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The Observer science quiz 2013: answers to parts 2 and 3

How did you get on with our annual brainteaser? Check your answers to parts 2 and 3 hereIN THE NEWS21. California; 22. Canada; 23. Lung cancer; 24. Francis Crick; 25. Lake Vostok; 26. 6m tonnes; 27. Henrietta Lack; 28. 100m years; 29. Primate; 30. Mangalyaan; 31. 30 years; 32. 1799; 33. Ununpentium; 34. A full hand transplant; 35. Pakistan; 36. Olinguito; 37. 12bn miles (19bn kilometres); 38. They said they had cured a child of HIV; 39. Arctic Sunrise; 40. Paris.ASTEROIDS, METEORS AND COMETS41. 17,200 miles; 42. 2046; 43. Chelyabinsk; 44. 500; 45. 0.05%; 46. Swift-Tuttle; 47. Chinese; 48. C/2012 S1; 49. It had 6 tails; 50. Origins, Spectral Interpretation, Resource Identification, Security and Regolith Explorer.WHO SAID?51. David Attenborough; 52. Owen Patterson; 53. Richard Dawkins (below); 54. Nigel Lawson; 55. Peter Higgs; 56. Robert Edwards; 57. Australian PM Tony Abbott; 58. Susan Greenfield; 59. Chris Hadfield; 60. Prince Philip.PICTURE GALLERY61. Tian Tian; 62. Virginia McKenna; 63. Ig Nobel prize in Medicine 2013; 64. Iran; 65. Utah; 66. Angela Merkel; 67. Cuadrilla Resources; 68. The oldest bird; 69. 14,055%; 70. First cross‑continental flight in a solar-powered plane.Josh Davistheguardian.com © 2013 Guardian News and Media Limited or its affiliated companies. All rights reserved. | Use of this content is subject to our Terms &Conditions | More Feeds
Source: Guardian Unlimited Science - Category: Science Authors: Tags: Editorial The Observer Science Source Type: news

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This case series describes 90-day mortality of patients who required tracheal, bronchial, or carinal reconstruction using stented aortic allografts supported by muscle flaps for treatment of inoperable airway disease including lung cancer, tracheal stenosis, or tracheomalacia.
Source: JAMA - Journal of the American Medical Association - Category: General Medicine Source Type: research
By DAVID SHAYWITZ, MD Randomized control trials – RCTs – rose to prominence in the twentieth century as physicians and regulators sought to evaluate rigorously the performance of new medical therapies; by century’s end, RCTs had become, as medical historian Laura Bothwell has noted, “the gold standard of medical knowledge,” occupying the top position of the “methodologic heirarch[y].” The value of RCTs lies in the random, generally blinded, allocation of patients to treatment or control group, an approach that when properly executed minimizes confounders (based on the presumption t...
Source: The Health Care Blog - Category: Consumer Health News Authors: Tags: Uncategorized Source Type: blogs
By DAVID SHAYWITZ, MD Randomized control trials – RCTs – rose to prominence in the twentieth century as physicians and regulators sought to evaluate rigorously the performance of new medical therapies; by century’s end, RCTs had become, as medical historian Laura Bothwell has noted, “the gold standard of medical knowledge,” occupying the top position of the “methodologic heirarch[y].” The value of RCTs lies in the random, generally blinded, allocation of patients to treatment or control group, an approach that when properly executed minimizes confounders (based on the presumption t...
Source: The Health Care Blog - Category: Consumer Health News Authors: Tags: Uncategorized Source Type: blogs
Authors: Bindels LB, Neyrinck AM, Loumaye A, Catry E, Walgrave H, Cherbuy C, Leclercq S, Van Hul M, Plovier H, Pachikian B, Bermúdez-Humarán LG, Langella P, Cani PD, Thissen JP, Delzenne NM Abstract Intestinal disorders often occur in cancer patients, in association with body weight loss, and this alteration is commonly attributed to the chemotherapy. Here, using a mouse model of cancer cachexia induced by ectopic transplantation of C26 cancer cells, we discovered a profound alteration in the gut functions (gut permeability, epithelial turnover, gut immunity, microbial dysbiosis) independently of any ...
Source: Oncotarget - Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Oncotarget Source Type: research
This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. PMID: 29700855 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Clinical Lung Cancer - Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Tags: Clin Transplant Source Type: research
We report our experience and the critical differences in the presentation of malignancy in kidney transplant patients performed at our tertiary care center and followed up over the period of 1990–2015. A total of 338 live donor transplants performed in 332 patients were analyzed. Induction immunosuppression was used in 22 cases with interleukin-2 (IL-2) receptor antibody. Overall 299 patients were continued on calcineurin inhibitor (CNI)-based triple drug immunosuppression, 33 were off CNI with 13 of them receiving sirolimus additionally. A total of 16 malignancies including post transplant lymphoproliferative diseas...
Source: Indian Journal of Nephrology - Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Source Type: research
Scientists at the Vaccine and Immunotherapy Center (VIC) at Massachusetts General Hospital have uncovered a novel, two-agent immunotherapy combination that worked surprisingly well in animal models with malignant mesothelioma. The discovery has sparked new optimism for immunotherapy, which has struggled to provide consistently positive results with aggressive cancers such as mesothelioma. “This is the beginning of a new story of hope, a new combination of immunotherapy,” Dr. Mark Poznansky, director of the VIC and associate professor at Harvard Medical School, told Asbestos.com. “It worked quite well in a...
Source: Asbestos and Mesothelioma News - Category: Environmental Health Authors: Source Type: news
Authors: Wang Y, Lan GB, Peng FH, Xie XB Abstract Renal transplantation is associated with an increased risk of cancers at multiple sites; however, the relationships between increased cancer risk and participant characteristics remain unclear. We searched PubMed, Embase, and the Cochrane Library to identify prospective observational studies performed up to July 2017. Totally 11 prospective studies reported data on 79,988 renal transplant recipients were included. Renal transplant recipients were found to display a higher risk of all cancers (standard incidence ratio [SIR]: 2.89; 95% CI: 2.13-3.91; P
Source: Oncotarget - Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Oncotarget Source Type: research
This study aimed to evaluate a reader-independent quantitative density metric (QDM) derived from CT histograms to associate with CLAD survival. A retrospective study evaluated CT scans corresponding to CLAD onset using pulmonary function tests in 74 patients (23 RAS, 51 BOS). Two different QDM values (QDM1 and QDM2) were calculated using CT lung density histograms. Calculation of QDM1 includes the extreme edges of the histogram. Calculation of QDM2 includes the central region of the histogram. Kaplan-Meier analysis and Cox regression analysis were used for CLAD prognosis. Higher QDM values were significantly associated wit...
Source: Clinical Lung Cancer - Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Tags: Clin Transplant Source Type: research
Circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) analysis has demonstrated excellent specificity and satisfactory sensitivity to detect somatic mutations across many tumor types and particularly in patients with metastatic disease [1,2]. ctDNA detection rate and level primarily depend on tumor burden, proliferation and tumor type [3]. Its clinical use as a theragnostic biomarker for detectingEGFR mutation has been approved in stage IV non-small-cell lung cancer patients, in whom invasive tumor biopsy may be perilous because of limited accessibility and/or pre-existing organ dysfunction (e.g. emphysema). In that regard, biopsies of hepatocell...
Source: Annals of Oncology - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research
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