processes resilience, although the consequences of long-term land use change to microbial community assembly and ecological processes have been often neglected. Here, we combined metagenomic approach with a large environmental dataset, to (i) identify the microbial assembly patterns and, (ii) to evaluate the ecological processes governing microbial assembly, in bulk soil and soybean rhizosphere, along a long-term forest-to-agriculture conversion chronosequence, in Eastern Amazon. We hypothesized that (i) m...
Source: Microbial Ecology - June 27, 2019 Category: Microbiology Authors: Goss-Souza D, Mendes LW, Rodrigues JLM, Tsai SM Tags: Microb Ecol Source Type: research

The Relations Between Predatory Fungus and Its Rotifer Preys as a Noteworthy Example of Intraguild Predation (IGP).
e;s A Abstract Intraguild predation (IGP) is a widespread interaction combining predation and competition. We investigated a unique IGP example among predacious fungus Zoophagus sp. and two rotifers, the predacious Cephalodella gibba and the common prey Lecane inermis. We checked the influence of the fungus on its competitor C. gibba and their joint influence on shared prey L. inermis, and the impact of the competitive predator on the growth of predacious fungus. The experiment on grown mycelium showed that Zoophagus strongly, negatively influences the growth of C. gibba (intermediate consumer) whose number did no...
Source: Microbial Ecology - June 24, 2019 Category: Microbiology Authors: Fiałkowska E, Fiałkowski W, Pajdak-Stós A Tags: Microb Ecol Source Type: research

In Vivo Modulation of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Symbiosis and Soil Quality by Fungal P Solubilizers.
no JM Abstract Phosphorus (P) is an essential nutrient with low bioavailability in soils for plant growth. The use of P solubilization fungi (PSF) has arisen as an eco-friendly strategy to increase this nutrient's bioavailability. The effect of PSF inoculation and its combination with P-transporting organisms (arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi, AMF) on plant growth has been previously studied. However, these studies did not evaluate the combined effect of PSF and AMF inoculation on plant growth, symbiosis, and soil quality. Therefore, the aim of this study is to assess the impact of PSF on the AMF-wheat symbiosis estab...
Source: Microbial Ecology - June 19, 2019 Category: Microbiology Authors: Della Mónica IF, Godeas AM, Scervino JM Tags: Microb Ecol Source Type: research

Bdellovibrio and Like Organisms Are Predictors of Microbiome Diversity in Distinct Host Groups.
Abstract Biodiversity is generally believed to be a main determinant of ecosystem functioning. This principle also applies to the microbiome and could consequently contribute to host health. According to ecological theory, communities are shaped by top predators whose direct and indirect interactions with community members cause stability and diversity. Bdellovibrio and like organisms (BALOs) are a neglected group of predatory bacteria that feed on Gram-negative bacteria and can thereby influence microbiome composition. We asked whether BALOs can predict biodiversity levels in microbiomes from distinct host groups...
Source: Microbial Ecology - June 11, 2019 Category: Microbiology Authors: Johnke J, Fraune S, Bosch TCG, Hentschel U, Schulenburg H Tags: Microb Ecol Source Type: research

Tripartite Interactions Between Endophytic Fungi, Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi, and Leymus chinensis.
Abstract Grasses often establish multiple simultaneous symbiotic associations with endophytic fungi and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF). Many studies have examined pair-wise interactions between plants and endophytic fungi or between plants and AMF, overlooking the interplays among multiple endosymbionts and their combined impacts on hosts. Here, we examined both the way in which each symbiont affects the other symbionts and the tripartite interactions between leaf endophytic fungi, AMF, and Leymus chinensis. As for AMF, different species (Glomus etunicatum, GE; Glomus mosseae, GM; Glomus claroideum, GC; and Gl...
Source: Microbial Ecology - June 8, 2019 Category: Microbiology Authors: Liu H, Wu M, Liu J, Qu Y, Gao Y, Ren A Tags: Microb Ecol Source Type: research

Biocontrol of Root Diseases and Growth Promotion of the Tuberous Plant Aconitum carmichaelii Induced by Actinomycetes Are Related to Shifts in the Rhizosphere Microbiota.
In conclusion, a preparation of two Actinomycetes plays a role in the biocontrol of root diseases and growth promotion of A. carmichaelii by inhibiting pathogen growth and shaping the rhizosphere microbiota. PMID: 31165188 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Microbial Ecology)
Source: Microbial Ecology - June 5, 2019 Category: Microbiology Authors: Li Y, Guo Q, He F, Li Y, Xue Q, Lai H Tags: Microb Ecol Source Type: research

Functional Redundancy of Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis Inhibition in Bacterial Communities Isolated from Lithobates clamitans Skin.
Abstract The cutaneous microbial community can influence the health of amphibians exposed to Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd), a fungal pathogen that has contributed to recent amphibian declines. Resistance to Bd in amphibian populations is correlated with the presence of anti-Bd cutaneous microbes, which confer disease resistance by inhibiting Bd growth. I aimed to determine if green frogs (Lithobates clamitans), an abundant and widely distributed species in New Jersey, harbored bacteria that inhibit Bd and whether the presence and identity of these microbes varied among sites. I used in vitro challenge assays...
Source: Microbial Ecology - June 4, 2019 Category: Microbiology Authors: Kruger A Tags: Microb Ecol Source Type: research

Regulation of Low and High Nucleic Acid Fluorescent Heterotrophic Prokaryote Subpopulations and Links to Viral-Induced Mortality Within Natural Prokaryote-Virus Communities.
Abstract Flow cytometric analysis of marine prokaryotes routinely reveals two distinct clusters of heterotrophic cells referred to as high nucleic acid fluorescent (HNA) and low nucleic acid fluorescent (LNA) populations. Evidence suggests that these may represent physiologically and ecologically distinct prokaryote populations. According to the "kill the winner" hypothesis, viral lysis reduces the efficiency of the microbial loop by decreasing the biomass and activity of the most abundant and active members of a population (i.e., competition specialist). Thus, viral-induced mortality may vary according ...
Source: Microbial Ecology - June 3, 2019 Category: Microbiology Authors: Mojica KDA, Carlson CA, Behrenfeld MJ Tags: Microb Ecol Source Type: research

Towards an Understanding of Diel Feeding Rhythms in Marine Protists: Consequences of Light Manipulation.
This study deepens into several aspects of the exogenous and endogenous nature of microbial grazers. We investigated the diel rhythms of cell division and feeding activity of four marine protists under different light regimes. In particular, we tested if the feeding cycle of protistan grazers could be mediated by a light-aided enhancement of prey digestion, and also explored the consequences of cell division on diel feeding rhythms. Cell division occurred at night for the heterotrophic dinoflagellates Gyrodinium dominans and Oxyrrhis marina. In contrast, the mixotrophic dinoflagellate Karlodinium armiger and the ciliate St...
Source: Microbial Ecology - May 30, 2019 Category: Microbiology Authors: Arias A, Saiz E, Calbet A Tags: Microb Ecol Source Type: research

Alphacoronavirus Detection in Lungs, Liver, and Intestines of Bats from Brazil.
Abstract Bats are flying mammals distributed worldwide known to host several types of Coronavirus (CoV). Since they were reported as the probable source of spillover of highly pathogenic CoV into the human population, investigating the circulation of this virus in bats around the world became of great importance. We analyzed samples from 103 bats from two distinct regions in Brazil. Coronavirus from the Alphacoronavirus genus was detected in 12 animals, 11 from São José do Rio Preto-SP region and 1 from Barreiras-BA region, resulting in a prevalence of 17.18% and 2.56% respectively. The virus was det...
Source: Microbial Ecology - May 29, 2019 Category: Microbiology Authors: Bittar C, Machado RRG, Comelis MT, Bueno LM, Beguelini MR, Morielle-Versute E, Nogueira ML, Rahal P Tags: Microb Ecol Source Type: research

Seasonal Mixing-Driven System in Estuarine-Coastal Zone Triggers an Ecological Shift in Bacterial Assemblages Involved in Phytoplankton-Derived DMSP Degradation.
Abstract The coastal zone has distinguishable but tightly connected ecosystems from rivers to the ocean and globally contributes to nutrient cycling including phytoplankton-derived organic matter. Particularly, bacterial contributions to phytoplankton-derived dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSP) degradation have been recently evaluated by using advanced sequencing technologies to understand their role in the marine microbial food web. Here, we surveyed the bacterial diversity and community composition under seasonal water mixing in the bay of Gwangyang (GW), a semi-enclosed estuary at the southern tip of the Korea Pe...
Source: Microbial Ecology - May 29, 2019 Category: Microbiology Authors: Han D, Kang HY, Kang CK, Unno T, Hur HG Tags: Microb Ecol Source Type: research

Contrasting Water Quality Treatments Result in Structural and Functional Changes to Wetland Plant-Associated Microbial Communities in Lab-Scale Mesocosms.
Abstract The impact of contrasting water quality treatments on wetland plant-associated microbial communities was investigated in this study using 12 lab-scale wetland mesocosms (subsurface flow design) planted with reed canary grass (Phalaris arundinacea) or water speedwell (Veronica anagallis-aquatica) over a 13-week period. Mesocosms received water collected from two sites along the Grand River (Ontario, Canada) designated as having either high or poor water quality according to Grand River Conservation Authority classifications. All mesocosms were established using sediment collected from the high water qualit...
Source: Microbial Ecology - May 29, 2019 Category: Microbiology Authors: Clairmont LK, Slawson RM Tags: Microb Ecol Source Type: research