Cortical laminar distribution of β-amyloid deposits in five neurodegenerative disorders.

Cortical laminar distribution of β-amyloid deposits in five neurodegenerative disorders. Folia Neuropathol. 2020;58(1):1-9 Authors: A Armstrong R Abstract Alzheimer's disease neuropathologic change (ADNC) in the form of β-amyloid (Aβ) deposits occurs not only in Alzheimer's disease (AD) and Down's syndrome (DS) but also as a 'co-pathology' in several disorders including dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB), corticobasal degeneration (CBD), and chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE). To determine whether cortical laminar degeneration, as measured by Aβ deposition, is similar in different disorders, changes in density of the diffuse, primitive, and classic morphological subtypes of Aβ deposit were studied across all cortical layers in the frontal and temporal cortex in AD, DS, DLB, CBD, and CTE using quantitative analysis and polynomial curve fitting. In AD, CTE, and DLB, the diffuse Aβ deposits were distributed most frequently in the upper cortical layers, distribution being more variable in DS and CBD. In all disorders, the primitive Aβ deposits were distributed primarily in the upper layers, but in DLB, a bimodal distribution with peaks of density in upper and lower layers was evident in some gyri. The distribution of the classic deposits varied both within and among disorders. The many similarities in laminar distribution among disorders suggest common patterns of cortical degeneration. Where differences occur, they may re...
Source: Folia Neuropathologica - Category: Pathology Authors: Tags: Folia Neuropathol Source Type: research

Related Links:

This study tests the hypothesis that identifying IFN-stimulated response element (ISRE) control sites on Ch21 will mark novel candidate genes for DS/T21-related IFN hypersensitivity and neuropathology not previously reported to be associated with IFN functions. We performed whole chromosome searches of online databases. The general ISRE consensus and gamma interferon activation consensus sequences (GAS) were used for identifying IFN-stimulated response elements. Candidate genes were defined as those possessing two or more ISRE and/or GAS control sites within and/or upstream of the transcription start site. A literature sea...
Source: Autoimmune Diseases - Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: Autoimmune Dis Source Type: research
This article provides a summary of discussions, including noting areas of emerging science and discovery, considerations for future studies, and identifying open gaps in our understanding for future focus. PMID: 32544310 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: The Journal of Alzheimers Association - Category: Psychiatry Tags: Alzheimers Dement Source Type: research
AbstractIndividuals with Down syndrome (DS) are at high risk for developing Alzheimer ’s disease (AD) pathology and this has provided significant insights into our understanding of the genetic basis of AD. The present review summarizes recent clinical, neuropathologic, imaging, and fluid biomarker studies of AD in DS (DSAD), highlighting the striking similarities, as well as some n otable differences, between DSAD and the more common late-onset form of AD (LOAD) in the general population, as well as the much rarer, autosomal-dominant form of AD (ADAD). There has been significant progress in our understanding of the n...
Source: CNS Drugs - Category: Neurology Source Type: research
218Background: Adults with Down syndrome (DS) are predisposed to Alzheimer’s disease (AD), with most developing clinical dementia by their late 60s. While Aβ pathology has been previously characterized in this population, its relationship with neurofibrillary tau is much less well understood. Objectives: The focus of this study is to determine the associations between global Aβ and regional tau in DS, as well as assess the differences in these biomarkers between cognitively stable adults with DS (CS) and cases of cognitive impairment (MCI/AD). Methods: A total of 140 adults with DS (age = 39.3 ± 8.4 ...
Source: Journal of Nuclear Medicine - Category: Nuclear Medicine Authors: Tags: Basic Science - Inflammation and Dementia Source Type: research
Purpose of review People with Down syndrome represent the world's largest population with a genetic risk for Alzheimer's disease. This review will provide a short summary of what is known and will include recent findings from the field. Recent findings There has been an increasing focus on biomarker research in this population, with a number of studies presenting findings on promising new markers – Neurofilament Light (NfL) appears to be one such promising marker that has emerged. Imaging studies have increased our knowledge on the progression of Alzheimer's disease in this population. Summary The inclusion o...
Source: Current Opinion in Psychiatry - Category: Psychiatry Tags: GERIATRIC PSYCHIATRY Source Type: research
ConclusionsFurther investigations are necessary to better evaluate the potential cognitive-enhancing role of intranasal insulin in the Down syndrome population.ClinicalTrials.gov IDNCT02432716.
Source: Drugs in R&D - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research
Abstract Individuals with Down syndrome (DS) develop Alzheimer's disease (AD)-related neuropathology, characterized by amyloid plaques with amyloid β (Aβ) and neurofibrillary tangles with tau accumulation. Peripheral inflammation and the innate immune response are elevated in DS. Triggering receptor expressed in myeloid cells 2 (TREM2) genetic variants are risk factors for AD and other neurodegenerative diseases. Soluble TREM2 (sTREM2), a soluble cleavage product of TREM2, is elevated in AD cerebrospinal fluid and positively correlates with cognitive decline. There is relatively little information about ...
Source: Journal of Immunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Tags: J Immunol Source Type: research
Abstract Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most prevalent type of dementia. Down syndrome (DS) is the leading genetic risk factor for Early-Onset AD, prematurely presenting the classic pathological features of the brain with AD. Augmented gene dosage, including the APP gene, could partially cause this predisposition. Recent works have revealed that alterations in chromosome location due to the extra Chromosome 21, as well as epigenetic modifications, could promote changes in gene expression other than those from Chromosome 21. As a result, similar pathological features and cellular dysfunctions in DS and AD, includi...
Source: Aging - Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Tags: Aging (Albany NY) Source Type: research
ConclusionsThe modified questionnaire and interview instruments capture a range of impairment in DS adults, including subthreshold symptomatology, and the instruments provide complementary information relevant to the ascertainment of dementia in DS. Decline was seen across all cognitive domains and was generally positively related to age and negatively related to IQ. Most importantly, adjusting instrument scores for chronic, premorbid impairment drastically shifted the distribution toward lower (no impairment) scores.
Source: Journal of Neurodevelopmental Disorders - Category: Neurology Source Type: research
Conditions:   Down Syndrome;   Alzheimer Disease;   Dementia Intervention:   Sponsors:   University of Southern California;   National Institute on Aging (NIA);   Alzheimer's Clinical Trial Consortium;   Alzheimer's Therapeutic Research Institute Not yet recruiting
Source: ClinicalTrials.gov - Category: Research Source Type: clinical trials
More News: Alzheimer's | Brain | Dementia | Down's Syndrome | Neurology | Pathology