Effect of ketamine on oxidative stress following lipopolysaccharide administration

Abstract The aim of this study was to determine the effect of ketamine on oxidative stress and inflammation in the brain and liver in basal state and during systemic inflammation induced by intraperitoneal (i.p.) lipopolysaccharide (LPS) administration. Rats were treated with subcutaneous ketamine (15 or 30 mg/kg) alone, LPS (300 μg/kg, i.p.) or with ketamine (30 mg/kg) and LPS (300 μg/kg, i.p.) and euthanized 4 h later. Lipid peroxidation (malondialdehyde: MDA), reduced glutathione (GSH), nitric oxide (nitrite) concentrations and paraoxonase 1 (PON1) activity were measured in the brain (in the striatum and in the cerebral cortex) and liver. Tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) was determined in brain tissue. Histopathological assessment and immunohistochemical expression of the apoptotic marker caspase-3 were performed as well. Results: LPS increased oxidative stress in both the brain and liver tissue. Rats treated with ketamine alone exhibited higher MDA concentrations in the brain and liver, whereas brain and liver GSH and nitric oxide concentrations and PON1 activities were depressed compared with the saline control group. Ketamine given to LPS-treated rats resulted in increased MDA compared with either agent alone. GSH concentrations and PON1 activities were markedly depressed in rats given ketamine and LPS. Ketamine decreased the LPS-induced elevation in nitric oxide. Ketamine resulted in increased TNF-α in brain in s...
Source: Comparative Clinical Pathology - Category: Pathology Source Type: research

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This study examined the impact of psychiatric comorbidity on QOL in patients admitted to two level 4 epilepsy monitoring units (EMUs).MethodsIn this prospective observational study, 200 patients admitted to two level 4 EMUs completed standardized surveys including the Quality of Life in Epilepsy (QOLIE-31-P), Generalized Anxiety Disorder 7-item (GAD-7), Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9), and Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II). Hierarchal multiple regression was performed to assess impact on QOL.ResultsOf the 200 participants, 113 had a diagnosis of epilepsy, 36 had a diagnosis of PNES, and 51 were excluded for nondia...
Source: Epilepsy and Behavior - Category: Neurology Source Type: research
Objectives: Gastroesophageal reflux (GER), excessive crying, and constipation are common gastrointestinal symptoms in infancy of multifactorial origin in which psychosocial stress factors play an important role. The aims of this observational study were to investigate the presence of gastrointestinal symptoms in infants of mothers with or without a history of a psychiatric disorder, their association with maternal depressive symptoms, and the possible mediating role of bonding. Methods: One hundred one mothers with a history of a psychiatric disorder and 60 control mothers were included. Infant gastrointestinal sympto...
Source: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition - Category: Gastroenterology Tags: Original Articles: Gastroenterology Source Type: research
This study evaluated the anxiolytic and antidepressant activities of the hydroethanol leaf extract of N. laevis in mice.Materials and methodsThe hole-board (HBT), elevated plus maze (EPMT), light/dark exploration (LDET), open field (OFT), social interaction (SIT) (anxiolytic activity), forced swim (FST) and tail suspension (TST) (antidepressant property) tests were employed in this investigation. Mice randomly allotted to different groups were treated orally with distilled water (10 ml/kg), diazepam (1 and 3 mg/kg), imipramine (20 mg/kg) and N. laevis (25–200 mg/kg). The mice were subjected to the various tes...
Source: Journal of Ethnopharmacology - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research
Abstract Dr. Elisabeth Kübler-Ross is credited as one of the first clinicians to formalize recommendations for working with patients with advanced medical illnesses. In her seminal book, On Death and Dying, she identified a glaring gap in our understanding of how people cope with death, both on the part of the terminally ill patients that face death and as the clinicians who care for these patients. Now, 50 years later, a substantial and ever-growing body of research has identified "best practices" for end of life care and provides confirmation and support for many of the therapeutic practice...
Source: The American Journal of Bioethics : AJOB - Category: Medical Ethics Authors: Tags: Am J Bioeth Source Type: research
We examined (a) moderation effects of anxiety, depression, psychological inflexibility, and interpretation of intrusions and (b) the role of psychological inflexibility and interpretation of intrusions respectively as processes of change. Participants with less dysfunctional appraisals at pretreatment performed consistently better in ERP relative to ACT + ERP. In process analyses, psychological inflexibility and interpretation of intrusions positively influenced OCD severity over time in both conditions but OCD symptom severity also positively influenced psychological inflexibility and interpretation of intrusion...
Source: Journal of Obsessive Compulsive and Related Disorders - Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research
Publication date: 20 November 2019Source: Neuron, Volume 104, Issue 4Author(s): Fikri Birey, Michelle Kloc, Manideep Chavali, Israa Hussein, Michael Wilson, Daniel J. Christoffel, Tony Chen, Michael A. Frohman, John K. Robinson, Scott J. Russo, Arianna Maffei, Adan Aguirre
Source: Neuron - Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research
Publication date: 20 November 2019Source: Neuron, Volume 104, Issue 4Author(s): Margarita Calvo, Alexander J. Davies, Harry L. Hébert, Greg A. Weir, Elissa J. Chesler, Nanna B. Finnerup, Roy C. Levitt, Blair H. Smith, G. Gregory Neely, Michael Costigan, David L. BennettNeuropathic pain (NeuP) arises due to injury of the somatosensory nervous system and is both common and disabling, rendering an urgent need for non-addictive, effective new therapies. Given the high evolutionary conservation of pain, investigative approaches from Drosophila mutagenesis to human Mendelian genetics have aided our understanding of the ma...
Source: Neuron - Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research
AbstractDecapitation is well-documented as an immediately lethal injury that is encountered in medicolegal autopsies. It can be due to an accident, suicide, or homicide. Literature on decapitation reveals that suicide is committed by decapitation using domestic or industrial tools, such as electric saws and drills, and improvised guillotines. Decapitation can also be the result of railway or other bizarre incidents. In this particular case, a man committed suicide by decapitation using a log splitter. This has not been reported earlier. Death investigation, including a medicolegal autopsy and scene visit, was conducted. Th...
Source: Forensic Science, Medicine, and Pathology - Category: Forensic Medicine Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 21 November 2019Source: Nitric OxideAuthor(s): Jeferson Almeida, Leandro A. Oliveira, Ricardo Benini, Carlos C. CrestaniAbstractIncreased nitric oxide (NO) levels have been identified in the hippocampus of animals subjected to social isolation. However, a role of this change in behavioral and physiological changes evoked by isolation has never been evaluated. Thus, this study investigated the involvement of nitrergic neurotransmission acting via the neuronal isoform of nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) within the dorsal hippocampus in behavioral and cardiovascular changes in isolated reared ra...
Source: Nitric Oxide - Category: Chemistry Source Type: research
Authors: Lain E, Day D, Harper J, Guenin E Abstract Background: There has been an increasing interest in gender and racial differences both in the pathogenesis and treatment of acne vulgaris (acne), and postinflammatory hyperpigmentation (PIH) is a major concern in patients of color. Female acne patients report more anxiety and depression with acne improvement positively influencing Quality of Life (QoL) than their male counterparts, and there are differences in acne presentation. The first lotion formulation of tretinoin was developed using novel polymeric emulsion technology to provide an important alternative op...
Source: Journal of Drugs in Dermatology - Category: Dermatology Tags: J Drugs Dermatol Source Type: research
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