Rotenone: from modelling to implication in Parkinson's disease.
Authors: Radad K, Al-Shraim M, Al-Emam A, Wang F, Kranner B, Rausch WD, Moldzio R Abstract Rotenone ([2R-(2α,6aα,12aα)]-1,2,12,12a-tetrahydro-8,9-dimethoxy-2-(1-methylethenyl)-[1]benzopyran[3,4-b]furo [2,3-h][1]benzopyran-6(6aH)-one) is a naturally occurring compound derived from the roots and stems of Derris, Tephrosia, Lonchocarpus and Mundulea plant species. Since its discovery at the end of the 19th century, rotenone has been widely used as a pesticide for controlling insects, ticks and lice, and as a piscicide for management of nuisance fish in lakes and reservoirs. In 2000, Betarbet et al. r...
Source: Folia Neuropathologica - April 30, 2020 Category: Neurology Tags: Folia Neuropathol Source Type: research

Myricitrin attenuates memory impairment in a rat model of sepsis-associated encephalopathy via the NLRP3/Bax/Bcl pathway.
CONCLUSIONS: The data reveal that myricitrin ameliorated neuroinflammation and improved memory in rats with CLP-induced sepsis by regulating the NLRP3/Bax/Bcl signalling pathway. PMID: 32337945 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Folia Neuropathologica)
Source: Folia Neuropathologica - April 30, 2020 Category: Neurology Tags: Folia Neuropathol Source Type: research

Association of mitochondrial variants A4336G of the tRNAGln gene and 8701G/A of the MT-ATP6 gene in Mexicans Mestizos with Parkinson disease.
CONCLUSIONS: The 4336C variant of the tRNAGln gene was uncommon in the study population, and 8701A/G of MT-ATP6 was not associated with PD in Mexican Mestizos. PMID: 32337946 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Folia Neuropathologica)
Source: Folia Neuropathologica - April 30, 2020 Category: Neurology Tags: Folia Neuropathol Source Type: research

Epigallocatechin gallate enhances the motor neuron survival and functional recovery after brachial plexus root avulsion by regulating FIG4.
Authors: Tang Y, Wang J, Wan S, Luo L, Qiu Y, Jiang S, Yue G, Tang Y, Tang W Abstract The survival of motor neurons (MNs) is the key to recovery of the motor function after brachial plexus root avulsion (BPRA). (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) exerts neuroprotective roles in neurons under different pathological conditions. However, the role of EGCG in regulating motor neurons under BPRA remains to be unclear. In the present study, we investigated the functional role of EGCG both in vitro and in vivo. In an in vitro study, we observed that EGCG obviously increased the cell survival rate of MNs and FIG4 protein ...
Source: Folia Neuropathologica - April 30, 2020 Category: Neurology Tags: Folia Neuropathol Source Type: research

Cepharanthine promotes the effect of dexmedetomidine on the deposition of β-amyloid in the old age of the senile dementia rat model by regulating inflammasome expression.
CONCLUSIONS: In conclusion, data reveal that cepharanthine ameliorates the deposition of Aβ and NLRP3 pathway in SD rats. Moreover, cepharanthine treatment with dexmedetomidine shows the synergistic effect against the aged SD rat model. PMID: 32337948 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Folia Neuropathologica)
Source: Folia Neuropathologica - April 30, 2020 Category: Neurology Tags: Folia Neuropathol Source Type: research

LncRNA FGD5-AS1 acts as a competing endogenous RNA for miRNA-223 to lessen oxygen-glucose deprivation and simulated reperfusion (OGD/R)-induced neurons injury.
In conclusion, our findings indicated that FGD5-AS1 may protect the neuron against OGD/R injury via acting as a ceRNA for miR-223 to mediate IGF1R expression, which contributes to a deeper understanding of ischemic stroke and provide a promising therapeutic target for this disease. PMID: 32337949 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Folia Neuropathologica)
Source: Folia Neuropathologica - April 30, 2020 Category: Neurology Tags: Folia Neuropathol Source Type: research

Adrenal metastasis of anaplastic meningioma: report of a rare case.
Authors: Soukup J, Kasparova P, Vajda M, Ryska A Abstract Meningiomas are the most common primary extra-axial tumours of the central nervous system, however their metastatic spread beyond central nervous system is rare. Here we present the case of a 54-year-old male with anaplastic meningioma who, 1.5 years after initial diagnosis, developed a tumorous expansion in his left adrenal gland, showing octreotide uptake on scintigraphy. Clinical diagnosis of pheochromocytoma was made and left adrenalectomy performed. The tumour weighed 480 grams and measured up to 140 mm in diameter. On histologic examination, morphology...
Source: Folia Neuropathologica - April 30, 2020 Category: Neurology Tags: Folia Neuropathol Source Type: research

Abstracts from the Conference NEUROPATHOLOGY. NEUROGENETICS 2019.
Authors: PMID: 32337951 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Folia Neuropathologica)
Source: Folia Neuropathologica - April 30, 2020 Category: Neurology Tags: Folia Neuropathol Source Type: research

Cortical laminar distribution of β-amyloid deposits in five neurodegenerative disorders.
Cortical laminar distribution of β-amyloid deposits in five neurodegenerative disorders. Folia Neuropathol. 2020;58(1):1-9 Authors: A Armstrong R Abstract Alzheimer's disease neuropathologic change (ADNC) in the form of β-amyloid (Aβ) deposits occurs not only in Alzheimer's disease (AD) and Down's syndrome (DS) but also as a 'co-pathology' in several disorders including dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB), corticobasal degeneration (CBD), and chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE). To determine whether cortical laminar degeneration, as measured by Aβ deposition, is similar in different...
Source: Folia Neuropathologica - April 29, 2020 Category: Pathology Authors: A Armstrong R Tags: Folia Neuropathol Source Type: research

miR-143-3p inhibition promotes neuronal survival in an Alzheimer's disease cell model by targeting neuregulin-1.
CONCLUSIONS: Our findings reveal that miR-143-3p inhibition promotes neuronal survival in an in vitro cell model via targeting NRG1, and the miR-143-3p/NRG1 axis is a potential therapeutic target and promising biomarker for AD treatment. PMID: 32337953 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Folia Neuropathologica)
Source: Folia Neuropathologica - April 29, 2020 Category: Pathology Authors: Han K, Sun C, Jia N, Li R, Zhang Z, Zhong Y Tags: Folia Neuropathol Source Type: research

miR-668 inhibitor attenuates mitochondrial membrane potential and protects against neuronal apoptosis in cerebral ischemic stroke.
In conclusion, the results of the present study indicated that inhibition of miR-668 prevented neuronal apoptosis in cerebral I/R-induced stroke by modulating mitochondrial function and regulating NLRP3 signalling. PMID: 32337954 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Folia Neuropathologica)
Source: Folia Neuropathologica - April 29, 2020 Category: Pathology Authors: He J, Zhang X Tags: Folia Neuropathol Source Type: research

Melodinhenine B attenuates NLRP3 expression in a cerebral ischemia/reperfusion-induced neuronal injury rat model.
In conclusion, melodinhenine B protects against neuronal injury in cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury rats by regulating the inflammasomes. PMID: 32337955 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Folia Neuropathologica)
Source: Folia Neuropathologica - April 29, 2020 Category: Pathology Authors: Li W, Chen H, Xu Z, Lv Y, Zhao Z, Zhang J, Qu F Tags: Folia Neuropathol Source Type: research

Insulin receptor substrate 1 overexpression promotes survival of glioblastoma cells through AKT1 activation.
Abstract Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most common and malignant type of central nervous system tumours in adults. Strict regulation of glucose homeostasis has a significant role in GBM pathogenesis. Insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS1) protein is the most important adaptor molecule involved in the regulation of glucose metabolism. It interacts with many cancer-related receptors and its overexpression is strongly associated with cell proliferation and survival. Our study was aimed to understand the role of IRS1 proteins in GBM cell viability. U-87 MG cells were transfected with pcDNA3.1-flagtagged-human IRS1...
Source: Folia Neuropathologica - April 29, 2020 Category: Pathology Authors: Gorgisen G, Yaren Z Tags: Folia Neuropathol Source Type: research

PARP1 might enhance the therapeutic effect of tetrahydroxystilbene glucoside in traumatic brain injury via inhibition of Ras/JNK signalling pathway.
In this study, we firstly detected the oxidative stress response related molecules in serum samples of TBI patients and a TBI mice model, and found that oxidative stress response was activated after TBI, and TSG would reduce this effect. We further noticed that inflammation related molecules presented a similar trend with oxidative stress response related molecules. These results indicated that inflammatory response and oxidative stress processes were both activated after TBI, and reduced after TSG treatment. We further detected that the apoptosis related proteins and anti-oxidative proteins were increased after TSG treatm...
Source: Folia Neuropathologica - April 29, 2020 Category: Pathology Authors: Cao Y, Chen Y, Wang F, Wang Y, Long J Tags: Folia Neuropathol Source Type: research

Neuroprotective effects of isoflurane against lipopolysaccharide-induced neuroinflammation in BV2 microglial cells by regulating HMGB1/TLRs pathway.
Abstract Microglia, as the first line of defence of the central nervous system (CNS), has a major role in inflammatory response. It was reported that isoflurane has a neuroprotective role in the pathological process of CNS by interfering with inflammatory response. While the mechanism and function of isoflurane in microglia-mediated inflammation are still not clearly articulated. In our study, the inflammation model was established by the activation of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in BV2 cells in vitro. The results demonstrated that isoflurane inhibited the release of nitric oxide (NO) and enhanced the survival of BV2...
Source: Folia Neuropathologica - April 29, 2020 Category: Pathology Authors: Han D, Zhou Z, Liu J, Wang T, Yin J Tags: Folia Neuropathol Source Type: research

Suppression of miR-155 attenuates neuropathic pain by inducing an M1 to M2 switch in microglia.
CONCLUSIONS: Results demonstrate that suppression of miR-155 attenuates neuropathic pain by inducing an M1 to M2 switch in microglia. Our findings provide a new perspective to understand the function of miR-155 in microglia. PMID: 32337959 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Folia Neuropathologica)
Source: Folia Neuropathologica - April 29, 2020 Category: Pathology Authors: Zhang Y, Chen Q, Nai Y, Cao C Tags: Folia Neuropathol Source Type: research

Clinical presentation of Y189C mutation of the NOTCH3 gene in the Polish family with CADASIL.
CONCLUSIONS: Patients with the Y189C mutation of NOTCH3 from the same family display a similar phenotype of CADASIL. PMID: 32337960 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Folia Neuropathologica)
Source: Folia Neuropathologica - April 29, 2020 Category: Pathology Authors: Dorszewska J, Kowalska M, Grzegorski T, Dziewulska D, Karmelita-Katulska K, Barciszewska AM, Prendecki M, Gorczyński W, Kozubski W Tags: Folia Neuropathol Source Type: research

Lipopolysaccharide-stimulated, NF-kB-, miRNA-146a- and miRNA-155-mediated molecular-genetic communication between the human gastrointestinal tract microbiome and the brain.
Authors: Alexandrov P, Zhai Y, Li W, Lukiw W Abstract Through the use of RNA sequencing, microRNA (miRNA) and messenger RNA (mRNA) microfluidic array analysis, LED Northern, Western and ELISA analysis and multiple bioinformatics algorithms we have discovered a novel route for pathogenic communication between the human gastrointestinal (GI)-tract microbiome and the brain. The evidence suggests that this pathogenic gut-brain circuit involves: (i) lipopolysaccharide (LPS) from the GI-tract resident enterotoxigenic Gram-negative bacteria Bacteroides fragilis (BF-LPS); (ii) LPS transit across the GI-tract barrier into t...
Source: Folia Neuropathologica - October 8, 2019 Category: Neurology Tags: Folia Neuropathol Source Type: research

Amyloid pathology in the brain after ischemia.
Authors: Pluta R, Ułamek-Kozioł M, Januszewski S, Czuczwar S Abstract As the population is aging all over the world, the economic burden of ischemic brain injuries is constantly increasing. Human brain ischemia is one of the leading causes of premature death, significant morbidity and physical and mental disabilities, resulting in a lower quality of life and unusually high costs of health and social care. One of the most difficult problems associated with the pathology of the brain after ischemia is progressive dementia observed in people who survived the stroke. More recently, brain ischemia has been shown to el...
Source: Folia Neuropathologica - October 8, 2019 Category: Neurology Tags: Folia Neuropathol Source Type: research

Hedgehog signalling network gene status analysis in paediatric intracranial germ cell tumours.
CONCLUSIONS: Our results show few genomic alterations related to the Hh signalling pathway genes in paediatric intracranial GCTs. Further analysis of Hedgehog pathway alterations can potentially disclose its biological significance and define new prognostic factors and/or therapeutic targets for high-risk patients. PMID: 31588709 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Folia Neuropathologica)
Source: Folia Neuropathologica - October 8, 2019 Category: Neurology Tags: Folia Neuropathol Source Type: research

Novel small molecule protein kinase CK2 inhibitors exert potent antitumor effects on T98G and SEGA cells in vitro.
In conclusion, CK2 appears to play a role not only in malignant glioma cells but it can also sustain the viability and proliferation of benign astrocytoma cells. The obtained antitumor effects of CK2 inhibitors significantly exceeded their mild or no effect on normal astrocytes in control, which supports the therapeutic potential of these compounds against gliomas. PMID: 31588710 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Folia Neuropathologica)
Source: Folia Neuropathologica - October 8, 2019 Category: Neurology Tags: Folia Neuropathol Source Type: research

Microglia and astroglia proliferation within the normal appearing white matter in histologically active and inactive multiple sclerosis.
CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that within MS NAWM, which appears to be involved at the very least, intense diffuse micro- and astroglia reactions occur. Possibly, microglia rather support proinflammatory mechanisms, whereas astrocytes seem to be more neuroprotective. Diffuse microglia proliferation indicates that CNS immune system is chronically activated within the whole CNS. PMID: 31588711 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Folia Neuropathologica)
Source: Folia Neuropathologica - October 8, 2019 Category: Neurology Tags: Folia Neuropathol Source Type: research

Lipopolysaccharide-based endotoxemia produce toxicity in peripheral organs and microglia migration in a dose-dependent manner in rat substantia nigra.
Authors: Bozadas P, Nadella R, Sánchez-García A, Rembao Bojórquez D, Rovirosa Hernández M, Baltazar D Abstract The peripheral inflammatory stimulus could induce cell damage in peripheral organs and activate microglial cells in the brain. One such stimulus was given to adult male Wistar rats by injecting different concentrations of lipopolysaccharide (LPS; 50, 300, 500 g/kg and 5 mg/kg i.p.). To verify the systemic effect of the LPS administration, the serum content of C-reactive protein (CRP), the variation of body weight and cellular changes in the spleen, liver and kidney were deter...
Source: Folia Neuropathologica - October 8, 2019 Category: Neurology Tags: Folia Neuropathol Source Type: research

Effects of topiramate on the ultrastructure of synaptic endings in the hippocampal CA1 and CA3 sectors in the rat experimental model of febrile seizures: the first electron microscopy report.
Authors: Łotowska J, Sobaniec P, Sobaniec-Łotowska M, Szukiel B, Łukasik M, Łotowska S Abstract The present study aimed at exploring a potentially neuroprotective effect of topiramate (TPM), one of the most commonly used newer-generation, broad-spectrum, antiepileptic drugs against ultrastructural damage of hippocampal synaptic endings in the experimental model of febrile seizures (FS). The study used male young Wistar rats aged 22-30 days, divided into three experimental groups and the control group. Brain maturity in such animals corresponds to that of 1- or 2-year-old children. Hyperthermic stress was evoked...
Source: Folia Neuropathologica - October 8, 2019 Category: Neurology Tags: Folia Neuropathol Source Type: research

Zerumbone promotes proliferation of endogenous neural stem cells in vascular dementia by regulating Notch signalling.
Authors: Sun L, Li M, Sun X, Li X Abstract INTRODUCTION: Present investigation determines the effect of zerumbone on the proliferation of stem cells in vascular dementia (VD) rats. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Vascular dementia was induced by cerebral ischemia and reperfusion through non-invasive clamp. Rats were treated with zerumbone 50 mg/kg and 100 mg/kg intraperitoneally 30 min for four weeks after the surgery. Cognitive functions are determined by the Morris water maze (MWM) test and neurological function score in VD rats. Moreover mediators of inflammation and parameters of oxidative stress were estimated in th...
Source: Folia Neuropathologica - October 8, 2019 Category: Neurology Tags: Folia Neuropathol Source Type: research

Clinical and ultrastructural findings in an ataxic variant of Kufor-Rakeb syndrome.
CONCLUSIONS: We report two novel ATP13A2 pathogenic mutations, further expanding the phenotype of Kufor-Rakeb syndrome with the unusual features of ataxia and polyneuropathy. We thoroughly describe ultrastructural findings and document a meaningful response to levodopa. PMID: 31588715 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Folia Neuropathologica)
Source: Folia Neuropathologica - October 8, 2019 Category: Neurology Tags: Folia Neuropathol Source Type: research

Intraventricular atypical teratoid rhabdoid tumour in an adult: a case report and literature review.
We report a case of atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumour (AT/RT) in an adult patient in the deep grey matter with extension into the lateral ventricle. To our knowledge, this is the first example of AT/RT involving the lateral ventricle in an adult. The patient presented with headache and confusion, and subsequently required emergent surgery. His postoperative course was complicated by hemorrhage into the surgical site. The location and vascularity of the tumour affected the extent of resection achieved and likely contributed to postoperative complications. We discuss radiological features of AT/RT in adults and implications ...
Source: Folia Neuropathologica - October 8, 2019 Category: Neurology Tags: Folia Neuropathol Source Type: research

Abstracts from 24th Annual Congress 2019 TRAUMATIC BRAIN INJURY. CHANGE OF TREATMENT PARADIGMS.
Authors: PMID: 31588717 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Folia Neuropathologica)
Source: Folia Neuropathologica - October 8, 2019 Category: Neurology Tags: Folia Neuropathol Source Type: research

Risk factors for Alzheimer's disease.
Abstract Early reviews identified over 20 risk factors associated with Alzheimer's disease (AD) including age, familial inheritance, exposure to aluminium, traumatic brain injury (TBI), and associated co-morbidities such as vascular disease and infection. In the light of recent evidence, this review reconsiders these risk factors, identifies those currently regarded as important, and discusses various hypotheses to explain how they may cause AD. Rare forms of early-onset familial AD (EO-FAD) are strongly linked to causal gene mutations, viz. mutations in amyloid precursor protein (APP) and presenilin (PSEN1/2) gen...
Source: Folia Neuropathologica - September 28, 2019 Category: Pathology Authors: A Armstrong R Tags: Folia Neuropathol Source Type: research

APOE genetic variants and apoE, miR-107 and miR-650 levels in Alzheimer's disease.
Abstract Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressive neurodegenerative dementia in adults. Pathogenesis of AD depends on various factors, including APOE genetic variants, apolipoprotein E (apoE) phenotype and oxidative stress, which may promote both DNA and RNA damage, including non-coding RNA (ncRNA). Among ncRNAs, microRNA (miRNA) is known to contribute to pathologic processes in AD. The aim of the study was to analyse the plasma concentration of apoE by ELISA as well as the plasma levels of miR-107 and miR-650 by qPCR in relation to APOE genetic variants and clinical features including the age of onset and dement...
Source: Folia Neuropathologica - September 28, 2019 Category: Pathology Authors: Prendecki M, Florczak-Wyspianska J, Kowalska M, Ilkowski J, Grzelak T, Bialas K, Kozubski W, Dorszewska J Tags: Folia Neuropathol Source Type: research

Immunomodulatory and neuroprotective mechanisms of Huangqi glycoprotein treatment in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis.
Abstract Previous studies have shown that Huangqi glycoprotein (HQGP) has an anti-inflammatory effect in vitro, and suppressed experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), an animal model of multiple sclerosis; however, the mechanism underlying its effect is largely unknown. In this manuscript we investigated the mechanisms by which HQGP protect mice from EAE. HQGP was extracted from Astragalus membranaceus and purified by anion-exchange and gel filtration chromatography. HQGP delayed disease onset, reduced disease severity and alleviated inflammation and demyelination in the central nervous system (CNS). More...
Source: Folia Neuropathologica - September 28, 2019 Category: Pathology Authors: Xing Y, Liu B, Zhao Y, Zhang L, Thome R, Xue H, Zhang P, Ma C Tags: Folia Neuropathol Source Type: research

Theta burst stimulation influence the expression of BDNF in the spinal cord on the experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis.
Abstract Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) induces changes in expression of proteins engaged in the activity of excitatory and inhibitory systems, restores these functions and suppresses the progression of disability in experimental autoimmune encephalitis (EAE). The structural type of TMS, the arrangement as theta burst stimulation (TBS) has been applied as intermittent TBS (iTBS) and continuous TBS (cTBS) protocols to female adult DA rats. The animals were randomly divided into experimental groups: control group (C), group treated with complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA), experimental autoimmune e...
Source: Folia Neuropathologica - September 28, 2019 Category: Pathology Authors: Stevanovic I, Mancic B, Ilic T, Milosavljevic P, Lavrnja I, Stojanovic I, Ninkovic M Tags: Folia Neuropathol Source Type: research

Neuroprotective effect of nilotinib on pentylenetetrazol-induced epilepsy in adult rat hippocampus: involvement of oxidative stress, autophagy, inflammation, and apoptosis.
CONCLUSIONS: Nilotinib may have promising neuroprotective and antiepileptic effects against pentylenetetrazolinduced seizures through promoting the antioxidant, antifibrotic, anti-inflammatory, antiapoptotic pathways and inhibiting autophagy. PMID: 31556574 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Folia Neuropathologica)
Source: Folia Neuropathologica - September 28, 2019 Category: Pathology Authors: Attia GM, Elmansy RA, Elsaed WM Tags: Folia Neuropathol Source Type: research

Inactivation of P2YR12 contributes to isoflurane-induced neuronal injury by altering TLR-4/BDNF/TNF- α.
Inactivation of P2YR12 contributes to isoflurane-induced neuronal injury by altering TLR-4/BDNF/TNF-α. Folia Neuropathol. 2019;57(2):161-169 Authors: Sun N, Chu L, Yuan L, Qi Z Abstract The present investigation evaluated the effect of inhibiting the P2Y12 gene on anaesthetic-induced neuronal injury in a rat model. Neuronal injury was induced by exposing the animals for 6 h to 30% oxygen containing 0.75% isoflurane and 1.2 mg/kg prasugrel (a P2Y12 inhibitor) p.o. for 14 days. Cognitive function was determined by the Morris water maze, and the neurological severity score was determined. Enzyme-li...
Source: Folia Neuropathologica - September 28, 2019 Category: Pathology Authors: Sun N, Chu L, Yuan L, Qi Z Tags: Folia Neuropathol Source Type: research

Astragaloside IV protects neurons from microglia-mediated cell damage through promoting microglia polarization.
Abstract Astragaloside IV (AST-IV) is a major active ingredient of astragalus, with a neuroprotective effect. The current study is aimed to investigate the impact of AST-IV on the M1/M2 microglial activation in response to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulation, how AST-IV attenuated microglia-mediated neuronal damage, and the molecular mechanisms underlying AST-IV's protection of neurons against microglia-mediated neuronal damage. Our results showed that AST-IV partially protected microglia from death evoked by LPS and downregulated the release of pro-inflammatory (M1) mediators including interleukin (IL)-1β, ...
Source: Folia Neuropathologica - September 28, 2019 Category: Pathology Authors: Yu J, Guo M, Li Y, Zhang H, Chai Z, Wang Q, Yan Y, Yu J, Liu C, Zhang G, Cungen M Tags: Folia Neuropathol Source Type: research

The dynamic expression of aquaporins 1 and 4 in rats with hydrocephalus induced by subarachnoid haemorrhage.
CONCLUSIONS: AQP1 and AQP4 are remarkably correlated with the severity of hydrocephalus induced by SAH. AQP1 and AQP4 are potential drug targets for developing therapeutic strategies against hydrocephalus. PMID: 31556577 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Folia Neuropathologica)
Source: Folia Neuropathologica - September 28, 2019 Category: Pathology Authors: Long CY, Huang GQ, Du Q, Zhou LQ, Zhou JH Tags: Folia Neuropathol Source Type: research

Neurotoxic effects of acrylamide on dopaminergic neurons in primary mesencephalic cell culture.
CONCLUSIONS: The current study shows, for the first time, neurotoxicity of acrylamide on dopaminergic neurons in the primary mesencephalic cell culture. PMID: 31556578 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Folia Neuropathologica)
Source: Folia Neuropathologica - September 28, 2019 Category: Pathology Authors: Radad K, Al-Shraim M, Al-Emam A, Moldzio R, Rausch WD Tags: Folia Neuropathol Source Type: research

Cerebral amyloid angiopathy-related inflammation (CAARI): case report.
Abstract Cerebral amyloid angiopathy-related inflammation is a new disease entity whose proper diagnosis may be difficult due to the fact that the early phase and radiological image resemble other conditions such as intracerebral haemorrhage or proliferative disorder. Also, the brain biopsy, which is an important part of the evaluation to confirm the diagnosis and rule out mimics, cannot be performed in each patient. In this paper we present the case of a 58yearold man who was correctly diagnosed with cerebral amyloid angiopathy-related inflammation (CAARI) based on the results of the histopathological examination...
Source: Folia Neuropathologica - September 28, 2019 Category: Pathology Authors: Makarewicz KA, Zaryczańska K, Machowska-Sempruch K, Bajer-Czajkowska A, Gołofit P, Gabrysz-Trybek E, Nowacki P Tags: Folia Neuropathol Source Type: research

A  meta-analysis of leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2) polymorphisms in Alzheimer's disease.
This study was aimed to estimate the frequency of mutations in leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2) gene to examine the association between these mutations and risk of AD. For finding the articles, four databases including PubMed, Web of Science, Scopus, and Cochrane Library were checked up to August 2018. An analysis was done by RevMan 5.3 using crude odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) to determine the association between LRRK2 polymorphisms and the risk of AD. Of 359 articles identified in the databases, 13 studies were included and analysed in the meta-analysis. There was no significant risk of AD relate...
Source: Folia Neuropathologica - May 1, 2019 Category: Pathology Authors: Fatahian R, Bagheri SR, Sadeghi M Tags: Folia Neuropathol Source Type: research

Promotive effects of capillary morphogenetic protein 2 on glioma cell invasion and the molecular mechanism.
Abstract We aimed to explore the role of capillary morphogenetic protein 2 (CMG2) in glioma cell invasion and the possible molecular mechanism. Glioma cells U87 and U251 stably overexpressing CMG2 were constructed by lentiviral transfection. The changes of cell invasion and migration were tested by Matrigel-transwell assay and scratch assay, respectively. A mouse model with orthotopically transplanted tumour was established to evaluate the effects of CMG2 overexpression on the in vivo invasion of glioma cells and survival time. The differences of filopodia and lamellar pseudopodia among glioma cells with diff...
Source: Folia Neuropathologica - May 1, 2019 Category: Pathology Authors: Xu Y, He Y, Xu W, Lu T, Liang W, Jin W Tags: Folia Neuropathol Source Type: research

Ginkgetin aglycone attenuates neuroinflammation and neuronal injury in the rats with ischemic stroke by modulating STAT3/JAK2/SIRT1.
Abstract The present investigation evaluates the protective effect of Ginkgetin aglycone (GA) against ischemic stroke-induced neuronal injury. Ischemic stroke was produced by the middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) model and animals were a group that received GA 100 and 200 mg/kg, i.p. five days before the induction of MCAO. The effect of GA against stroke was determined by estimating the neurological deficit score and brain water content was also observed. Moreover terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labelling (TUNEL) assay was done for determining the neuronal apoptosis and Western blot ...
Source: Folia Neuropathologica - May 1, 2019 Category: Pathology Authors: Xu B, He X, Sui Y, Wang X, Wang X, Ren L, Zhai YX Tags: Folia Neuropathol Source Type: research

[Disturbed maturation of oligodendrocyte progenitors in lipopolysaccharide-induced hypomyelination in cultured forebrain slices of neonatal rats].
CONCLUSIONS: In conclusion, maturation arrest and/or under-differentiation of OL progenitors commonly occur during regeneration: they may underlie the degeneration and consequent hypomyelination occurring late after injury, or apoptosis during the acute stage post-injury. Microglia and astrocytes expressing TNF- may also contribute to later myelination failure. PMID: 31038185 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Folia Neuropathologica)
Source: Folia Neuropathologica - May 1, 2019 Category: Pathology Authors: Kim JW, Lee KS, Chang YP Tags: Folia Neuropathol Source Type: research

Relationship between genetic polymorphisms MTHFR (C677T, A1298C), MTR (A2756G) and MTRR (A66G) genes and multiple sclerosis: a  case-control study.
In this study, we aimed to investigate the association between MS and the following four DNA polymorphisms: MTR A[2756]G, MTHFR C[677]T, MTHFR A[1298]C and MTRR A[66]G. The DNA polymorphisms were genotyped in 80 patients with confirmed MS and 80 healthy control age- and gender-matched subjects using PCR-RFLP approach. Our results show that the frequency of the T/T genotype homozygotes for the MTHFR C[677]T polymorphism was significantly higher in patients than in controls (p = 0.04, OR: 3.16, 95% CI: 1.23-8.17). In turn, the A/A genotype of the MTHFR A[1298]C polymorphism was more frequent in controls than in patients...
Source: Folia Neuropathologica - May 1, 2019 Category: Pathology Authors: Cakina S, Ocak O, Ozkan A, Yucel S, Ozısık Karaman HI Tags: Folia Neuropathol Source Type: research

Myxoma virus derived immune modulating proteins, M-T7 and Serp-1, reduce early inflammation after spinal cord injury in the rat model.
We examined sustained, 7-day, subdural infusion of either M-T7, a chemokine modulator or Serp-1, a plasminogen activator and factor inhibitor. Mature male rats had epidural balloon crush SCI and sustained subdural infusion of Serp-1, M-T7, DEX or saline for 7 days via the osmotic pump. A separate group of rats with SCI had intra-peritoneal infusion. Clinical evaluation included endpoint monitoring with body weight, hemorrhagic cystitis and bilateral toe pinch response. Sections of the spinal cord were analyzed histologically and macrophage numbers counted by standardized protocol in the cavity of injury (COI...
Source: Folia Neuropathologica - May 1, 2019 Category: Pathology Authors: Kwiecien JM, Dabrowski W, Marzec-Kotarska B, Kwiecien-Delaney CJ, Yaron JR, Zhang L, Schutz L, Lucas AR Tags: Folia Neuropathol Source Type: research

Immunolocalization of dynein, dynactin, and kinesin in the cerebral tissue as a  possible supplemental diagnostic tool for traumatic brain injury in postmortem examination.
Immunolocalization of dynein, dynactin, and kinesin in the cerebral tissue as a possible supplemental diagnostic tool for traumatic brain injury in postmortem examination. Folia Neuropathol. 2019;57(1):51-62 Authors: Olczak M, Poniatowski Ł, Kwiatkowska M, Samojłowicz D, Tarka S, Wierzba-Bobrowicz T Abstract Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is characterized by various micro- and macrostructural neuropathological changes which can be identified in the light microscope examination. The most common pathophenotype of TBI visualized in postmortem neuropathological assessment includes neuron injury with ...
Source: Folia Neuropathologica - May 1, 2019 Category: Pathology Authors: Olczak M, Poniatowski Ł, Kwiatkowska M, Samojłowicz D, Tarka S, Wierzba-Bobrowicz T Tags: Folia Neuropathol Source Type: research

The parameters of carotid plaques' calcifications and clinical nature of the lesions in the context of revascularization treatment. The enlargement of calcifications is still the most important.
CONCLUSIONS: The enlargement of calcifications in carotid plaques is the only calcification parameter important for the clinical outcome of carotid atherosclerosis. Patients with calcified carotid plaques have a significantly lower risk of ischemic stroke than patients with non-calcified lesions. PMID: 31038189 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Folia Neuropathologica)
Source: Folia Neuropathologica - May 1, 2019 Category: Pathology Authors: Masztalewicz M, Rotter I, Nowacki P, Szydłowski Ł, Żukowski M, Gutowski P Tags: Folia Neuropathol Source Type: research

[Glioblastoma with BRAFV600E mutation and numerous metastatic foci: a  case report].
[Glioblastoma with BRAFV600E mutation and numerous metastatic foci: a case report]. Folia Neuropathol. 2019;57(1):72-79 Authors: Janik K, Och W, Popeda M, Rosiak K, Peciak J, Rieske P, Kulbacki K, Szostak B, Parda A, Stoczynska-Fidelus E Abstract Glioblastoma, the most malignant astrocytic tumour, is associated with limited survival and thus rare metastases. We analysed a particularly interesting case - a 51-year-old male diagnosed within 2 years with primary and recurrent glioblastoma, isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH)-wild type, as well as with numerous extra-central nervous system (CNS)...
Source: Folia Neuropathologica - May 1, 2019 Category: Pathology Authors: Janik K, Och W, Popeda M, Rosiak K, Peciak J, Rieske P, Kulbacki K, Szostak B, Parda A, Stoczynska-Fidelus E Tags: Folia Neuropathol Source Type: research

Radiation-induced anaplastic astrocytoma following treatment of medulloblastoma.
Abstract We hereby report a case of a 10-year-old girl in whom neurosurgery was performed for cerebellar vermis medulloblastoma in April 2000. After resection the patient underwent chemotherapy followed by radiotherapy, receiving 53.07 Gy to posterior fossa and 35.07 Gy to the rest of the craniospinal axis. In 2012, she was diagnosed with anaplastic astrocytoma, which was located within the high-dose region. Surgical resection of the tumour was performed. Postoperatively, the patient received radiation therapy (50.4 Gy) with concurrent temozolomide, followed by 6 cycles of adjuvant temozolomide. Five years after t...
Source: Folia Neuropathologica - May 1, 2019 Category: Pathology Authors: Mucha-Małecka A, Wojton-Dziewonska D, Adamek D, Urbanek K, Małecki K Tags: Folia Neuropathol Source Type: research

Argyrophilic grain disease: a  clinicopathological review of an overlooked tauopathy.
Argyrophilic grain disease: a clinicopathological review of an overlooked tauopathy. Folia Neuropathol. 2018;56(4):277-283 Authors: Das S, Ishaque A Abstract Argyrophilic grain disease (AGD) is a sporadic tauopathy and actually the second most frequent cause of dementia after Alzheimer's disease. Patients can present with slowly progressive cognitive decline as well as psychiatric manifestations such as depression. Definite diagnosis of AGD can only be made by post-mortem examination of the brain. Neuropathological features include argyrophilic grains in limbic areas along with oligodendrogli...
Source: Folia Neuropathologica - February 24, 2019 Category: Neurology Tags: Folia Neuropathol Source Type: research

A  comparison of the spatial patterns of β-amyloid (Aβ) deposits in five neurodegenerative disorders.
A comparison of the spatial patterns of β-amyloid (Aβ) deposits in five neurodegenerative disorders. Folia Neuropathol. 2018;56(4):284-292 Authors: A Armstrong R Abstract Alzheimer's disease neuropathologic change (ADNC) in the form of -amyloid (A) deposits is important not only in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and Down's syndrome (DS) but also as a 'co-pathology' in disorders such as dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB), corticobasal degeneration (CBD), and chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE). To compare cortical and hippocampal degeneration in different disorder...
Source: Folia Neuropathologica - February 24, 2019 Category: Neurology Tags: Folia Neuropathol Source Type: research