Artificial intelligence enhances brain tumour diagnosis

(Kyoto University) A new machine learning approach classifies a common type of brain tumour into low or high grades with almost 98% accuracy, researchers report in the journal IEEE Access. Scientists in India and Japan, including from Kyoto University's Institute for Integrated Cell-Material Sciences (iCeMS), developed the method to help clinicians choose the most effective treatment strategy for individual patients.
Source: EurekAlert! - Medicine and Health - Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: news

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Authors: Roth P, Mason WP, Richardson PG, Weller M Abstract INTRODUCTION: Glioblastoma is a primary brain tumor with a poor prognosis despite multimodal therapy including surgery, radiotherapy and alkylating chemotherapy. Novel therapeutic options are therefore urgently needed; however, there have been various drug failures in late-stage clinical development. The proteasome represents a key target for anti-cancer therapy as successfully shown in multiple myeloma and other hematologic malignancies. AREAS COVERED: This review article summarizes the preclinical and clinical development of proteasome inhibitors in ...
Source: Expert Opinion on Investigational Drugs - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Expert Opin Investig Drugs Source Type: research
Conditions:   Malignant Brain Neoplasm;   Recurrent Malignant Brain Neoplasm;   Refractory Malignant Brain Neoplasm Interventions:   Drug: Cyclophosphamide;   Drug: Fludarabine;   Biological: IL13Ralpha2-specific Hinge-optimized 41BB-co-stimulatory CAR Truncated CD19-expressing Autologous T-Lymphocytes Sponsors:   City of Hope Medical Center;   National Cancer Institute (NCI) Not yet recruiting
Source: ClinicalTrials.gov - Category: Research Source Type: clinical trials
CONCLUSIONS: We found indirect evidence for metabolic reprogramming in IDH-mutant tumors with significantly lower lactate concentrations compared with IDH wild-type tumors and a near-normal intracellular pH.
Source: American Journal of Neuroradiology - Category: Radiology Authors: Tags: FUNCTIONAL Source Type: research
This study aimed to investigate the effect of Piezo1 overexpression on peritumoral brain edema in glioblastomas. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The Piezo1 expression in cell lines and paired samples was detected by quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, Western blot, and immunohistochemistry. Sixty-four patients with glioblastomas were analyzed retrospectively. The Piezo1 expression of tumor tissue was detected by immunohistochemistry. The diameters of tumor and edema were measured by preoperative MR imaging, and the edema index value was calculated. RESULTS: Western blot and quantitative reverse transcrip...
Source: American Journal of Neuroradiology - Category: Radiology Authors: Tags: ADULT BRAIN Source Type: research
In this study, we demonstrate that brachyury expression can impair aggressive glioma features associated with treatment resistance. Finally, we provide the first evidence that brachyury can be a potential therapeutic target in GBM patients who do not respond to conventional chemotherapeutic drugs.
Source: Neurotherapeutics - Category: Neurology Source Type: research
ConclusionThis exploratory pilot study shows that lower ADC values may be useful for prediction of EGFR amplification, whereas higherVp values may be useful for prediction of the TERTp mutation status of IDHwt LGGs.Key Points•EGFR amplification and TERTp mutation are key molecular markers that predict an aggressive clinical course of IDHwt LGGs.•EGFR-amplified tumors showed lower ADC values than EGFR-non-amplified tumors, suggesting higher cellularity.•TERTp mutant tumors showed a higher plasma volume fraction than TERTp wildtype tumors, suggesting higher vascular proliferation and tumor angiogenesis.
Source: European Radiology - Category: Radiology Source Type: research
deus J. Wadas Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most aggressive glioma of the primary central nervous system. Due to the lack of effective treatment options, the prognosis for patients remains bleak. Fibroblast activation protein alpha (FAP), a 170 kDa type II transmembrane serine protease was observed to be expressed on glioma cells and within the glioma tumor microenvironment. To understand the utility of targeting FAP in this tumor type, the immuno-PET radiopharmaceutical [89Zr]Zr-Df-Bz-F19 mAb was prepared and Lindmo analysis was used for its in vitro evaluation using the U87MG cell line, which expresses FAP end...
Source: Molecules - Category: Chemistry Authors: Tags: Article Source Type: research
Acta Pharmacologica Sinica, Published online: 11 August 2020; doi:10.1038/s41401-020-0488-1Carnosine suppresses human glioma cells under normoxic and hypoxic conditions partly via inhibiting glutamine metabolism
Source: Acta Pharmacologica Sinica - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Source Type: research
We report that about 80% of IDH mutations in these tumors are of non-IDH1-R132H variants which are rare in supratentorial astrocytomas. Most frequently, IDH1-R132C/G and IDH2-R172S/G mutations were present. Moreover, the frequencies of ATRX-loss andMGMT promoter methylation, which are typically associated with IDH mutations in supratentorial astrocytic tumors, were significantly lower in the infratentorial compartment. Gene panel sequencing revealed two samples with IDH1-R132C/H3F3A-K27M co-mutations. Genome-wide DNA methylation as well as chromosomal copy number profiling provided further evidence for a molecular distinct...
Source: Acta Neuropathologica - Category: Neurology Source Type: research
SYDNEY, Aug. 7, 2020 /PRNewswire/ -- Kazia Therapeutics Limited (ASX: KZA;NASDAQ: KZIA), an Australian oncology-focused biotechnology company, is pleased to announce that the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has...
Source: Drugs.com - Clinical Trials - Category: Pharmaceuticals Source Type: clinical trials
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