Complementary Dynamics of Banana Root Colonization by the Plant Growth-Promoting Rhizobacteria Bacillus amyloliquefaciens Bs006 and Pseudomonas palleroniana Ps006 at Spatial and Temporal Scales.
Abstract Banana (Musa acuminata) growth for commercial purposes requires high amounts of chemical fertilizers, generating high costs and deleterious effects on the environment. In a previous study, we demonstrated that two plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR), Bacillus amyloliquefaciens Bs006 and Pseudomonas palleroniana Ps006, isolated in Colombia, could partially replace chemical fertilizers for banana seedling growth. In a second work, the effects of the two inoculants on banana transcripts were found to occur at different times, earlier for Bs006 and later for Ps006. This leads to the hypothesis that th...
Source: Microbial Ecology - August 11, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Gamez RM, Ramirez S, Montes M, Cardinale M Tags: Microb Ecol Source Type: research

Short-Term Exposure to High-Temperature Water Causes a Shift in the Microbiome of the Common Aquarium Sponge Lendenfeldia chondrodes.
In this study, we assess the impact of elevated seawater temperature on the microbiome of cultured Lendenfeldia chondrodes, a coral reef sponge commonly found in marine aquaria. Lendenfeldia chondrodes exhibits high thermal tolerance showing no evidence of tissue damage or bleaching at 5 °C above control water temperature (26 °C). High-throughput sequencing of the bacterial 16S rRNA V4 region revealed a response of the microbiome of L. chondrodes to short-term exposure to elevated seawater temperature. Shifts in abundance and richness of the dominant bacterial phyla found in the microbiome of this species...
Source: Microbial Ecology - August 7, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Vargas S, Leiva L, Wörheide G Tags: Microb Ecol Source Type: research

Parental Care Alters the Egg Microbiome of Maritime Earwigs.
Abstract Recruitment of beneficial microbes to protect offspring, often reducing the energetic costs of care, is now recognized as an important component of parental care in many animals. Studies on earwigs (order Dermaptera) have revealed that removal of females from egg tending increases mortality of eggs due to fungal infections, possibly caused by changes in the bacterial microbiome on the egg surface. We used a controlled female-removal experiment to evaluate whether female nest attendance in the maritime earwig, Anisolabis maritima, influences the bacterial microbiome on the egg surface. Further, we analyzed...
Source: Microbial Ecology - August 7, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Greer JA, Swei A, Vredenburg VT, Zink AG Tags: Microb Ecol Source Type: research

Incidence and Diversity of Torix Rickettsia-Odonata Symbioses.
In this study, we present a survey of odonates (dragonflies and damselflies) for torix group Rickettsia, following previous research indicating that this clade can be common in other aquatic insect groups. PCR assays were used to screen a broad range of odonates from two continents and revealed 8 of 76 species tested were infected with Rickettsia. We then conducted further deeper screening of UK representatives of the Coenagrionidae damselfly family, revealing 6 of 8 UK coenagrionid species to be positive for torix Rickettsia. Analysis of Rickettsia gene sequences supported multiple establishments of symbiosis in the group...
Source: Microbial Ecology - August 7, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Thongprem P, Davison HR, Thompson DJ, Lorenzo-Carballa MO, Hurst GDD Tags: Microb Ecol Source Type: research

Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungal Community Structure in the Rhizosphere of Three Plant Species of Crystalline and Sedimentary Areas in the Brazilian Dry Forest.
Abstract The Brazilian dry forest (Caatinga) is located in one of the world's largest tropical semiarid regions, and it occurs on two large geological environments named the crystalline and sedimentary basins. In order to determine the structure and the main drivers of the composition of communities of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) in the Caatinga, we collected soil samples from the rhizosphere of Jatropha mollissima, J. mutabilis, and Mimosa tenuiflora, species that occur in crystalline and sedimentary areas. Ninety-six AMF taxa were identified from soils collected directly in the field and trap cultures. Ac...
Source: Microbial Ecology - August 6, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Dos Passos JH, Maia LC, de Assis DMA, da Silva JA, Oehl F, da Silva IR Tags: Microb Ecol Source Type: research

Canopy Position Has a Stronger Effect than Tree Species Identity on Phyllosphere Bacterial Diversity in a Floodplain Hardwood Forest.
l K Abstract The phyllosphere is a challenging microbial habitat in which microorganisms can flourish on organic carbon released by plant leaves but are also exposed to harsh environmental conditions. Here, we assessed the relative importance of canopy position-top, mid, and bottom at a height between 31 and 20 m-and tree species identity for shaping the phyllosphere microbiome in a floodplain hardwood forest. Leaf material was sampled from three tree species-maple (Acer pseudoplatanus L.), oak (Quercus robur L.), and linden (Tilia cordata MILL.)-at the Leipzig canopy crane facility (Germany). Estimated bacte...
Source: Microbial Ecology - August 6, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Herrmann M, Geesink P, Richter R, Küsel K Tags: Microb Ecol Source Type: research

Phytophthora Species Associated with Roots of Native and Non-native Trees in Natural and Managed Forests.
Abstract Roots act as a biological filter that exclusively allows only a portion of the soil-associated microbial diversity to infect the plant. This microbial diversity includes organisms both beneficial and detrimental to plants. Phytophthora species are among the most important groups of detrimental microbes that cause various soil-borne plant diseases. We used a metabarcoding approach with Phytophthora-specific primers to compare the diversity and richness of Phytophthora species associated with roots of native and non-native trees, using different types of soil inocula collected from native and managed forest...
Source: Microbial Ecology - August 2, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Bose T, Wingfield MJ, Roux J, Vivas M, Burgess TI Tags: Microb Ecol Source Type: research

Seasonal Patterns Contribute More Towards Phyllosphere Bacterial Community Structure than Short-Term Perturbations.
Abstract Phyllosphere microorganisms are sensitive to fluctuations in wind, temperature, solar radiation, and rain. However, recent explorations of patterns in phyllosphere communities across time often focus on seasonal shifts and leaf senescence without measuring the contribution of environmental drivers and leaf traits. Here, we focus on the effects of rain on the phyllosphere bacterial community of the wetland macrophyte broadleaf cattail (Typha latifolia) across an entire year, specifically targeting days before and 1, 3, and 5 days after rain events. To isolate the contribution of precipitation from oth...
Source: Microbial Ecology - August 1, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Stone BWG, Jackson CR Tags: Microb Ecol Source Type: research

Coexistence of Two Male-Killers and Their Impact on the Development of Oriental Tea Tortrix Homona magnanima.
Abstract Male-killing, the death of male offspring induced by maternally transmitted microbes, is classified as early, or late, male-killing. The primary advantage afforded by early male-killing, which typically occurs during embryogenesis, is the reallocation of resources to females, that would have otherwise been consumed by males. Meanwhile, the key advantage of late male-killing, which typically occurs during late larval development, is the maximized potential for horizontal transmission. To date, no studies have reported on the associated developmental and physiological effects of host coinfection with early ...
Source: Microbial Ecology - August 1, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Takamatsu T, Arai H, Abe N, Nakai M, Kunimi Y, Inoue MN Tags: Microb Ecol Source Type: research

Local and Geographic Factors Shape the Occupancy-Frequency Distribution of Freshwater Bacteria.
This study demonstrates the close relationship between local environmental conditions and the abundance and dispersion of microorganisms, which shapes their distribution across the landscape. PMID: 32705311 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Microbial Ecology)
Source: Microbial Ecology - July 23, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Mateus-Barros E, de Melo ML, Bagatini IL, Caliman A, Sarmento H Tags: Microb Ecol Source Type: research

What Do We Know About the Publications Related with Azospirillum? A Metadata Analysis.
a R, Mora V Abstract Azospirillum is one of the most successful plant growth-promoting bacteria (PGPB) genera and it is considered a study model for plant-bacteria interactions. Because of that, a wide broad of topics has been boarded and discussed in a significant number of publications in the last four decades. Using the Scopus® database, we conducted a bibliographic search in order to analyze the number and type of publications, the authors responsible of these contributions, and the origin of the researchers, as well as the keywords and journals selected by the authors, among other related characteristics,...
Source: Microbial Ecology - July 21, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Cassán F, López G, Nievas S, Coniglio A, Torres D, Donadio F, Molina R, Mora V Tags: Microb Ecol Source Type: research

Conserved Pigment Profiles in Phylogenetically Diverse Symbiotic Bacteria Associated with the Corals Montastraea cavernosa and Mussismilia braziliensis.
This study highlights the possible roles of bacterial symbionts in Montastraea and Mussismilia holobionts. PMID: 32681284 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Microbial Ecology)
Source: Microbial Ecology - July 18, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Varasteh T, Hamerski L, Tschoeke D, Lima AS, Garcia G, Cosenza CAN, Thompson C, Thompson F Tags: Microb Ecol Source Type: research

Impact of Nutritional Stress on Honeybee Gut Microbiota, Immunity, and Nosema ceranae Infection.
In this study, we examined whether nutritional stress affects honeybee gut microbiota, bee immunity, and infection by Nosema ceranae, under laboratory conditions. Consumption of Eucalyptus grandis pollen was used as a nutritionally poor-quality diet to study nutritional stress, in contraposition to the consumption of polyfloral pollen. Honeybees feed with Eucalyptus grandis pollen showed a lower abundance of Lactobacillus mellifer and Lactobacillus apis (Firm-4 and Firm-5, respectively) and Bifidobacterium spp. and a higher abundance of Bartonella apis, than honeybees fed with polyfloral pollen. Besides the impact of nutri...
Source: Microbial Ecology - July 15, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Castelli L, Branchiccela B, Garrido M, Invernizzi C, Porrini M, Romero H, Santos E, Zunino P, Antúnez K Tags: Microb Ecol Source Type: research

Endophytic Fungus Alleviates Soil Sickness in Peanut Crops by Improving the Carbon Metabolism and Rhizosphere Bacterial Diversity.
In this study, exudates from roots colonized by the endophytic fungus Phomopsis liquidambaris significantly increased rhizosphere bacterial abundance, soil respiration, microbial biomass and enzyme activities in a long-term continuously cropped peanut soil. Further analysis revealed that P. liquidambaris-colonized root exudates clearly altered the carbon metabolism and rhizosphere bacterial diversity, which were closely correlated with changes in soil chemical properties caused by the exudates from the colonized roots. Finally, a synthetic root exudate experiment further confirmed that the root exudates derived from P. liq...
Source: Microbial Ecology - July 12, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Xie XG, Zhao YY, Yang Y, Lu F, Dai CC Tags: Microb Ecol Source Type: research

Diversity of Polyketide Synthases and Nonribosomal Peptide Synthetases Revealed Through Metagenomic Analysis of a Deep Oligotrophic Cave.
Abstract Caves are considered to be extreme and challenging environments. It is believed that the ability of microorganisms to produce secondary metabolites enhances their survivability and adaptiveness in the energy-starved cave environment. Unfortunately, information on the genetic potential for the production of secondary metabolites, such as polyketides and nonribosomal peptides, is limited. In the present study, we aimed to identify and characterize genes responsible for the production of secondary metabolites in the microbial community of one of the deepest caves in the world, Krubera-Voronja Cave (43.4184 N...
Source: Microbial Ecology - July 8, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Lukoseviciute L, Lebedeva J, Kuisiene N Tags: Microb Ecol Source Type: research

Direct Comparison of Fecal and Gut Microbiota in the Blue Mussel (Mytilus edulis) Discourages Fecal Sampling as a Proxy for Resident Gut Community.
Abstract Bivalves have ecological and economic importance but information regarding their associated microbiomes is lacking. As suspension feeders, bivalves capture and ingest a myriad of particles, and their digestive organs have a high throughput of particle-associated microbiota. To better understand the complement of transient and resident microbial communities, standard methods need to be developed. For example, fecal sampling could represent a convenient proxy for the gut microbiome and is simple, nondestructive, and allows for sampling of individuals through time. The goal of this study was to evaluate feca...
Source: Microbial Ecology - July 7, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Griffin TW, Baer JG, Ward JE Tags: Microb Ecol Source Type: research

Invasion of Native Riparian Forests by Acacia Species Affects In-Stream Litter Decomposition and Associated Microbial Decomposers.
Abstract The invasion of native riparian forests by exotic tree species can lead to profound changes in the ecological integrity of freshwater ecosystems. We assessed litter decomposition of native (Alnus glutinosa and Quercus robur) and invasive (Acacia melanoxylon and Acacia dealbata) tree species, and associated microbial activity and community structure, after being immersed for conditioning in 3 reference and 3 "invaded" streams in Serra da Lousã (central Portugal) and used in microcosms simulating stream conditions. Litter decomposition differed among species, in the order: Al. glutinosa>...
Source: Microbial Ecology - July 5, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Pereira A, Ferreira V Tags: Microb Ecol Source Type: research

Diel Dynamics of Freshwater Bacterial Communities at Beaches in Lake Erie and Lake St. Clair, Windsor, Ontario.
Abstract Bacteria play a key role in freshwater biogeochemical cycling as well as water safety, but short-term trends in freshwater bacterial community composition and dynamics are not yet well characterized. We sampled four public beaches in southern Ontario, Canada; in June, July, and August (2016) over a 24-h (diel) cycle at 2-h intervals. Using high-throughput sequencing of 16S rRNA gene, we found substantial bi-hourly and day/night variation in the bacterial communities with considerable fluctuation in the relative abundance of Actinobacteria and Proteobacteria phyla. Moreover, relative abundance of Enterobac...
Source: Microbial Ecology - July 3, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Shahraki AH, Chaganti SR, Heath DD Tags: Microb Ecol Source Type: research

Natural Variation in Physicochemical Profiles and Bacterial Communities Associated with Aedes aegypti Breeding Sites and Larvae on Guadeloupe and French Guiana.
In conclusion, territory-specific differences observed in the biotic and abiotic properties of A. aegypti breeding sites raise concern about the impact of these changes on pathogen transmission by different A. aegypti populations. PMID: 32621210 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Microbial Ecology)
Source: Microbial Ecology - July 3, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Hery L, Guidez A, Durand AA, Delannay C, Normandeau-Guimond J, Reynaud Y, Issaly J, Goindin D, Legrave G, Gustave J, Raffestin S, Breurec S, Constant P, Dusfour I, Guertin C, Vega-Rúa A Tags: Microb Ecol Source Type: research

What Could Explain δ13C Signatures in Biocrust Cyanobacteria of Drylands?
What Could Explain δ13C Signatures in Biocrust Cyanobacteria of Drylands? Microb Ecol. 2020 Jul 03;: Authors: Stricker E, Crain G, Rudgers J, Sinsabaugh R, Fernandes V, Nelson C, Giraldo-Silva A, Garcia-Pichel F, Belnap J, Darrouzet-Nardi A Abstract Dryland ecosystems are increasing in geographic extent and contribute greatly to interannual variability in global carbon dynamics. Disentangling interactions among dominant primary producers, including plants and autotrophic microbes, can help partition their contributions to dryland C dynamics. We measured the δ13C signatures of biological so...
Source: Microbial Ecology - July 3, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Stricker E, Crain G, Rudgers J, Sinsabaugh R, Fernandes V, Nelson C, Giraldo-Silva A, Garcia-Pichel F, Belnap J, Darrouzet-Nardi A Tags: Microb Ecol Source Type: research

Soil Acidobacteria Strain AB23 Resistance to Oxidative Stress Through Production of Carotenoids.
to CC Abstract Metagenomic studies revealed the prevalence of Acidobacteria in soils, but the physiological and ecological reasons for their success are not well understood. Many Acidobacteria exhibit carotenoid-related pigments, which may be involved in their tolerance of environmental stress. The aim of this work was to investigate the role of the orange pigments produced by Acidobacteria strain AB23 isolated from a savannah-like soil and to identify putative carotenoid genes in Acidobacteria genomes. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that strain AB23 belongs to the Occallatibacter genus from the class Acidobacteri...
Source: Microbial Ecology - July 2, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Pinto OHB, Costa FS, Rodrigues GR, da Costa RA, da Rocha Fernandes G, Júnior ORP, Barreto CC Tags: Microb Ecol Source Type: research

Composition of the North American Wood Frog (Rana sylvatica) Bacterial Skin Microbiome and Seasonal Variation in Community Structure.
Abstract While a number of amphibian skin microbiomes have been characterized, it is unclear how these communities might vary in response to seasonal changes in the environment and the corresponding behaviors that many amphibians exhibit. Given recent studies demonstrating the importance of the skin microbiome in frog innate immune defense against pathogens, investigating how changes in the environment impact the microbial species present will provide a better understanding of conditions that may alter host susceptibility to pathogens in their environment. We sampled the bacterial skin microbiome of North American...
Source: Microbial Ecology - July 1, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Douglas AJ, Hug LA, Katzenback BA Tags: Microb Ecol Source Type: research

Individual and Site-Specific Variation in a Biogeographical Profile of the Coyote Gastrointestinal Microbiota.
Abstract Most knowledge of the vertebrate gut microbiota comes from fecal samples; due to difficulties involved in sample collection, the upper intestinal microbiota is poorly understood in wild animals despite its potential to inform broad interpretations about host-gut microbe relationships under natural conditions. Here, we used 16S rRNA gene sequencing to characterize the microbiota of wild coyotes (Canis latrans) along the gastrointestinal tract, including samples from the duodenum, jejunum, ileum, caecum, ascending and descending colon, and feces. We used this intestinal profile to (1) quantify how intestina...
Source: Microbial Ecology - June 27, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Sugden S, St Clair CC, Stein LY Tags: Microb Ecol Source Type: research

Changes in Bacterial and Fungal Microbiomes Associated with Tomatoes of Healthy and Infected by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici.
Abstract Fusarium wilt of tomato caused by the pathogen Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici (Fol) is one of the most devastating soilborne diseases of tomato. To evaluate whether microbial community composition associated with Fol-infected tomato is different from healthy tomato, we analyzed the tomato-associated microbes in both healthy and Fol-infected tomato plants at both the taxonomic and functional levels; both bacterial and fungal communities have been characterized from bulk soil, rhizosphere, rhizoplane, and endosphere of tomatoes using metabarcoding and metagenomics approaches. The microbial community ...
Source: Microbial Ecology - June 25, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Zhou X, Wang JT, Wang WH, Tsui CK, Cai L Tags: Microb Ecol Source Type: research

Unveiling the Microbiota Diversity of the Xerophyte Argania spinosa L. Skeels Root System and Residuesphere.
Abstract The microbiota associated to xerophyte is a "black box" that might include microbes involved in plant adaptation to the extreme conditions that characterize their habitat, like water shortage. In this work, we studied the bacterial communities inhabiting the root system of Argania spinosa L. Skeels, a tree of high economic value and ecological relevance in Northern Africa. Illumina 16S rRNA gene sequencing and cultivation techniques were applied to unravel the bacterial microbiota's structure in environmental niches associated to argan plants (i.e., root endosphere, rhizosphere, root-surrounding...
Source: Microbial Ecology - June 25, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Mapelli F, Riva V, Vergani L, Choukrallah R, Borin S Tags: Microb Ecol Source Type: research

Co-association of Two nir Denitrifiers Under the Influence of Emergent Macrophytes.
Abstract Diverse microorganisms perform similar metabolic process in biogeochemical cycles, whereas they are found of highly genomic differentiation. Biotic interactions should be considered in any community survey of these functional groups, as they contribute to community assembly and ultimately alter ecosystem properties. Current knowledge has mainly been achieved based on functional community characterized by a single gene using co-occurrence network analysis. Biotic interactions between functionally equivalent microorganisms, however, have received much less attention. Herein, we propose the nirK- and nirS-ty...
Source: Microbial Ecology - June 24, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Huang R, Zeng J, Zhao D, Yong B, Yu Z Tags: Microb Ecol Source Type: research

Microbial Community Structure Along a Horizontal Oxygen Gradient in a Costa Rican Volcanic Influenced Acid Rock Drainage System.
We describe the geochemistry and microbial diversity of a pristine environment that resembles an acid rock drainage (ARD) but it is actually the result of hydrothermal and volcanic influences. We designate this environment, and other comparable sites, as volcanic influenced acid rock drainage (VARD) systems. The metal content and sulfuric acid in this ecosystem stem from the volcanic milieu and not from the product of pyrite oxidation. Based on the analysis of 16S rRNA gene amplicons, we report the microbial community structure in the pristine San Cayetano Costa Rican VARD environment (pH = 2.94-3.06, sulfate ~&thin...
Source: Microbial Ecology - June 22, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Arce-Rodríguez A, Puente-Sánchez F, Avendaño R, Libby E, Mora-Amador R, Rojas-Jimenez K, Martínez M, Pieper DH, Chavarría M Tags: Microb Ecol Source Type: research

Environment Shapes the Microbiome of the Blue Orchard Bee, Osmia lignaria : RRH: Environmental Drivers of Bee Microbiome.
Abstract Wild bees encounter environmental microbes while foraging. While environmental context affects bee diversity, little is known about it how affects the wild bee microbiome. We used field surveys in 17 urban gardens to examine whether and how variation in local and landscape habitat features shapes the microbiome of the solitary Blue Orchard Bee, Osmia lignaria. We installed O. lignaria cocoons at each site, allowed bees to emerge and forage, then collected them. We measured local features of gardens using vegetation transects and landscape features with GIS. We found that in microbiome composition between ...
Source: Microbial Ecology - June 22, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Cohen H, McFrederick QS, Philpott SM Tags: Microb Ecol Source Type: research

Exploring the Lignin Catabolism Potential of Soil-Derived Lignocellulolytic Microbial Consortia by a Gene-Centric Metagenomic Approach.
In this study, we aimed to detect enriched lignin-transforming enzymes on metagenomes from three soil-derived microbial consortia that were cultivated on "pre-digested" plant biomass (wheat straw, WS1-M; switchgrass, SG-M; and corn stover, CS-M). Of 60 selected enzyme-encoding genes putatively involved in lignin catabolism, 20 genes were significantly abundant in WS1-M, CS-M, and/or SG-M consortia compared with the initial forest soil inoculum metagenome (FS1). These genes could be involved in lignin oxidation (e.g., superoxide dismutases), oxidative stress responses (e.g., catalase/peroxidases), generation of pr...
Source: Microbial Ecology - June 22, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Díaz-García L, Bugg TDH, Jiménez DJ Tags: Microb Ecol Source Type: research

Investigation of On-Farm Transmission Routes for Contamination of Dairy Cows with Top 7 Escherichia coli O-Serogroups.
This study evaluated environmental reservoirs, intermediate hosts and key pathways that could drive the presence of Top 7 STEC (O157:H7, O26, O45, O103, O111, O121 and O145) on pasture-based dairy herds, using molecular and culture-based methods. A total of 235 composite environmental samples (including soil, bedding, pasture, stock drinking water, bird droppings and flies and faecal samples of dairy animals) were collected from two dairy farms, with four sampling events on each farm. Molecular detection revealed O26, O45, O103 and O121 as the most common O-serogroups, with the greatest occurrence in dairy animal faeces (&...
Source: Microbial Ecology - June 20, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Rapp D, Ross CM, Maclean P, Cave VM, Brightwell G Tags: Microb Ecol Source Type: research

Synergistic Effects of Soil Microbes on Solidago canadensis Depend on Water and Nutrient Availability.
Abstract Soil microbes may greatly affect plant growth. While plants are commonly associated with diverse communities of soil microbes, complementary roles of different microbial communities that may stimulate synergistic effects on plant growth are not adequately tested. Also, such synergistic effects may vary with environmental conditions such as soil nutrient and water availability. We conducted a greenhouse experiment with a widespread clonal plant Solidago canadensis. The experiment was a factorial design with four levels of soil microbial inoculation (fresh soil inocula from grasslands in northern and southe...
Source: Microbial Ecology - June 19, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Adomako MO, Xue W, Tang M, Du DL, Yu FH Tags: Microb Ecol Source Type: research

Trophic Conditions Influence Widespread Distribution of Aster-Like Nanoparticles Within Aquatic Environments.
Abstract Aster-like nanoparticles (ALNs) are newly described femto-entities. Their ecology (e.g., geographic distribution, spatial dynamic, preferences, forcing factors) is still unknown. Here, we report that these entities, which have largely been ignored until now, can develop or maintain themselves in most aquatic environments in the Loire River catchment, France. We observed a significant influence of the trophic state on ALN ecological distributions. A positive relationship between prokaryotic abundance and ALN (r2 = 0.72, p 
Source: Microbial Ecology - June 18, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Fuster M, Billard H, Mandart M, Steiger J, Sime-Ngando T, Colombet J Tags: Microb Ecol Source Type: research

Temperate Forests Dominated by Arbuscular or Ectomycorrhizal Fungi Are Characterized by Strong Shifts from Saprotrophic to Mycorrhizal Fungi with Increasing Soil Depth.
te; E Abstract In temperate and boreal forests, competition for soil resources between free-living saprotrophs and ectomycorrhizal (EcM) fungi has been suggested to restrict saprotrophic fungal dominance to the most superficial organic soil horizons in forests dominated by EcM trees. By contrast, lower niche overlap with arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi could allow fungal saprotrophs to maintain this dominance into deeper soil horizons in AM-dominated forests. Here we used a natural gradient of adjacent forest patches that were dominated by either AM or EcM trees, or a mixture of both to determine how fungal comm...
Source: Microbial Ecology - June 17, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Carteron A, Beigas M, Joly S, Turner BL, Laliberté E Tags: Microb Ecol Source Type: research

Diverse Thaumarchaeota Dominate Subsurface Ammonia-oxidizing Communities in Semi-arid Floodplains in the Western United States.
Abstract Subsurface microbial communities mediate biogeochemical transformations that drive both local and ecosystem-level cycling of essential elements, including nitrogen. However, their study has been largely limited to the deep ocean, terrestrial mines, caves, and topsoils (
Source: Microbial Ecology - June 13, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Cardarelli EL, Bargar JR, Francis CA Tags: Microb Ecol Source Type: research

Shifts in Composition and Activity of Oral Biofilms After Fluoride Exposure.
z A, Mira A Abstract Oral diseases are biofilm-mediated diseases caused by imbalances in the ecology of resident microflora. Among them, dental caries (tooth decay) is considered the most common disease worldwide, and toothbrushing, which physically eliminates the oral biofilm, is the most widespread prevention strategy. Although it is well established that fluoride increases enamel resistance to acidic pH and promotes tooth remineralization, its effect on the biofilm bacterial communities' composition and metabolism is not fully understood. We have grown in vitro oral biofilms and used 16S rRNA Illumina sequencin...
Source: Microbial Ecology - June 11, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: López-López A, Mira A Tags: Microb Ecol Source Type: research

Plant Grafting Shapes Complexity and Co-occurrence of Rhizobacterial Assemblages.
Abstract Grafting is a basic technique which is widely used to increase yield and enhance biotic and abiotic stress tolerance in plant production. The diversity and interactions of rhizobacterial assemblages shaped by grafting are important for the growth of their hosts but remain poorly understood. To test the hypothesis that plant grafting shapes complexity and co-occurrence of rhizobacterial assemblage, four types of plants, including ungrafted bottle gourd (B), ungrafted watermelon (W), grafted watermelon with bottle gourd rootstock (W/B), and grafted bottle gourd with watermelon rootstock (B/W), were cultivat...
Source: Microbial Ecology - June 8, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Ruan Y, Wang T, Guo S, Ling N, Shen Q Tags: Microb Ecol Source Type: research

Comparable Ecological Processes Govern the Temporal Succession of Gut Bacteria and Microeukaryotes as Shrimp Aged.
Abstract Understanding the rules that govern the successions of gut microbiota is prerequisite for testing general ecological theories and sustaining a desirable microbiota. However, the ignorance of microeukaryotes raises the question of whether gut microeukaryotes are assembled according to the same rules as bacteria. We tracked the shrimp gut bacterial and microeukaryotic communities by a longitudinal dense sampling. The successions of both domains were significantly correlated with host age, with relatively stable microeukaryotic communities in adult shrimp. Gut microeukaryotes exhibited significantly higher t...
Source: Microbial Ecology - June 3, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Xiong J, Li X, Yan M, Lu J, Qiu Q, Chen J Tags: Microb Ecol Source Type: research

Annual Cycle of Freshwater Diatoms in the High Arctic Revealed by Multiparameter Fluorescent Staining.
This study aimed to evaluate the annual cycle of freshwater diatoms in the High Arctic (Central Spitsbergen) and provide an insight into their physiological cell status variability. The diversity and viability of diatom cells were studied in samples collected five times at four study sites, tracing the key events for survival (summer vegetative season, autumn dry-freezing, winter freezing, spring melting, summer vegetative season [again]). For viability evaluation, a multiparameter fluorescent staining was used in combination with light microscopy and allowed to reveal the physiological status at a single-cell level. The p...
Source: Microbial Ecology - June 2, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Hejduková E, Elster J, Nedbalová L Tags: Microb Ecol Source Type: research

Effects, interactions, and localization of Rickettsia and Wolbachia in the house fly parasitoid, Spalangia endius.
Abstract Many insect species harbor facultative microbial symbionts that affect their biology in diverse ways. Here, we studied the effects, interactions, and localization of two bacterial symbionts-Wolbachia and Rickettsia-in the parasitoid Spalangia endius. We crossed between four S. endius colonies-Wolbachia only (W), Rickettsia only (R), both (WR), and none (aposymbiotic, APS) (16 possible crosses) and found that Wolbachia induces incomplete cytoplasmic incompatibility (CI), both when the males are W or WR. Rickettsia did not cause reproductive manipulations and did not rescue the Wolbachia-induced CI. However...
Source: Microbial Ecology - June 2, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Semiatizki A, Weiss B, Bagim S, Rohkin-Shalom S, Kaltenpoth M, Chiel E Tags: Microb Ecol Source Type: research

Distinct Expression of the Two NO-Forming Nitrite Reductases in Thermus antranikianii DSM 12462T Improved Environmental Adaptability.
Abstract Hot spring ecosystems are analogous to some thermal environments on the early Earth and represent ideal models to understand life forms and element cycling on the early Earth. Denitrification, an important component of biogeochemical nitrogen cycle, is highly active in hot springs. Nitrite (NO2-) reduction to nitric oxide (NO) is the significant and rate-limiting pathway in denitrification and is catalyzed by two types of nitrite reductases, encoded by nirS and nirK genes. NirS and NirK were originally considered incompatible in most denitrifying organisms, although a few strains have been reported to pos...
Source: Microbial Ecology - May 30, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Liu RR, Tian Y, Zhou EM, Xiong MJ, Xiao M, Li WJ Tags: Microb Ecol Source Type: research

Pathobiomes Revealed that Pseudomonas fuscovaginae and Sarocladium oryzae Are Independently Associated with Rice Sheath Rot.
Abstract Rice sheath rot has been mainly associated with the bacterial pathogen Pseudomonas fuscovaginae and in some cases to the fungal pathogen Sarocladium oryzae; it is yet unclear if they are part of a complex disease. The bacterial and fungal community associated with rice sheath rot symptomatic and asymptomatic rice plants was determined/studied with the main aim to shed light on the pathogen(s) causing rice sheath rot. Plant samples were collected from different rice varieties in two locations (highland and lowland) in two rice-growing seasons (wet and dry season) in Burundi. Our results showed that the bac...
Source: Microbial Ecology - May 30, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Musonerimana S, Bez C, Licastro D, Habarugira G, Bigirimana J, Venturi V Tags: Microb Ecol Source Type: research

Unlocking the Genomic Taxonomy of the Prochlorococcus Collective.
son C Abstract Prochlorococcus is the most abundant photosynthetic prokaryote on our planet. The extensive ecological literature on the Prochlorococcus collective (PC) is based on the assumption that it comprises one single genus comprising the species Prochlorococcus marinus, containing itself a collective of ecotypes. Ecologists adopt the distributed genome hypothesis of an open pan-genome to explain the observed genomic diversity and evolution patterns of the ecotypes within PC. Novel genomic data for the PC prompted us to revisit this group, applying the current methods used in genomic taxonomy. As a result, w...
Source: Microbial Ecology - May 28, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Tschoeke D, Salazar VW, Vidal L, Campeão M, Swings J, Thompson F, Thompson C Tags: Microb Ecol Source Type: research

Control of Hydraulic Load on Bacterioplankton Diversity in Cascade Hydropower Reservoirs, Southwest China.
This study can improve the understanding of reservoir bacterial ecology, and the empirical relationship between hydraulic load and bacterioplankton diversity index will help to quantitatively evaluate ecological effects of river damming. PMID: 32462390 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Microbial Ecology)
Source: Microbial Ecology - May 27, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Yang M, Shi J, Wang B, Xiao J, Li W, Liu CQ Tags: Microb Ecol Source Type: research

Impact of Gut Bacteria on the Infection and Transmission of Pathogenic Arboviruses by Biting Midges and Mosquitoes.
adt CJM Abstract Tripartite interactions among insect vectors, midgut bacteria, and viruses may determine the ability of insects to transmit pathogenic arboviruses. Here, we investigated the impact of gut bacteria on the susceptibility of Culicoides nubeculosus and Culicoides sonorensis biting midges for Schmallenberg virus, and of Aedes aegypti mosquitoes for Zika and chikungunya viruses. Gut bacteria were manipulated by treating the adult insects with antibiotics. The gut bacterial communities were investigated using Illumina MiSeq sequencing of 16S rRNA, and susceptibility to arbovirus infection was tested by f...
Source: Microbial Ecology - May 27, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Möhlmann TWR, Vogels CBF, Göertz GP, Pijlman GP, Ter Braak CJF, Te Beest DE, Hendriks M, Nijhuis EH, Warris S, Drolet BS, van Overbeek L, Koenraadt CJM Tags: Microb Ecol Source Type: research

The Dynamics of Interacting Bacterial and Fungal Communities of the Mouse Colon Following Antibiotics.
Abstract We tested two hypotheses concerning the dynamics of intestinal microbial communities of young mice following antibiotic-induced disturbance. The first is that disturbance of the bacterial community causes disturbance of the fungal community. Our results were consistent with that hypothesis. Antibiotics significantly altered bacterial community structure. Antibiotics also altered fungal community structure, significantly increasing the relative abundance of Candida lusitaniae, a known pathogen, while simultaneously significantly decreasing the relative abundances of several other common fungal species. The...
Source: Microbial Ecology - May 25, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Nettles R, Ricks KD, Koide RT Tags: Microb Ecol Source Type: research

Characterizing Microbial Signatures on Sculptures and Paintings of Similar Provenance.
Abstract The preservation of artwork challenges museums, collectors, and art enthusiasts. Currently, reducing moisture, adjusting the type of lighting, and preventing the formation of mold are primary methods to preserving and preventing deterioration. Other methods such as ones based in detailed knowledge of molecular biology such as microbial community characterization using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and sequencing have yet to be explored. Such molecular biology approaches are essential to explore as some environmental bacteria are capable of oxidizing nonpolar chemical substances rich in hydrocarbons such...
Source: Microbial Ecology - May 21, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Torralba MG, Kuelbs C, Moncera KJ, Roby R, Nelson KE Tags: Microb Ecol Source Type: research

The Vibrios: Scavengers, Symbionts, and Pathogens from the Sea.
Abstract Bacteria belonging to the genus Vibrio are major carbon cycle drivers in marine and estuarine environments. As is the case for most carbon cycle participants, the vibrios metabolize degradable compounds such as sugars and amino acids; they can also degrade some more recalcitrant compounds including hydrocarbons and lignins. Several vibrios are symbionts and even fewer are pathogenic for animals, including humans and marine animals and plants. This paper reviews Vibrio ecology, metabolism, and survival, and it also discusses select vibrios-V. alginolyticus, V. cholerae, V. coralliilyticus, V. cortegadensis...
Source: Microbial Ecology - May 21, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Grimes DJ Tags: Microb Ecol Source Type: research

Terrestrial Isopods Porcellio scaber and Oniscus asellus (Crustacea: Isopoda) Increase Bacterial Abundance and Modify Microbial Community Structure in Leaf Litter Microcosms: a Short-Term Decomposition Study.
Abstract Invasive terrestrial isopods are likely to have altered leaf litter decomposition processes in North American forests, but the mechanisms underlying these alterations and the degree to which they differ among isopod species are poorly characterized. Using mixed-deciduous leaf litter microcosms, we quantified the effects of two common, invasive isopods (Oniscus asellus and Porcellio scaber) on short-term leaf litter decomposition and microbial community structure and function. Microcosms containing ground litter and a microbial inoculant were exposed to one of the two isopod species or no isopods for 21 da...
Source: Microbial Ecology - May 21, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Des Marteaux LE, Kullik SA, Habash M, Schmidt JM Tags: Microb Ecol Source Type: research

Microbial Assemblage Dynamics Within the American Alligator Nesting Ecosystem: a Comparative Approach Across Ecological Scales.
Abstract Understanding the ecological processes that shape species assemblage patterns is central to community ecology. The effects of ecological processes on assemblage patterns are scale-dependent. We used metabarcoding and shotgun sequencing to determine bacterial taxonomic and functional assemblage patterns among varying defined focal scales (micro-, meso-, and macroscale) within the American alligator (Alligator mississippiensis) nesting microbiome. We correlate bacterial assemblage patterns among eight nesting compartments within and proximal to alligator nests (micro-), across 18 nests (meso-), and between ...
Source: Microbial Ecology - May 18, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Grajal-Puche A, Murray CM, Kearley M, Merchant M, Nix C, Warner JK, Walker DM Tags: Microb Ecol Source Type: research

Spatial Distribution Patterns of Bacterioplankton in the Oxygen Minimum Zone of the Tropical Mexican Pacific.
il DU Abstract Microbial communities within oxygen minimum zones (OMZs) are crucial drivers of marine biogeochemical cycles; however, we still lack an understanding of how these communities are distributed across an OMZ. We explored vertical (from 5 to 500 m depth) and horizontal (coast to open ocean) distribution of bacterioplankton and its relationships with the main oceanographic conditions in three transects of the tropical Mexican Pacific OMZ. The distribution of the microbial diversity and the main clades changed along the transition from oxygen-rich surface water to the OMZ core, demonstrating the sens...
Source: Microbial Ecology - May 15, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Pajares S, Varona-Cordero F, Hernández-Becerril DU Tags: Microb Ecol Source Type: research