The Observer science quiz 2013: answers to parts 2 and 3

How did you get on with our annual brainteaser? Check your answers to parts 2 and 3 hereIN THE NEWS21. California; 22. Canada; 23. Lung cancer; 24. Francis Crick; 25. Lake Vostok; 26. 6m tonnes; 27. Henrietta Lack; 28. 100m years; 29. Primate; 30. Mangalyaan; 31. 30 years; 32. 1799; 33. Ununpentium; 34. A full hand transplant; 35. Pakistan; 36. Olinguito; 37. 12bn miles (19bn kilometres); 38. They said they had cured a child of HIV; 39. Arctic Sunrise; 40. Paris.ASTEROIDS, METEORS AND COMETS41. 17,200 miles; 42. 2046; 43. Chelyabinsk; 44. 500; 45. 0.05%; 46. Swift-Tuttle; 47. Chinese; 48. C/2012 S1; 49. It had 6 tails; 50. Origins, Spectral Interpretation, Resource Identification, Security and Regolith Explorer.WHO SAID?51. David Attenborough; 52. Owen Patterson; 53. Richard Dawkins (below); 54. Nigel Lawson; 55. Peter Higgs; 56. Robert Edwards; 57. Australian PM Tony Abbott; 58. Susan Greenfield; 59. Chris Hadfield; 60. Prince Philip.PICTURE GALLERY61. Tian Tian; 62. Virginia McKenna; 63. Ig Nobel prize in Medicine 2013; 64. Iran; 65. Utah; 66. Angela Merkel; 67. Cuadrilla Resources; 68. The oldest bird; 69. 14,055%; 70. First cross‑continental flight in a solar-powered plane.Josh © 2013 Guardian News and Media Limited or its affiliated companies. All rights reserved. | Use of this content is subject to our Terms &Conditions | More Feeds
Source: Guardian Unlimited Science - Category: Science Authors: Tags: Editorial The Observer Science Source Type: news

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Conclusion.The use of agents that act on the PD‐L1 pathway are contraindicated in the face of solid organ allografts because of unacceptably high rates of irreversible allograft rejection. It appears that the use of ipilimumab may be tolerated as the mechanism is different from that of the PD‐L1 agents.Implications for Practice.Transplant rejection is a complex process that puts stress on patients and their families and can lead to tragic results. Significant advancements in the field of immunosuppression have led to the engenderment of agents devised to extend the survival of transplant recipients. The advent of immun...
Source: The Oncologist - Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Tags: Hepatobiliary, Lung Cancer, Melanoma and Cutaneous Malignancies Immuno ‐ Oncology Source Type: research
We report the case of a patient with ALK translocated ALCL with CNS involvement who developed debilitating neuropathy after chemotherapy and was treated with alectinib at relapse. The patient had a complete response after 6 weeks which has continued for 6 months allowing him to undergo an allogeneic stem cell transplant. To our knowledge, this is the first published case report of a patient with ALCL successfully treated with alectinib.
Source: Clinical Lymphoma Myeloma and Leukemia - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research
CONCLUSIONS: Both cancer incidence and mortality are remarkably increased after heart transplantation, with the relative incidence most elevated for SCC, lip and other oral cancers, and for NHL. PMID: 30821595 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Acta Oncologica - Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Tags: Acta Oncol Source Type: research
We have read with great interest the case report by Pujol et al entitled Synchronous multiple non-small cell lung cancers in an allograft lung recipient [1], about a young cystic fibrosis lung transplant recipient who developed metastatic lung cancer. We would like to comment on this ‘rare’ long-term complication post lung transplantation. Recent registry data from the International Society of Heart and Lung Transplantation showed that the overall incidence of a malignancy post lung transplantation at 1, 5 and 10 years is 5.3%, 19.6% and 31.7% respectively [2] In observation al studies the incidence of lung can...
Source: Lung Cancer - Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Source Type: research
Abstract Cancer transmission with organ donation has been previously reported with a variety of malignancies and organ transplants. The risk of transmission through organ transplantation from donors with a history of previously treated malignancies has been addressed by guidelines from transplant societies. Herein, we report a case of a patient who developed lung cancer confined to the liver after liver transplantation with no known history of malignancy in the donor. The suspicion of donor origin arose after positron emission tomography-computerized tomography scan showed metastatic lung cancer only involving the...
Source: The Oncologist - Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Tags: Oncologist Source Type: research
In the present study, we have provided convincing evidence in vitro and in vivo demonstrating thatNr5a2 can induce lung cancer stem cells (CSC) properties and promote tumorigenesis and progression through transcriptional up ‐regulation of Nanog. AbstractLung cancer has the highest mortality rate due to late diagnosis and high incidence of metastasis. Cancer stem cells (CSCs) are a subgroup of cancer cells with self ‐renewal capability similar to that of normal stem cells (NSCs). While CSCs may play an important role in cancer progression, mechanisms underlying CSC self‐renewal and the relationship between self‐rene...
Source: Cancer Medicine - Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Tags: ORIGINAL RESEARCH Source Type: research
In this study, we show that calorie restriction is protective against age-related increases in senescence and microglia activation and pro-inflammatory cytokine expression in an animal model of aging. Further, these protective effects mitigated age-related decline in neuroblast and neuronal production, and enhanced olfactory memory performance, a behavioral index of neurogenesis in the SVZ. Our results support the concept that calorie restriction might be an effective anti-aging intervention in the context of healthy brain aging. Greater Modest Activity in Late Life Correlates with Lower Incidence of Dementia ...
Source: Fight Aging! - Category: Research Authors: Tags: Newsletters Source Type: blogs
Source: The Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery - Category: Cardiovascular & Thoracic Surgery Authors: Source Type: research
Debate on appropriate triggers for transfusion of allogeneic blood products and their effects on short-term and long-term survival in patients with cancer continues with no definitive evidence or decisive resolution. Although mechanisms of transfusion-related immunomodulation have been proposed,1 its influence on immune competence in the recipient and its effect on cancer recurrence after curative resection remain controversial. Association between perioperative transfusion of allogeneic blood products and elevated risk of recurrence and reduced survival has been shown in other cancer types, including colorectal, hepatocel...
Source: The Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery - Category: Cardiovascular & Thoracic Surgery Authors: Tags: Commentary Source Type: research
In this study, scientists screened cells from old animals to identify any RBPs that change upon aging. The screening showed that one particular protein, Pumilio2 (PUM2), was highly induced in old animals. PUM2 binds mRNA molecules containing specific recognition sites. Upon its binding, PUM2 represses the translation of the target mRNAs into proteins. Using a systems genetics approach, the researchers then identified a new mRNA target that PUM2 binds. The mRNA encodes for a protein called Mitochondrial Fission Factor (MFF), and is a pivotal regulator of mitochondrial fission - a process by which mitochondria break u...
Source: Fight Aging! - Category: Research Authors: Tags: Newsletters Source Type: blogs
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