Aging and cerebrovascular lesions in pure and in mixed neurodegenerative and vascular dementia brains: a  neuropathological study.
CONCLUSIONS: Mixed dementia during the aging process is mainly due to the severity of AD and LBD pathologies combined with CAA-related cerebrovascular lesions. PMID: 30509027 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Folia Neuropathologica)
Source: Folia Neuropathologica - December 5, 2018 Category: Pathology Authors: De Reuck J, Maurage CA, Deramecourt V, Pasquier F, Cordonnier C, Leys D, Bordet R Tags: Folia Neuropathol Source Type: research

The Erlangen Score Algorithm in the diagnosis and prediction of the progression from subjective cognitive decline and mild cognitive impairment to Alzheimer-type dementia.
Abstract The evaluation of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarkers for Alzheimer's disease (AD) (β-amyloid, t-tau, p-tau) can be used to estimate the risk of developing dementia in patients at the pre-clinical stages of AD, i.e. subjective cognitive decline (SCD) and mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Erlangen Score Algorithm allows interpretation of CSF biomarker concentrations and is cut-off value independent. The aim of this study was to establish if this algorithm can be applied for routine diagnostic testing in clinical and preclinical subjects and has prognostic value. We analysed 217 patients from the memor...
Source: Folia Neuropathologica - December 5, 2018 Category: Pathology Authors: Filipek-Gliszczyńska A, Barczak A, Budziszewska M, Mandecka M, Gabryelewicz T, Barcikowska M Tags: Folia Neuropathol Source Type: research

Brain-originated peptides as possible biochemical markers of traumatic brain injury in cerebrospinal fluid post-mortem examination.
In this study, we wanted to examine if selected CSF biomarkers (GFAP, NFL, and myelin basic protein - MBP) of head injury may be useful in post-mortem examination and diagnosis of forensic cases. The study was carried out using cases of head injury and cases of sudden death (cardiopulmonary failure, no injuries of the head as control group) provided by forensic pathologists at the Department of Forensic Medicine, Medical University of Warsaw. Cerebrospinal fluid was collected within 24 h after death using suboccipital puncture. The concentration of these peptides was compared using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELI...
Source: Folia Neuropathologica - December 5, 2018 Category: Pathology Authors: Olczak M, Kwiatkowska M, Niderla-Bielińska J, Chutorański D, Tarka S, Wierzba-Bobrowicz T Tags: Folia Neuropathol Source Type: research

Pseudopterosin A  ameliorates ischaemia-induced brain injury by acting on Akt signalling pathway.
CONCLUSIONS: The present study shows that pseudopterosin A attenuates neuronal injury in the pMCAO model by acting on the Akt signalling pathway. PMID: 30509030 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Folia Neuropathologica)
Source: Folia Neuropathologica - December 5, 2018 Category: Pathology Authors: Niu X, Yu C, Jiang G, Wu J, Tan X, Zhang W, Hou L Tags: Folia Neuropathol Source Type: research

The impact of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells on neovascularisation in rats with brain injury.
Abstract INTRODUCTION: The impact of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs) on neovascularisation in rats with craniocerebral injury (CI) was investigated. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The rate CI model was established by the free-fall method, and then rats were randomly divided into a transplanted group (EG) and a control group (CG). Rats in the transplanted group were injected with BM-MSCs in the lateral ventricle, while those in the control group were injected with normal saline. Modified neuro-logical severity scores (mNSSs) were compared. Furthermore, CD34+CD133 double-labelled cells (CD...
Source: Folia Neuropathologica - December 5, 2018 Category: Pathology Authors: Hu W, Jiang J, Yang F, Liu J Tags: Folia Neuropathol Source Type: research

Evaluation of regenerative processes in the pig model of intervertebral disc degeneration after transplantation of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells.
CONCLUSIONS: By using a large animal model that mimicked the development of intervertebral degenerative disc disease, the present results are indicative of the clinical feasibility of this procedure. PMID: 30509032 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Folia Neuropathologica)
Source: Folia Neuropathologica - December 5, 2018 Category: Pathology Authors: Barczewska M, Jezierska-Wozniak K, Habich A, Lipinski S, Holak P, Maksymowicz W, Wojtkiewicz J Tags: Folia Neuropathol Source Type: research

Hydroxysafflor yellow A  promotes α-synuclein clearance via regulating autophagy in rotenone-induced Parkinson's disease mice.
Hydroxysafflor yellow A promotes α-synuclein clearance via regulating autophagy in rotenone-induced Parkinson's disease mice. Folia Neuropathol. 2018;56(2):133-140 Authors: Han B, Wang L, Fu F, Wang Z, Zhang L, Qi GJ, Wang T Abstract Autophagy is an intracellular degradation process that is involved in α-synuclein (α-syn) homeostasis and Parkinson's disease (PD). The purpose of this study was to investigate whether hydroxysafflor yellow A (HSYA) could promote α-syn clearance via regulating autophagy in PD mice. Male C57BL/6 mice were intraperitoneally treated with HSY...
Source: Folia Neuropathologica - December 5, 2018 Category: Pathology Authors: Han B, Wang L, Fu F, Wang Z, Zhang L, Qi GJ, Wang T Tags: Folia Neuropathol Source Type: research

Human chorionic gonadotropin decreases the phosphorylated tau protein level in streptozotocin-Alzheimeric male rats' hippocampus.
CONCLUSIONS: In conclusion, hCG can provide protection against memory deficits induced by STZ and it can inhibit accumulation of tau hyperphosphorylation in the hippocampus. Furthermore, hCG can increase the hCG receptor-ir neurons number in the rats hippocampus after ICV injection of STZ. PMID: 30509034 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Folia Neuropathologica)
Source: Folia Neuropathologica - December 5, 2018 Category: Pathology Authors: Bahlakeh G, Jahanshahi M, Saeidi M Tags: Folia Neuropathol Source Type: research

[Remarkable recovery in a  patient with intradural extramedullary haemangiopericytoma: a case report and literature review].
We described a rare case of primary intradural extramedullary HPC recovered from serious compression of thoracic spinal cord in a 65-year-old man suffered from a rapidly progressive disease with complete paralysis of the lower limbs. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and spinal angiography exhibited an unusual hypervascular mass, which was confirmed as HPC by pathological examination, in the dorsal aspects of T7 to T8 spine. Total surgical resection was performed followed by adjuvant radiation. Moreover, this patient had been undergoing specific training of lower limbs from the onset of paralysis and continuo...
Source: Folia Neuropathologica - December 5, 2018 Category: Pathology Authors: Wang H, Wang L, Lu Y, Lu C, Xu T, Yan Y, Chen J Tags: Folia Neuropathol Source Type: research

The impact of chronic intermittent hypoxia on the expression of intercellular cell adhesion molecule-1 and vascular endothelial growth factor in the ischemia-reperfusion rat model.
Abstract The aim of this study was to investigate the effect and mechanism of chronic intermittent hypoxia (CIH) on cerebral injury using the ischemia-reperfusion rat model. In total, 36 SD rats were divided into three groups: pseudo-surgery group (sham group), ischemia-reperfusion (IR) group (CIR group), and CIH intervention group (CIH group). The IR model was established using the suture-occluded method. CIH intervention was performed starting at 12 weeks prior to the establishment of the IR model for rats in the CIH group. Ultra-microstructure was examined using an electron microscope. Expression of intercellul...
Source: Folia Neuropathologica - December 5, 2018 Category: Pathology Authors: Yang M, Chen Y, Wu Z, Zhang Y, Cai R, Ye L, Huang Y, Wang L, He H Tags: Folia Neuropathol Source Type: research

The level of microRNA 21 is upregulated by rapamycin in serum of tuberous sclerosis complex patients and subependymal giant cell astrocytoma (SEGA)-derived cell cultures.
ska M Abstract Tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) represents a genetic condition, in which the clinical manifestations are caused by the disinhibition of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway due to mutations in the TSC1 (hamartin) or TSC2 (tuberin) genes. The deregulated mTOR activity leads to multi-site tumors, including subependymal giant cell astrocytoma (SEGA). SEGA is a brain tumor that affects around 15% of TSC patients. The aim of the study was to evaluate miR-21 expression in the serum of two groups of TSC patients: with or without SEGA tumors. We found no differences in the level of mi...
Source: Folia Neuropathologica - December 5, 2018 Category: Pathology Authors: Kuzniewska B, Sadowski K, Urbanska K, Urbanska M, Kotulska K, Liszewska E, Grajkowska W, Jóźwiak S, Dziembowska M Tags: Folia Neuropathol Source Type: research

Dystrophic neurites accumulating autophagic vacuoles show early stages of neuritic destruction.
Abstract We re-examined the database of some 20,000 electron micrographs from the Echigo-1, the 263K-strain or the 22C-H of scrapie-infected hamsters to look for the cytoplasmic clearance. We reevaluated the largest database in the world of photographed dystrophic neurites for the presence of cytoplasmic clearance as shown in transgenic fruit flies transfected with A-42. In several neurites, we found electron-lucent areas not bound by any membranes or only partially bound; thus, they were not autophagic vacuoles as the latter are membrane-bound and contain cargo. Those changes were not observed in every examine...
Source: Folia Neuropathologica - December 5, 2018 Category: Pathology Authors: Liberski PP, Gajos A, Sikorska B Tags: Folia Neuropathol Source Type: research

Vorinostat: a  histone deacetylases (HDAC) inhibitor ameliorates traumatic brain injury by inducing iNOS/Nrf2/ARE pathway.
Vorinostat: a histone deacetylases (HDAC) inhibitor ameliorates traumatic brain injury by inducing iNOS/Nrf2/ARE pathway. Folia Neuropathol. 2018;56(3):179-186 Authors: Xu J, Shi J, Zhang J, Zhang Y Abstract The present investigation evaluates the protective effect of vorinostat on neuronal cells in the traumatic brain injury (TBI) and also postulates the possible mechanism of its action. Marmarou's weight-drop model was used to induce the TBI. Further, animals were treated with vorinostat 100 mg/kg intraperitoneally 30 min before the TBI induction. Neurological score and brain water content were...
Source: Folia Neuropathologica - December 5, 2018 Category: Pathology Authors: Xu J, Shi J, Zhang J, Zhang Y Tags: Folia Neuropathol Source Type: research

Time-related morphometric studies on CD34 protein expression in the cerebral blood vessels after fatal brain contusions.
Abstract In our previous work, we have discussed the importance of neurofilaments in determination of the age of brain contusions. The purpose of this paper is to examine a possibility of angiogenesis-related assessment of the age of brain contusions by means of morphometric analysis of the CD34 expression in the contused sites. The researched material comprised 90 cases divided into nine groups according to the time of death: immediately on the spot, 12 hours, 24 hours, 2 days, 3 days, 4 days, 5 days, 6 days, and 7 days after the head trauma. Immunohistochemically stained CD34 antigen was evaluated quantitat...
Source: Folia Neuropathologica - December 5, 2018 Category: Pathology Authors: Kobek M, Jankowski Z, Szala J, Gąszczyk-Ożarowski Z, Pałasz A, Skowronek R Tags: Folia Neuropathol Source Type: research

The role of ceramide and SEW 2871 in the transcription of enzymes involved in amyloid b precursor protein metabolism in an experimental model of Alzheimer's disease.
In this study we investigated the role of ceramide and S1P on APP metabolism. Moreover, the effect of ceramide and SEW 2871 (agonist for S1P receptor-1) on Sirt1 (NAD+-dependent nuclear enzyme responsible for stress response) gene expression under A toxicity was analyzed. Experiments were carried out using pheochromocytoma cells (PC-12) transfected with: an empty vector (used as a control), human wild-type APP gene (APPwt) and Swedish mutated (K670M/N671L) APP gene (APPsw). Our results indicated that C2-ceramide significantly decreased the viability of the APPwt, APPsw as well as empty vector-transfected PC12 cells...
Source: Folia Neuropathologica - December 5, 2018 Category: Pathology Authors: Czubowicz K, Wójtowicz S, Wencel PL, Strosznajder RP Tags: Folia Neuropathol Source Type: research

Persistent attenuation of brain oxidative stress through aging in perinatal maternal separated rat pups supplemented with choline and docosahexaenoic acid or Clitoria ternatea aqueous root extract.
Abstract INTRODUCTION: Perinatal maternal separation stress (PMSS) induces brain lipid peroxidation and reduction in endogenous antioxidants. The present study was designed to assess the brain oxidative stress (MDA) and protein thiol levels through various stages of aging in PMSS rat pups supplemented with choline with docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) or Clitoria ternatea (Linn) aqueous root extract (CTR). MATERIAL AND METHODS: Study groups, control, PMSS, PMSS + choline with DHA, PMSS + CTR (n = 6/group) were included in the study. Pups of PMSS groups were separated from their mothers for a period of 6 h/day ...
Source: Folia Neuropathologica - December 5, 2018 Category: Pathology Authors: Almeida PMD, Kamath SU, Shenoy PR, Bernhardt LK, Kishore A, Rai KS Tags: Folia Neuropathol Source Type: research

Vitamin E can compensate the density of M1 receptors in the hippocampus of scopolamine-treated rats.
In conclusion, vitamin E can compensate the neuronal loss in the hippocampal formation and also it can raise the density of M1 receptor-ir muscarinic neurons after an injection of scopolamine. PMID: 30509043 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Folia Neuropathologica)
Source: Folia Neuropathologica - December 5, 2018 Category: Pathology Authors: Sayyahi A, Jahanshahi M, Amini H, Sepehri H Tags: Folia Neuropathol Source Type: research

A  rare case of intracranial malignant triton tumor arising in the middle cranial fossa: a case report and review of the literature.
We describe a rare case of intracranial malignant triton tumor (MTT) arising in the middle cranial fossa in a 74-year-old female patient who had previously been exposed to radiation in the Chernobyl disaster. The patient underwent a surgical subtotal removal of the mass and radiation therapy, but the progression-free survival was only 2.5 months and death occurred four months after the onset of symptoms. MTTs are rare aggressive tumors arising from the nerve sheath showing rhabdomyosarcomatous differentiation and associated with a poor prognosis. The intracranial location is very rare, and only 10 cases...
Source: Folia Neuropathologica - December 5, 2018 Category: Pathology Authors: Bruzzone E, Melloni I, Barra S, Fraternali Orcioni G, Cocito L Tags: Folia Neuropathol Source Type: research

[The 14th International Symposium: MOLECULAR BASIS OF PATHOLOGY AND THERAPY IN NEUROLOGICAL DISORDERS].
Authors: PMID: 30509045 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Folia Neuropathologica)
Source: Folia Neuropathologica - December 5, 2018 Category: Pathology Tags: Folia Neuropathol Source Type: research

The quantitative analysis of neurodegenerative disease: classification, noda, constellations, and multivariate geometry.
Abstract A variety of methods are available for the quantitative description and analysis of neurodegenerative disease. If neurodegenerative disease exists as a series of distinct disorders, then classificatory methods such as hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) and decision tree analysis (DTA) can be used to classify cases into groups more objectively. If neurodegenerative disease consists of overlapping phenotypes, then the Braun-Blanquet 'nodal' system and 'constellation diagrams' implicitly recognise intermediate cases and reveal their relationships to the main groupings. By contrast, if cases are more continu...
Source: Folia Neuropathologica - April 18, 2018 Category: Pathology Authors: A Armstrong R Tags: Folia Neuropathol Source Type: research

Platelets, lymphocytes and erythrocytes from Alzheimer's disease patients: the quest for blood cell-based biomarkers.
Abstract In elderly population, Alzheimer's disease is a common neurodegenerative disorder and accounts for about 70% of all cases of dementia. The neurodegenerative processes of this disease start presumably 20 years ahead of the clinical beginning of the disorder. The postmortem histopathological examination, brains from Alzheimer's disease patients with characteristic features like amyloid plaques and neurofibrillary tangles, neuronal and synaptic disintegration confirm the final diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease. Senile plaques are composed of -amyloid peptide, deriving from the amyloid protein precursor, wh...
Source: Folia Neuropathologica - April 18, 2018 Category: Pathology Authors: Pluta R, Ułamek-Kozioł M, Januszewski S, Czuczwar SJ Tags: Folia Neuropathol Source Type: research

Visualization of synaptic vesicle dynamics with fluorescence proteins.
Abstract Synaptic vesicle (SV) will be transported to the bouton along the axon, once it is formed in a cell body. After docking in the active zone, neurotransmitters will be released upon the stimulation, and then transmission of chemical signals will be initiated. Presently, many advanced technologies and burgeoning molecular sensors are being used to explore the synaptic transmission. These studies provide a new sight into the presynaptic structure and its function. The present review summarizes the application of fluorescent proteins (FPs) for SV tracking and recycling. Some FPs and relevant imaging technologi...
Source: Folia Neuropathologica - April 18, 2018 Category: Pathology Authors: Li W, Geng C, Liu B Tags: Folia Neuropathol Source Type: research

Expression of amyloid precursor-like protein 2 (APLP2) in glioblastoma is associated with patient prognosis.
In conclusion, the expression of APLP2 might correlate with tumor development and be a prognostic factor for patients with glioblastoma. PMID: 29663738 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Folia Neuropathologica)
Source: Folia Neuropathologica - April 18, 2018 Category: Pathology Authors: Chen Y, Wang H, Tan C, Yan Y, Shen J, Huang Q, Xu T, Lin J, Chen J Tags: Folia Neuropathol Source Type: research

Neurotoxic effects of domoic acid on dopaminergic neurons in primary mesencephalic cell culture.
CONCLUSION: The current study presents for the first time the neurotoxic effects of domoic acid on dopaminergic neurons and this effect appears to be attributed to activation of AMPA/KA receptors on dopaminergic neurons. PMID: 29663739 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Folia Neuropathologica)
Source: Folia Neuropathologica - April 18, 2018 Category: Pathology Authors: Radad K, Al-Shraim M, Al-Emam A, Moldzio R, Rausch WD Tags: Folia Neuropathol Source Type: research

miRNA-223 regulates ischemic neuronal injury by targeting the type 1 insulin-like growth factor receptor (IGF1R).
Abstract Cerebral ischemia injury seriously endangers human health and its molecular mechanism is still not fully understood. microRNA-223 (miR-223) has been reported to be involved in many physiological functions but the specific role of miRNA-223 in ischemic neuronal injury is still unclear. An oxygen-glucose deprivation and simulated reperfusion (OGD/R) model was constructed here to investigate the possible role miR-223 played in ischemic neuronal injury. The expression of miRNA-223 in the OGD/R model and its effect on cell proliferation were studied by qPCR and CCK8 assay. We observed that miR-223 was signific...
Source: Folia Neuropathologica - April 18, 2018 Category: Pathology Authors: Feng SJ, Zhang XQ, Li JT, Dai XM, Zhao F Tags: Folia Neuropathol Source Type: research

Interactive involvement of hippocampal cAMP/PKA and cyclooxygenase-2 signaling pathways in spatial learning in the Morris water maze.
CONCLUSIONS: These results indicate the probable regulatory effects of cAMP/PKA and cyclooxygenase-2 signaling pathways on spatial memory acquisition in the Morris water maze. PMID: 29663741 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Folia Neuropathologica)
Source: Folia Neuropathologica - April 18, 2018 Category: Pathology Authors: Tabrizian K, Hashemzaei M, Nasiri AA, Najafi S, Amelinia F, Sanati M, Shamshirgaran F, Fanoudi S Tags: Folia Neuropathol Source Type: research

Degenerative effect of Ankaferd Blood Stopper ® on mice peripheral sensory neurons in vitro.
Degenerative effect of Ankaferd Blood Stopper® on mice peripheral sensory neurons in vitro. Folia Neuropathol. 2018;56(1):67-74 Authors: Üstün R, Oğuz EK Abstract Ankaferd Blood Stopper® (ABS) is a licensed medicinal herbal extract that ensures effective hemostasis on external, internal, postoperative and dental bleeds. Dorsal root ganglia (DRG) harbor cell bodies of peripheral sensory neurons. DRG neurons receive peripheral information and regularly send projections to nuclei in the brainstem and the spinal cord. These neurons play critical roles in neural development. Neuronal dys...
Source: Folia Neuropathologica - April 18, 2018 Category: Pathology Authors: Üstün R, Oğuz EK Tags: Folia Neuropathol Source Type: research

Intraspinal intradural nodular fasciitis mimicking glioblastoma metastasis: a case report.
We report the case of a 78-year-old male patient suffering from right temporal glioblastoma with radiographic meningeal tumor spread. During the further course of the disease he developed a rapidly progressive paraplegia. An magnetic resonance imaging scan showed a contrast enhancing an intraspinal intradural lesion with compression of the myelon on segment Th 8/9. With a high suspicion of a spinal metastasis of the known glioblastoma, emergency spinal decompression and resection of the intradural mass was performed. However, histopathological evaluation revealed nodular fasciitis without any signs of glial origin. PM...
Source: Folia Neuropathologica - April 18, 2018 Category: Pathology Authors: Zipser CM, Füllbier L, Beschorner R, Bösmüller H, Ziemann U, Tatagiba MS, Tabatabai G, Bender B, Behling F Tags: Folia Neuropathol Source Type: research

Dysregulation of Alzheimer's disease-related genes and proteins following cardiac arrest.
Authors: Pluta R, Ułamek-Kozioł M, Januszewski S, Czuczwar SJ Abstract Cardiac arrest, usually occurring in the aged population, is the most important cause of high morbidity and death in developed countries. Commonly, attention, depression, cognitive impairment, spatial memory, short- and long-term memory, executive functions, decreased quality of life and social participation are disturbed following circulation arrest. Deficits in cognitive function, similar to prodromal Alzheimer's disease dementia, following cardiac arrest remain an area of concern. Recent research has focused on the post-resuscitation period...
Source: Folia Neuropathologica - January 26, 2018 Category: Neurology Tags: Folia Neuropathol Source Type: research

Robust autophagy in optic nerves of experimental Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease and Gerstmann-Str äussler-Scheinker disease.
We report here autophagy in the optic nerve in experimental Gerstmann-Sträussler-Scheinker disease (GSS) (Fujisaki-1) in mice and experimental Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) (Echigo-1) in hamsters. Lesions of both experimental GSS in mice and experimental CJD in hamsters were practically indistinguishable. Briefly, they consisted of widespread Wallerian degeneration, spongiform change and a glial reaction. Numerous axonal swellings were seen. The latter were filled with numerous mitochondria and lysosomal electron-dense bodies. Autophagic vacuoles defined as structures bound in double membranes were readily found in ...
Source: Folia Neuropathologica - January 26, 2018 Category: Neurology Tags: Folia Neuropathol Source Type: research

What factors determine phenotype of cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy (CADASIL)? Considerations in the context of a novel pathogenic R110C mutation in the NOTCH3 gene.
We report patients from a Polish family with cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy (CADASIL) who possess a novel heterozygous R110C mutation in exon 3 of the NOTCH3 gene leading to stereotypical cysteine loss. The proband had only seizure attacks and her magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed very numerous hyperintense foci in the cerebral white matter in a location characteristic of CADASIL. Distinctive ultrastructural assessment of vessels from skin-muscle biopsy revealed only mild degenerative changes but relatively numerous homogeneous deposits of granular osmiophil...
Source: Folia Neuropathologica - January 26, 2018 Category: Neurology Tags: Folia Neuropathol Source Type: research

Levels of selected pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines in cerebrospinal fluid in patients with hydrocephalus.
Authors: Czubowicz K, Głowacki M, Fersten E, Kozłowska E, Strosznajder RP, Czernicki Z Abstract Cytokines are widely known mediators of inflammation accompanying many neurodegenerative disorders including normal pressure hydrocephalus (NPH). NPH is caused by impaired cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) absorption and treated by surgical shunt insertion. The early diagnosis of NPH is difficult because of various manifestations of the disease. One of the most promising research directions is biochemical CSF analysis. The aim of this study was to determine the CSF levels of cytokines. The levels of various cytokines (IL-6, IL...
Source: Folia Neuropathologica - January 26, 2018 Category: Neurology Tags: Folia Neuropathol Source Type: research

[Anti-inflammatory effect and mechanisms of Huangqi glycoprotein in treating experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis].
In this study, we established a chronic experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) model and observed the therapeutic effect and possible mechanisms of HQGP (intraperitoneally at 1 mg/kg/day) on EAE. The results showed that HQGP delayed onset and ameliorated severity of EAE, and reduced the infiltration and accumulation of pathogenic T cells in the central nerves system (CNS). HQGP also reduced the production of IL-6, IL-17 and TNF-α and increased the level of IL-10. However, the level of IFN-γ production was also increased in HQGP-treated mice compared with EAE control mice. In brain, chemokines such as C...
Source: Folia Neuropathologica - January 26, 2018 Category: Neurology Tags: Folia Neuropathol Source Type: research

Maternal hypoxia increases hippocampal cell susceptibility to ischemia after middle cerebral artery occlusion in rat offspring.
This study investigated whether maternal hypoxia increases hippocampal cell vulnerability and exacerbates neurological impairments in adult rat offspring following ischemia. Material and methods: Pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned to no maternal hypoxia or maternal hypoxia treatment groups. Adult male rat offspring were subjected to middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO). There were four groups: maternal + sham (MH + Sham), sham (Sham), maternal hypoxia + MCAO (MH + MCAO), and MCAO only (MCAO). Neurological deficits were evaluated. Hippocampal cell damage was observed by hematoxylin and eosin (HE) stainin...
Source: Folia Neuropathologica - January 26, 2018 Category: Neurology Tags: Folia Neuropathol Source Type: research

Effect of dimethyl fumarate on heme oxygenase-1 expression in experimental allergic encephalomyelitis in rats.
Authors: Kasarełło K, Jesion A, Tyszkowska K, Matusik K, Czarzasta K, Wrzesień R, Cudnoch-Jedrzejewska A Abstract Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an autoimmunological disease leading to neurodegeneration. The etiology of the disease remains unknown, which strongly impedes the development of effective therapy. Most MS treatments focus on modulating the activity of the immune system. Dimethyl fumarate (DMF) exerts a broad spectrum of action, such as modulating immune cell differentiation towards anti-inflammatory subtypes, influencing cytokine production, regulating immune cell migration into the central nervous system...
Source: Folia Neuropathologica - January 26, 2018 Category: Neurology Tags: Folia Neuropathol Source Type: research

Effects of amphetamine administration on neurogenesis in adult rats.
Authors: Stępień T, Taracha E, Kaniuga E, Płaźnik A, Wierzba-Bobrowicz T Abstract In our study expression of phospho-(Ser-10)-histone H3 (pH3S10), a marker for the early stage of neurogenesis, and cellular early response genes were investigated using c-Fos protein as an example of a transcription factor in the neurogenic process in rats. Neurogenesis in the adult brain is regulated by endo- and exogenous factors, which influence the proliferation potential of progenitor cells and accelerate the dendritic development of newborn neurons. D-amphetamine, a psychoactive substance, is one of the exogenous factors abl...
Source: Folia Neuropathologica - January 26, 2018 Category: Neurology Tags: Folia Neuropathol Source Type: research

Effects of standardized extract of Ferula gummosa root on glutamate-induced neurotoxicity.
Authors: Sadeghnia HR, Rajabian A, Ghorbani A, Moradzadeh M, Hosseini A Abstract Glutamate is one of the major excitatory neurotransmitters in the central nervous system. Increasing glutamate leads to neurodegenerative disease. Nowadays, plant medicine plays a role in the treatment of some disorders. In this research, we investigated the neuroprotective effect of Ferula gummosa root extract against glutamate-induced oxidative stress in the rat adrenal pheochromocytoma (PC12) and mouse neuroblastoma (N2a) cell lines. The cells were pretreated with extract for 2 h and then exposed to glutamate for 24 h. After 24 h th...
Source: Folia Neuropathologica - January 26, 2018 Category: Neurology Tags: Folia Neuropathol Source Type: research

In memoriam: Professor Janina Rafa łowska.
In memoriam: Professor Janina Rafałowska. Folia Neuropathol. 2017;55(3):183-184 Authors: Dziewulska D, Matyja E, Laure-Kamionowska M PMID: 28984109 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Folia Neuropathologica)
Source: Folia Neuropathologica - October 8, 2017 Category: Pathology Authors: Dziewulska D, Matyja E, Laure-Kamionowska M Tags: Folia Neuropathol Source Type: research

Neuronal cytoplasmic inclusions in tau, TDP-43, and FUS molecular subtypes of frontotemporal lobar degeneration share similar spatial patterns.
Abstract The 'prion-like' transfer of pathogenic proteins may play a role in the pathogenesis of frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD). Propagation of such proteins along anatomical pathways may give rise to specific spatial patterns of the 'signature' neuronal cytoplasmic inclusions (NCI) characteristic of these disorders. Hence, the spatial patterns of the NCI were compared in three molecular subtypes of FTLD: (1) two variants of FTLD-tau, viz. cortico-basal degeneration (CBD) and Pick's disease (PiD), (2) FTLD with transactive response (TAR) DNA-binding protein 43(TDP-43)-immunoreactive inclusions (FTLD-TDP)...
Source: Folia Neuropathologica - October 8, 2017 Category: Pathology Authors: A Armstrong R Tags: Folia Neuropathol Source Type: research

Dysfunctional lamins as mediators of oxidative stress in Emery-Dreifuss muscular dystrophy.
Abstract Deficit of lamin A/C or emerin causes genetically transmitted Emery-Dreifuss muscular dystrophy (EDMD). As lamins are considered to be mediators of oxidative stress, the antioxidant/oxidant status was examined. The total oxidant/antioxidant status in serum was examined in 29 cases of Emery-Dreifuss muscular dystrophy. The study included 12 autosomal-dominant laminopathies (AD-EDMD), 17 X-linked emerinopathies (X-EDMD) and 20 age-matched normal subjects. Total oxidant status (TOS) was reduced in all cases, and the total antioxidant capacity (TAC) was found to be decreased in the majority of the patients (i...
Source: Folia Neuropathologica - October 8, 2017 Category: Pathology Authors: Niebroj-Dobosz I, Sokołowska B, Madej-Pilarczyk A, Marchel M, Hausmanowa-Petrusewicz I Tags: Folia Neuropathol Source Type: research

Effects of green tea epigallocatechin-3-gallate on the proteolipid protein and oligodendrocyte transcription factor 1 messenger RNA gene expression in a mouse model of multiple sclerosis.
In this study the effects of EGCG on proteolipid protein (PLP) and oligodendrocyte transcription factor 1 (Olig1) expression in the cerebral cortex of a murine model of cuprizone-induced demyelination was investigated. C57BL/6 mice were treated with cuprizone for six weeks in order to induce demyelination. Immediately after the cessation of cuprizone the animals were divided into 6 groups (n = 10 for each group). The first two groups were injected intraperitoneally (IP) with EGCG in the amount of 50 mg/kg/daily body weight for 2 and 4 weeks. The second two groups (SHAM) were injected IP with phosphate-buffered saline (PBS)...
Source: Folia Neuropathologica - October 8, 2017 Category: Pathology Authors: Semnani M, Mashayekhi F, Azarnia M, Salehi Z Tags: Folia Neuropathol Source Type: research

Neuroprotective effect of safranal, an active ingredient of Crocus sativus , in a rat model of transient cerebral ischemia.
In this study, we examined the effect of safranal on brain injuries in a transient model of focal cerebral ischemia. Transient focal cerebral ischemia was induced by middle cerebral artery occlusion for 30 min, followed by 24 h of reperfusion. Safranal in the doses of 72.5 and 145 mg/kg was administered intraperitoneally at 0, 3, and 6 h after reperfusion. Neurobehavioral deficit, infarct volume, hippocampal cell loss and markers of oxidative stress including thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), total sulfhydryl (SH) content, and antioxidant capacity (using FRAP assay) were also assessed. The focal cerebral isc...
Source: Folia Neuropathologica - October 8, 2017 Category: Pathology Authors: Sadeghnia HR, Shaterzadeh H, Forouzanfar F, Hosseinzadeh H Tags: Folia Neuropathol Source Type: research

A novel de novo COL6A1 mutation emphasizes the role of intron 14 donor splice site defects as a cause of moderate-progressive form of ColVI myopathy - a case report and review of the genotype-phenotype correlation.
Abstract Collagen VI-related myopathy is a group of disorders affecting skeletal muscles and connective tissue. The most common symptoms are muscle weakness and joint deformities which limit the movement and progress over time. Several forms of collagen VI-related myopathies have been described: Bethlem myopathy, an intermediate form and Ullrich congenital muscular dystrophy, which is the most severe. Here we report a novel de novo c.1056+3A>C substitution in intron 14 of the COL6A1 gene encoding alpha-chains of collagen VI in a 13-year-old girl suffering from collagen VI (ColVI) myopathy. Analysis performed on...
Source: Folia Neuropathologica - October 8, 2017 Category: Pathology Authors: Koppolu AA, Madej-Pilarczyk A, Rydzanicz M, Kosińska J, Gasperowicz P, Dorszewska J, Kozubski W, Steinborn B, Kochański AM, Płoski R Tags: Folia Neuropathol Source Type: research

EBV-positive post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder presenting as primary diffuse large B-cell lymphoma of the central nervous system.
We report a case of a renal transplant patient who initially presented with acute altered neurological function, an enhancing mass lesion of the brain on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and nonspecific reactive histopathological changes on brain biopsy. The lesion was self-limited and spontaneously resolved without medical treatment for PTLD. Six months later, surveillance MRI revealed recurrence of the brain lesion. The biopsy showed morphologic changes consistent with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-positive diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. The patient responded well to reduction of immunosuppression and treatment with a single...
Source: Folia Neuropathologica - October 8, 2017 Category: Pathology Authors: Xu H, Rewerska J, Aardsma N, Slavin K, Valyi-Nagy T, Ni H Tags: Folia Neuropathol Source Type: research

Cerebellar liponeurocytoma with atypical histological features - a rare example of a glioneuronal tumor.
We present a case of a rare neoplasm in a 77-year-old woman with previous oncological history, who developed a rapid onset of cerebellar symptoms. The neuroimaging detected a posterior fossa tumor suspected of meningioma which was completely resected soon after. Histologically the neoplasm had two components with different immunophenotype. One constituent was lobular, composed of monotonous mitotically active round cells with a predominant neuronal profile. The second, astrocytic component contained lipomatous cells intermixed with larger gemistocytic astrocytes. Fields of geographic necrosis as well as multifocal microvas...
Source: Folia Neuropathologica - October 8, 2017 Category: Pathology Authors: Hermann B, Woznica M, Kloc W, Borkowski P, Libionka W, Izycka-Swieszewska E Tags: Folia Neuropathol Source Type: research

Sudden unexpected postnatal collapse at 20 hours from birth during skin-to-skin care related to brainstem developmental alterations - a case report.
This report describes a case of sudden collapse of a 20-hour-old newborn, while he was placed close to their mother according to skin-to-skin care, attributed to developmental alterations of brainstem nuclei involved in regulation of the vital functions. The infant, after a normal pregnancy, appeared well developed at birth, with no evidence of malformations or trauma, but showing severe asphyxia. The routine autopsy did not reveal a possible cause of death. Only the in-depth anatomopathological examination of the autonomic nervous system, according to the protocol developed by the "Lino Rossi" Research Center of...
Source: Folia Neuropathologica - October 8, 2017 Category: Pathology Authors: Lavezzi AM, Piscioli F, Pusiol T Tags: Folia Neuropathol Source Type: research

Intracerebral hemorrhage in the context of cerebral amyloid angiopathy and varied time of onset of cerebral venous thrombosis: a case report.
Abstract In patients with cerebral venous thrombosis (CVT) the incidence of intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) is estimated at about 37% and subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) at 1% of patients. A case with coincident occurrence of ICH, SAH and CVT in a patient with cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA) is reported. A 79-year-old woman was admitted to the Neurological Department after the occurrence of generalized seizures, the first in her life. On admission she was unconscious with right hemiparesis and deviation of eyes to the left. On computed tomography (CT) scan many hemorrhagic infarcts were present in the frontal, pari...
Source: Folia Neuropathologica - October 8, 2017 Category: Pathology Authors: Mendel TA, Błażejewska-Hyżorek B, Szpak GM, Stępień T, Lewandowska E, Tarka S, Kurkowska-Jastrzębska I, Wierzba-Bobrowicz T Tags: Folia Neuropathol Source Type: research

Neurochemical Conference 2017: "Advances in molecular and epigenetic mechanisms in neurodegeneration and neuroinflammation: novel therapeutic approaches".
Neurochemical Conference 2017: "Advances in molecular and epigenetic mechanisms in neurodegeneration and neuroinflammation: novel therapeutic approaches". Folia Neuropathol. 2017;55(3):249-281 Authors: PMID: 28984119 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Folia Neuropathologica)
Source: Folia Neuropathologica - October 8, 2017 Category: Pathology Tags: Folia Neuropathol Source Type: research

Neuropathological protocol for the study of unexplained stillbirth.
Abstract An updated neuropathological protocol for the examination of the nervous system in case of unexplained stillbirth has been elaborated and presented in this review. It is focused on the examination of the nervous centers located in the brainstem, which are involved in monitoring the vital functions. Only through a deep analysis of the brainstem it is possible to highlight developmental alterations of these essential centers, and then provide a plausible explanation of the pathogenetic mechanism behind the death. The guidelines, drawn up on the basis of numerous researches performed by the authors, include ...
Source: Folia Neuropathologica - July 7, 2017 Category: Pathology Authors: Roncati L, Piscioli F, Pusiol T, Lavezzi AM Tags: Folia Neuropathol Source Type: research

Neurologic complications in kidney transplant recipients.
Abstract Transplantology experiences continuous growth and kidney transplantation is the most frequently transplanted solid organ. Metabolic, cardiovascular, infectious or kidney function-related aspects are widely recognised and are of key interest for transplant doctors. Neurological complications seen in these patients, although known, are less covered in the literature. According to some reports, neurologic symptoms are experienced by almost 9 per 10 transplant recipients. The intensity, severity and type of abnormalities may vary, and most frequently the complications seem to be associated with a direct or in...
Source: Folia Neuropathologica - July 7, 2017 Category: Pathology Authors: Piotrowski PC, Lutkowska A, Tsibulski A, Karczewski M, Jagodziński PP Tags: Folia Neuropathol Source Type: research