A  meta-analysis of leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2) polymorphisms in Alzheimer's disease.
This study was aimed to estimate the frequency of mutations in leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2) gene to examine the association between these mutations and risk of AD. For finding the articles, four databases including PubMed, Web of Science, Scopus, and Cochrane Library were checked up to August 2018. An analysis was done by RevMan 5.3 using crude odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) to determine the association between LRRK2 polymorphisms and the risk of AD. Of 359 articles identified in the databases, 13 studies were included and analysed in the meta-analysis. There was no significant risk of AD relate...
Source: Folia Neuropathologica - May 1, 2019 Category: Pathology Authors: Fatahian R, Bagheri SR, Sadeghi M Tags: Folia Neuropathol Source Type: research

Promotive effects of capillary morphogenetic protein 2 on glioma cell invasion and the molecular mechanism.
Abstract We aimed to explore the role of capillary morphogenetic protein 2 (CMG2) in glioma cell invasion and the possible molecular mechanism. Glioma cells U87 and U251 stably overexpressing CMG2 were constructed by lentiviral transfection. The changes of cell invasion and migration were tested by Matrigel-transwell assay and scratch assay, respectively. A mouse model with orthotopically transplanted tumour was established to evaluate the effects of CMG2 overexpression on the in vivo invasion of glioma cells and survival time. The differences of filopodia and lamellar pseudopodia among glioma cells with diff...
Source: Folia Neuropathologica - May 1, 2019 Category: Pathology Authors: Xu Y, He Y, Xu W, Lu T, Liang W, Jin W Tags: Folia Neuropathol Source Type: research

Ginkgetin aglycone attenuates neuroinflammation and neuronal injury in the rats with ischemic stroke by modulating STAT3/JAK2/SIRT1.
Abstract The present investigation evaluates the protective effect of Ginkgetin aglycone (GA) against ischemic stroke-induced neuronal injury. Ischemic stroke was produced by the middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) model and animals were a group that received GA 100 and 200 mg/kg, i.p. five days before the induction of MCAO. The effect of GA against stroke was determined by estimating the neurological deficit score and brain water content was also observed. Moreover terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labelling (TUNEL) assay was done for determining the neuronal apoptosis and Western blot ...
Source: Folia Neuropathologica - May 1, 2019 Category: Pathology Authors: Xu B, He X, Sui Y, Wang X, Wang X, Ren L, Zhai YX Tags: Folia Neuropathol Source Type: research

[Disturbed maturation of oligodendrocyte progenitors in lipopolysaccharide-induced hypomyelination in cultured forebrain slices of neonatal rats].
CONCLUSIONS: In conclusion, maturation arrest and/or under-differentiation of OL progenitors commonly occur during regeneration: they may underlie the degeneration and consequent hypomyelination occurring late after injury, or apoptosis during the acute stage post-injury. Microglia and astrocytes expressing TNF- may also contribute to later myelination failure. PMID: 31038185 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Folia Neuropathologica)
Source: Folia Neuropathologica - May 1, 2019 Category: Pathology Authors: Kim JW, Lee KS, Chang YP Tags: Folia Neuropathol Source Type: research

Relationship between genetic polymorphisms MTHFR (C677T, A1298C), MTR (A2756G) and MTRR (A66G) genes and multiple sclerosis: a  case-control study.
In this study, we aimed to investigate the association between MS and the following four DNA polymorphisms: MTR A[2756]G, MTHFR C[677]T, MTHFR A[1298]C and MTRR A[66]G. The DNA polymorphisms were genotyped in 80 patients with confirmed MS and 80 healthy control age- and gender-matched subjects using PCR-RFLP approach. Our results show that the frequency of the T/T genotype homozygotes for the MTHFR C[677]T polymorphism was significantly higher in patients than in controls (p = 0.04, OR: 3.16, 95% CI: 1.23-8.17). In turn, the A/A genotype of the MTHFR A[1298]C polymorphism was more frequent in controls than in patients...
Source: Folia Neuropathologica - May 1, 2019 Category: Pathology Authors: Cakina S, Ocak O, Ozkan A, Yucel S, Ozısık Karaman HI Tags: Folia Neuropathol Source Type: research

Myxoma virus derived immune modulating proteins, M-T7 and Serp-1, reduce early inflammation after spinal cord injury in the rat model.
We examined sustained, 7-day, subdural infusion of either M-T7, a chemokine modulator or Serp-1, a plasminogen activator and factor inhibitor. Mature male rats had epidural balloon crush SCI and sustained subdural infusion of Serp-1, M-T7, DEX or saline for 7 days via the osmotic pump. A separate group of rats with SCI had intra-peritoneal infusion. Clinical evaluation included endpoint monitoring with body weight, hemorrhagic cystitis and bilateral toe pinch response. Sections of the spinal cord were analyzed histologically and macrophage numbers counted by standardized protocol in the cavity of injury (COI...
Source: Folia Neuropathologica - May 1, 2019 Category: Pathology Authors: Kwiecien JM, Dabrowski W, Marzec-Kotarska B, Kwiecien-Delaney CJ, Yaron JR, Zhang L, Schutz L, Lucas AR Tags: Folia Neuropathol Source Type: research

Immunolocalization of dynein, dynactin, and kinesin in the cerebral tissue as a  possible supplemental diagnostic tool for traumatic brain injury in postmortem examination.
Immunolocalization of dynein, dynactin, and kinesin in the cerebral tissue as a possible supplemental diagnostic tool for traumatic brain injury in postmortem examination. Folia Neuropathol. 2019;57(1):51-62 Authors: Olczak M, Poniatowski Ł, Kwiatkowska M, Samojłowicz D, Tarka S, Wierzba-Bobrowicz T Abstract Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is characterized by various micro- and macrostructural neuropathological changes which can be identified in the light microscope examination. The most common pathophenotype of TBI visualized in postmortem neuropathological assessment includes neuron injury with ...
Source: Folia Neuropathologica - May 1, 2019 Category: Pathology Authors: Olczak M, Poniatowski Ł, Kwiatkowska M, Samojłowicz D, Tarka S, Wierzba-Bobrowicz T Tags: Folia Neuropathol Source Type: research

The parameters of carotid plaques' calcifications and clinical nature of the lesions in the context of revascularization treatment. The enlargement of calcifications is still the most important.
CONCLUSIONS: The enlargement of calcifications in carotid plaques is the only calcification parameter important for the clinical outcome of carotid atherosclerosis. Patients with calcified carotid plaques have a significantly lower risk of ischemic stroke than patients with non-calcified lesions. PMID: 31038189 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Folia Neuropathologica)
Source: Folia Neuropathologica - May 1, 2019 Category: Pathology Authors: Masztalewicz M, Rotter I, Nowacki P, Szydłowski Ł, Żukowski M, Gutowski P Tags: Folia Neuropathol Source Type: research

[Glioblastoma with BRAFV600E mutation and numerous metastatic foci: a  case report].
[Glioblastoma with BRAFV600E mutation and numerous metastatic foci: a case report]. Folia Neuropathol. 2019;57(1):72-79 Authors: Janik K, Och W, Popeda M, Rosiak K, Peciak J, Rieske P, Kulbacki K, Szostak B, Parda A, Stoczynska-Fidelus E Abstract Glioblastoma, the most malignant astrocytic tumour, is associated with limited survival and thus rare metastases. We analysed a particularly interesting case - a 51-year-old male diagnosed within 2 years with primary and recurrent glioblastoma, isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH)-wild type, as well as with numerous extra-central nervous system (CNS)...
Source: Folia Neuropathologica - May 1, 2019 Category: Pathology Authors: Janik K, Och W, Popeda M, Rosiak K, Peciak J, Rieske P, Kulbacki K, Szostak B, Parda A, Stoczynska-Fidelus E Tags: Folia Neuropathol Source Type: research

Radiation-induced anaplastic astrocytoma following treatment of medulloblastoma.
Abstract We hereby report a case of a 10-year-old girl in whom neurosurgery was performed for cerebellar vermis medulloblastoma in April 2000. After resection the patient underwent chemotherapy followed by radiotherapy, receiving 53.07 Gy to posterior fossa and 35.07 Gy to the rest of the craniospinal axis. In 2012, she was diagnosed with anaplastic astrocytoma, which was located within the high-dose region. Surgical resection of the tumour was performed. Postoperatively, the patient received radiation therapy (50.4 Gy) with concurrent temozolomide, followed by 6 cycles of adjuvant temozolomide. Five years after t...
Source: Folia Neuropathologica - May 1, 2019 Category: Pathology Authors: Mucha-Małecka A, Wojton-Dziewonska D, Adamek D, Urbanek K, Małecki K Tags: Folia Neuropathol Source Type: research

Argyrophilic grain disease: a  clinicopathological review of an overlooked tauopathy.
Argyrophilic grain disease: a clinicopathological review of an overlooked tauopathy. Folia Neuropathol. 2018;56(4):277-283 Authors: Das S, Ishaque A Abstract Argyrophilic grain disease (AGD) is a sporadic tauopathy and actually the second most frequent cause of dementia after Alzheimer's disease. Patients can present with slowly progressive cognitive decline as well as psychiatric manifestations such as depression. Definite diagnosis of AGD can only be made by post-mortem examination of the brain. Neuropathological features include argyrophilic grains in limbic areas along with oligodendrogli...
Source: Folia Neuropathologica - February 24, 2019 Category: Neurology Tags: Folia Neuropathol Source Type: research

A  comparison of the spatial patterns of β-amyloid (Aβ) deposits in five neurodegenerative disorders.
A comparison of the spatial patterns of β-amyloid (Aβ) deposits in five neurodegenerative disorders. Folia Neuropathol. 2018;56(4):284-292 Authors: A Armstrong R Abstract Alzheimer's disease neuropathologic change (ADNC) in the form of -amyloid (A) deposits is important not only in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and Down's syndrome (DS) but also as a 'co-pathology' in disorders such as dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB), corticobasal degeneration (CBD), and chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE). To compare cortical and hippocampal degeneration in different disorder...
Source: Folia Neuropathologica - February 24, 2019 Category: Neurology Tags: Folia Neuropathol Source Type: research

Neurogenesis in adult human brain after hemorrhage and ischemic stroke.
CONCLUSIONS: Hypoxia belongs to pathomechanic factors responsible for ischemic stroke, which can induce neurogenesis. However, hypoxia along with ischemia and other factors implicated in ischemic stroke, such as the patient's age or duration of ischemia can have a decisive influence on the decrease in the density of transcriptionally active cells in this pathologic process. PMID: 30786666 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Folia Neuropathologica)
Source: Folia Neuropathologica - February 24, 2019 Category: Neurology Tags: Folia Neuropathol Source Type: research

Correlations between plasma homocysteine and MTHFR gene polymorphism and white matter lesions.
This study aims to investigate the correlation between the plasma homocysteine (Hcy) level and methylenetetrahydro-folate reductase (MTHFR) C677T polymorphism, and white matter lesions (WML). The plasma Hcy level and MTHFR C677T gene polymorphism in 104 patients with white matter lesions and 74 controls were measured. The severity of cerebral white matter was scored on the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) images by the modified Scheltens scale (score of 0-30). The plasma Hcy level in the WML group was remarkably higher than that in the control group (p
Source: Folia Neuropathologica - February 24, 2019 Category: Neurology Tags: Folia Neuropathol Source Type: research

Sporadic amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: is SMN-Gemins protein complex of importance for the relative resistance of oculomotor nucleus motoneurons to degeneration?
Authors: Sulejczak D, Chrapusta SJ, Dziewulska D, Rafałowska J Abstract Lower motoneurons (MNs) show varied vulnerability in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS): those of non-ocular brainstem nuclei and most of those of the spinal cord are highly vulnerable, while those of extraocular brainstem nuclei are quite resistant. Results of our former study on the immunoexpression of the survival of motor neuron protein (SMN) and Gemins 2-4 in cervical spinal cord anterior horn -MNs of sporadic ALS patients suggested that a relative deficit in Gemin2 may play some role in the pathomechanism of the disease. Here, w...
Source: Folia Neuropathologica - February 24, 2019 Category: Neurology Tags: Folia Neuropathol Source Type: research

Light and electron microscopic studies of the 139A-H strain of scrapie passaged in hamsters.
We report here the light and electron microscopic neuropathology of the 139A-H strain of scrapie passaged in Syrian golden hamsters. The general neuropathological picture consisted of the spongiform change and severe astrocytic gliosis. The topography of prion protein (PrP) was variable, the highest signal was observed in the CA2-molecular layer, CA1-pyramidal and entorhinal cortex. The electron microscopy consisted of: 1. Spongiform vacuoles - these are always membrane bound and contain secondary vacuoles (i.e. membrane-bound compartments or vesicles within vacuoles) and curled membraned fragments. 2. Tubulovesicular stru...
Source: Folia Neuropathologica - February 24, 2019 Category: Neurology Tags: Folia Neuropathol Source Type: research

Metformin limits apoptosis in primary rat cortical astrocytes subjected to oxygen and glucose deprivation.
In this study, we evaluated how metformin affects cell viability, apoptosis and determined the role of AMPK, as well as JNK p46/p54 and p38 kinases, in the observed phenomena in the culture of primary rat cortical astrocytes subjected to 12 h of oxygen and glucose deprivation (OGD). Metformin improved cell viability, reduced the fraction of apoptotic nuclei, and inhibited the activation of the executive caspase-3. Decreased activation of JNK p54 and p38 was associated with increased Bcl-XL expression and decreased mitochondrial leakage of cytochrome c. However, only cell viability and partially the fraction of apoptotic nu...
Source: Folia Neuropathologica - February 24, 2019 Category: Neurology Tags: Folia Neuropathol Source Type: research

[Protective effect of picroliv against lipopolysaccharide-induced cognitive dysfunction and neuroinflammation by attenuating TLR4/NF κB pathway].
CONCLUSIONS: The report concludes that picroliv protects the neuroinflammation and injury in LPS-induced mice by regulating the inflammatory pathway. PMID: 30786671 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Folia Neuropathologica)
Source: Folia Neuropathologica - February 24, 2019 Category: Neurology Tags: Folia Neuropathol Source Type: research

Effect of accumbens nucleus shell lesioning on bitemporal lobe epilepsy in rat model.
Authors: Fu J, Liu Y, Yang K, Long H, Wang K, Qi S Abstract INTRODUCTION: To explore the effect of accumbens nucleus shell (ACbSh) lesioning on bitemporal lobe epilepsy. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Adult Wistar rats (male) were enrolled and randomly assigned into the control group and epilepsy groups with multiple time-points. Lithium-pilocarpine was used to establish the rat epilepsy model, while the control group received an equal amount of saline. Ibotenic acid stereotaxic injection was performed to cause accumbens nucleus shell lesioning for specific groups. Cascade software was used for electroencephalogram (EEG...
Source: Folia Neuropathologica - February 24, 2019 Category: Neurology Tags: Folia Neuropathol Source Type: research

[Rheum turkestanicum reduces glutamate toxicity in PC12 and N2a cell lines].
In this study, we investigated the neuroprotective effects of Rheum turkestanicum in the glutamate-induced rat pheochromocytoma (PC12 cells) and mouse neuroblastoma (N2a) cell lines. Rutin as an antioxidant was used as positive control. Glutamate cytotoxicity was accompanied by an increment of malondialdehyde (MDA) content, ROS generation and apoptosis induction. However, pretreatment with the root extract of R. turkestanicum significantly reduced MDA content, ROS generation and apoptotic cell death. Also rutin at a dose of 100 µM reduced ROS production and protected against glutamate toxicity. Also the quantif...
Source: Folia Neuropathologica - February 24, 2019 Category: Neurology Tags: Folia Neuropathol Source Type: research

[Clinico-pathological correlation in case of BRAT1 mutation].
Authors: Szymańska K, Laure-Kamionowska M, Szczałuba K, Koppolu A, Furmanek M, Kuśmierska K, Boniel S, Płoski R, Rydzanicz M Abstract The clinical picture of BRCA1-associated protein required for ATM activation-1 (BRAT1) comprises retractable early-onset epileptic encephalopathy, progressive microcephaly, and early demise. Both, inter- and intrafamilial variations of features of BRAT1-associated disease have been described. Here, the familial case of a brother and sister with homozygous pathogenic variants in BRAT1 is presented with special emphasis on differences in seizure type/onset and central nervous ...
Source: Folia Neuropathologica - February 24, 2019 Category: Neurology Tags: Folia Neuropathol Source Type: research

Aging and cerebrovascular lesions in pure and in mixed neurodegenerative and vascular dementia brains: a  neuropathological study.
CONCLUSIONS: Mixed dementia during the aging process is mainly due to the severity of AD and LBD pathologies combined with CAA-related cerebrovascular lesions. PMID: 30509027 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Folia Neuropathologica)
Source: Folia Neuropathologica - December 5, 2018 Category: Pathology Authors: De Reuck J, Maurage CA, Deramecourt V, Pasquier F, Cordonnier C, Leys D, Bordet R Tags: Folia Neuropathol Source Type: research

The Erlangen Score Algorithm in the diagnosis and prediction of the progression from subjective cognitive decline and mild cognitive impairment to Alzheimer-type dementia.
Abstract The evaluation of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarkers for Alzheimer's disease (AD) (β-amyloid, t-tau, p-tau) can be used to estimate the risk of developing dementia in patients at the pre-clinical stages of AD, i.e. subjective cognitive decline (SCD) and mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Erlangen Score Algorithm allows interpretation of CSF biomarker concentrations and is cut-off value independent. The aim of this study was to establish if this algorithm can be applied for routine diagnostic testing in clinical and preclinical subjects and has prognostic value. We analysed 217 patients from the memor...
Source: Folia Neuropathologica - December 5, 2018 Category: Pathology Authors: Filipek-Gliszczyńska A, Barczak A, Budziszewska M, Mandecka M, Gabryelewicz T, Barcikowska M Tags: Folia Neuropathol Source Type: research

Brain-originated peptides as possible biochemical markers of traumatic brain injury in cerebrospinal fluid post-mortem examination.
In this study, we wanted to examine if selected CSF biomarkers (GFAP, NFL, and myelin basic protein - MBP) of head injury may be useful in post-mortem examination and diagnosis of forensic cases. The study was carried out using cases of head injury and cases of sudden death (cardiopulmonary failure, no injuries of the head as control group) provided by forensic pathologists at the Department of Forensic Medicine, Medical University of Warsaw. Cerebrospinal fluid was collected within 24 h after death using suboccipital puncture. The concentration of these peptides was compared using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELI...
Source: Folia Neuropathologica - December 5, 2018 Category: Pathology Authors: Olczak M, Kwiatkowska M, Niderla-Bielińska J, Chutorański D, Tarka S, Wierzba-Bobrowicz T Tags: Folia Neuropathol Source Type: research

Pseudopterosin A  ameliorates ischaemia-induced brain injury by acting on Akt signalling pathway.
CONCLUSIONS: The present study shows that pseudopterosin A attenuates neuronal injury in the pMCAO model by acting on the Akt signalling pathway. PMID: 30509030 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Folia Neuropathologica)
Source: Folia Neuropathologica - December 5, 2018 Category: Pathology Authors: Niu X, Yu C, Jiang G, Wu J, Tan X, Zhang W, Hou L Tags: Folia Neuropathol Source Type: research

The impact of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells on neovascularisation in rats with brain injury.
Abstract INTRODUCTION: The impact of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs) on neovascularisation in rats with craniocerebral injury (CI) was investigated. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The rate CI model was established by the free-fall method, and then rats were randomly divided into a transplanted group (EG) and a control group (CG). Rats in the transplanted group were injected with BM-MSCs in the lateral ventricle, while those in the control group were injected with normal saline. Modified neuro-logical severity scores (mNSSs) were compared. Furthermore, CD34+CD133 double-labelled cells (CD...
Source: Folia Neuropathologica - December 5, 2018 Category: Pathology Authors: Hu W, Jiang J, Yang F, Liu J Tags: Folia Neuropathol Source Type: research

Evaluation of regenerative processes in the pig model of intervertebral disc degeneration after transplantation of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells.
CONCLUSIONS: By using a large animal model that mimicked the development of intervertebral degenerative disc disease, the present results are indicative of the clinical feasibility of this procedure. PMID: 30509032 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Folia Neuropathologica)
Source: Folia Neuropathologica - December 5, 2018 Category: Pathology Authors: Barczewska M, Jezierska-Wozniak K, Habich A, Lipinski S, Holak P, Maksymowicz W, Wojtkiewicz J Tags: Folia Neuropathol Source Type: research

Hydroxysafflor yellow A  promotes α-synuclein clearance via regulating autophagy in rotenone-induced Parkinson's disease mice.
Hydroxysafflor yellow A promotes α-synuclein clearance via regulating autophagy in rotenone-induced Parkinson's disease mice. Folia Neuropathol. 2018;56(2):133-140 Authors: Han B, Wang L, Fu F, Wang Z, Zhang L, Qi GJ, Wang T Abstract Autophagy is an intracellular degradation process that is involved in α-synuclein (α-syn) homeostasis and Parkinson's disease (PD). The purpose of this study was to investigate whether hydroxysafflor yellow A (HSYA) could promote α-syn clearance via regulating autophagy in PD mice. Male C57BL/6 mice were intraperitoneally treated with HSY...
Source: Folia Neuropathologica - December 5, 2018 Category: Pathology Authors: Han B, Wang L, Fu F, Wang Z, Zhang L, Qi GJ, Wang T Tags: Folia Neuropathol Source Type: research

Human chorionic gonadotropin decreases the phosphorylated tau protein level in streptozotocin-Alzheimeric male rats' hippocampus.
CONCLUSIONS: In conclusion, hCG can provide protection against memory deficits induced by STZ and it can inhibit accumulation of tau hyperphosphorylation in the hippocampus. Furthermore, hCG can increase the hCG receptor-ir neurons number in the rats hippocampus after ICV injection of STZ. PMID: 30509034 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Folia Neuropathologica)
Source: Folia Neuropathologica - December 5, 2018 Category: Pathology Authors: Bahlakeh G, Jahanshahi M, Saeidi M Tags: Folia Neuropathol Source Type: research

[Remarkable recovery in a  patient with intradural extramedullary haemangiopericytoma: a case report and literature review].
We described a rare case of primary intradural extramedullary HPC recovered from serious compression of thoracic spinal cord in a 65-year-old man suffered from a rapidly progressive disease with complete paralysis of the lower limbs. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and spinal angiography exhibited an unusual hypervascular mass, which was confirmed as HPC by pathological examination, in the dorsal aspects of T7 to T8 spine. Total surgical resection was performed followed by adjuvant radiation. Moreover, this patient had been undergoing specific training of lower limbs from the onset of paralysis and continuo...
Source: Folia Neuropathologica - December 5, 2018 Category: Pathology Authors: Wang H, Wang L, Lu Y, Lu C, Xu T, Yan Y, Chen J Tags: Folia Neuropathol Source Type: research

The impact of chronic intermittent hypoxia on the expression of intercellular cell adhesion molecule-1 and vascular endothelial growth factor in the ischemia-reperfusion rat model.
Abstract The aim of this study was to investigate the effect and mechanism of chronic intermittent hypoxia (CIH) on cerebral injury using the ischemia-reperfusion rat model. In total, 36 SD rats were divided into three groups: pseudo-surgery group (sham group), ischemia-reperfusion (IR) group (CIR group), and CIH intervention group (CIH group). The IR model was established using the suture-occluded method. CIH intervention was performed starting at 12 weeks prior to the establishment of the IR model for rats in the CIH group. Ultra-microstructure was examined using an electron microscope. Expression of intercellul...
Source: Folia Neuropathologica - December 5, 2018 Category: Pathology Authors: Yang M, Chen Y, Wu Z, Zhang Y, Cai R, Ye L, Huang Y, Wang L, He H Tags: Folia Neuropathol Source Type: research

The level of microRNA 21 is upregulated by rapamycin in serum of tuberous sclerosis complex patients and subependymal giant cell astrocytoma (SEGA)-derived cell cultures.
ska M Abstract Tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) represents a genetic condition, in which the clinical manifestations are caused by the disinhibition of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway due to mutations in the TSC1 (hamartin) or TSC2 (tuberin) genes. The deregulated mTOR activity leads to multi-site tumors, including subependymal giant cell astrocytoma (SEGA). SEGA is a brain tumor that affects around 15% of TSC patients. The aim of the study was to evaluate miR-21 expression in the serum of two groups of TSC patients: with or without SEGA tumors. We found no differences in the level of mi...
Source: Folia Neuropathologica - December 5, 2018 Category: Pathology Authors: Kuzniewska B, Sadowski K, Urbanska K, Urbanska M, Kotulska K, Liszewska E, Grajkowska W, Jóźwiak S, Dziembowska M Tags: Folia Neuropathol Source Type: research

Dystrophic neurites accumulating autophagic vacuoles show early stages of neuritic destruction.
Abstract We re-examined the database of some 20,000 electron micrographs from the Echigo-1, the 263K-strain or the 22C-H of scrapie-infected hamsters to look for the cytoplasmic clearance. We reevaluated the largest database in the world of photographed dystrophic neurites for the presence of cytoplasmic clearance as shown in transgenic fruit flies transfected with A-42. In several neurites, we found electron-lucent areas not bound by any membranes or only partially bound; thus, they were not autophagic vacuoles as the latter are membrane-bound and contain cargo. Those changes were not observed in every examine...
Source: Folia Neuropathologica - December 5, 2018 Category: Pathology Authors: Liberski PP, Gajos A, Sikorska B Tags: Folia Neuropathol Source Type: research

Vorinostat: a  histone deacetylases (HDAC) inhibitor ameliorates traumatic brain injury by inducing iNOS/Nrf2/ARE pathway.
Vorinostat: a histone deacetylases (HDAC) inhibitor ameliorates traumatic brain injury by inducing iNOS/Nrf2/ARE pathway. Folia Neuropathol. 2018;56(3):179-186 Authors: Xu J, Shi J, Zhang J, Zhang Y Abstract The present investigation evaluates the protective effect of vorinostat on neuronal cells in the traumatic brain injury (TBI) and also postulates the possible mechanism of its action. Marmarou's weight-drop model was used to induce the TBI. Further, animals were treated with vorinostat 100 mg/kg intraperitoneally 30 min before the TBI induction. Neurological score and brain water content were...
Source: Folia Neuropathologica - December 5, 2018 Category: Pathology Authors: Xu J, Shi J, Zhang J, Zhang Y Tags: Folia Neuropathol Source Type: research

Time-related morphometric studies on CD34 protein expression in the cerebral blood vessels after fatal brain contusions.
Abstract In our previous work, we have discussed the importance of neurofilaments in determination of the age of brain contusions. The purpose of this paper is to examine a possibility of angiogenesis-related assessment of the age of brain contusions by means of morphometric analysis of the CD34 expression in the contused sites. The researched material comprised 90 cases divided into nine groups according to the time of death: immediately on the spot, 12 hours, 24 hours, 2 days, 3 days, 4 days, 5 days, 6 days, and 7 days after the head trauma. Immunohistochemically stained CD34 antigen was evaluated quantitat...
Source: Folia Neuropathologica - December 5, 2018 Category: Pathology Authors: Kobek M, Jankowski Z, Szala J, Gąszczyk-Ożarowski Z, Pałasz A, Skowronek R Tags: Folia Neuropathol Source Type: research

The role of ceramide and SEW 2871 in the transcription of enzymes involved in amyloid b precursor protein metabolism in an experimental model of Alzheimer's disease.
In this study we investigated the role of ceramide and S1P on APP metabolism. Moreover, the effect of ceramide and SEW 2871 (agonist for S1P receptor-1) on Sirt1 (NAD+-dependent nuclear enzyme responsible for stress response) gene expression under A toxicity was analyzed. Experiments were carried out using pheochromocytoma cells (PC-12) transfected with: an empty vector (used as a control), human wild-type APP gene (APPwt) and Swedish mutated (K670M/N671L) APP gene (APPsw). Our results indicated that C2-ceramide significantly decreased the viability of the APPwt, APPsw as well as empty vector-transfected PC12 cells...
Source: Folia Neuropathologica - December 5, 2018 Category: Pathology Authors: Czubowicz K, Wójtowicz S, Wencel PL, Strosznajder RP Tags: Folia Neuropathol Source Type: research

Persistent attenuation of brain oxidative stress through aging in perinatal maternal separated rat pups supplemented with choline and docosahexaenoic acid or Clitoria ternatea aqueous root extract.
Abstract INTRODUCTION: Perinatal maternal separation stress (PMSS) induces brain lipid peroxidation and reduction in endogenous antioxidants. The present study was designed to assess the brain oxidative stress (MDA) and protein thiol levels through various stages of aging in PMSS rat pups supplemented with choline with docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) or Clitoria ternatea (Linn) aqueous root extract (CTR). MATERIAL AND METHODS: Study groups, control, PMSS, PMSS + choline with DHA, PMSS + CTR (n = 6/group) were included in the study. Pups of PMSS groups were separated from their mothers for a period of 6 h/day ...
Source: Folia Neuropathologica - December 5, 2018 Category: Pathology Authors: Almeida PMD, Kamath SU, Shenoy PR, Bernhardt LK, Kishore A, Rai KS Tags: Folia Neuropathol Source Type: research

Vitamin E can compensate the density of M1 receptors in the hippocampus of scopolamine-treated rats.
In conclusion, vitamin E can compensate the neuronal loss in the hippocampal formation and also it can raise the density of M1 receptor-ir muscarinic neurons after an injection of scopolamine. PMID: 30509043 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Folia Neuropathologica)
Source: Folia Neuropathologica - December 5, 2018 Category: Pathology Authors: Sayyahi A, Jahanshahi M, Amini H, Sepehri H Tags: Folia Neuropathol Source Type: research

A  rare case of intracranial malignant triton tumor arising in the middle cranial fossa: a case report and review of the literature.
We describe a rare case of intracranial malignant triton tumor (MTT) arising in the middle cranial fossa in a 74-year-old female patient who had previously been exposed to radiation in the Chernobyl disaster. The patient underwent a surgical subtotal removal of the mass and radiation therapy, but the progression-free survival was only 2.5 months and death occurred four months after the onset of symptoms. MTTs are rare aggressive tumors arising from the nerve sheath showing rhabdomyosarcomatous differentiation and associated with a poor prognosis. The intracranial location is very rare, and only 10 cases...
Source: Folia Neuropathologica - December 5, 2018 Category: Pathology Authors: Bruzzone E, Melloni I, Barra S, Fraternali Orcioni G, Cocito L Tags: Folia Neuropathol Source Type: research

[The 14th International Symposium: MOLECULAR BASIS OF PATHOLOGY AND THERAPY IN NEUROLOGICAL DISORDERS].
Authors: PMID: 30509045 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Folia Neuropathologica)
Source: Folia Neuropathologica - December 5, 2018 Category: Pathology Tags: Folia Neuropathol Source Type: research

The quantitative analysis of neurodegenerative disease: classification, noda, constellations, and multivariate geometry.
Abstract A variety of methods are available for the quantitative description and analysis of neurodegenerative disease. If neurodegenerative disease exists as a series of distinct disorders, then classificatory methods such as hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) and decision tree analysis (DTA) can be used to classify cases into groups more objectively. If neurodegenerative disease consists of overlapping phenotypes, then the Braun-Blanquet 'nodal' system and 'constellation diagrams' implicitly recognise intermediate cases and reveal their relationships to the main groupings. By contrast, if cases are more continu...
Source: Folia Neuropathologica - April 19, 2018 Category: Pathology Authors: A Armstrong R Tags: Folia Neuropathol Source Type: research

Platelets, lymphocytes and erythrocytes from Alzheimer's disease patients: the quest for blood cell-based biomarkers.
Abstract In elderly population, Alzheimer's disease is a common neurodegenerative disorder and accounts for about 70% of all cases of dementia. The neurodegenerative processes of this disease start presumably 20 years ahead of the clinical beginning of the disorder. The postmortem histopathological examination, brains from Alzheimer's disease patients with characteristic features like amyloid plaques and neurofibrillary tangles, neuronal and synaptic disintegration confirm the final diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease. Senile plaques are composed of -amyloid peptide, deriving from the amyloid protein precursor, wh...
Source: Folia Neuropathologica - April 19, 2018 Category: Pathology Authors: Pluta R, Ułamek-Kozioł M, Januszewski S, Czuczwar SJ Tags: Folia Neuropathol Source Type: research

Visualization of synaptic vesicle dynamics with fluorescence proteins.
Abstract Synaptic vesicle (SV) will be transported to the bouton along the axon, once it is formed in a cell body. After docking in the active zone, neurotransmitters will be released upon the stimulation, and then transmission of chemical signals will be initiated. Presently, many advanced technologies and burgeoning molecular sensors are being used to explore the synaptic transmission. These studies provide a new sight into the presynaptic structure and its function. The present review summarizes the application of fluorescent proteins (FPs) for SV tracking and recycling. Some FPs and relevant imaging technologi...
Source: Folia Neuropathologica - April 19, 2018 Category: Pathology Authors: Li W, Geng C, Liu B Tags: Folia Neuropathol Source Type: research

Expression of amyloid precursor-like protein 2 (APLP2) in glioblastoma is associated with patient prognosis.
In conclusion, the expression of APLP2 might correlate with tumor development and be a prognostic factor for patients with glioblastoma. PMID: 29663738 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Folia Neuropathologica)
Source: Folia Neuropathologica - April 19, 2018 Category: Pathology Authors: Chen Y, Wang H, Tan C, Yan Y, Shen J, Huang Q, Xu T, Lin J, Chen J Tags: Folia Neuropathol Source Type: research

Neurotoxic effects of domoic acid on dopaminergic neurons in primary mesencephalic cell culture.
CONCLUSION: The current study presents for the first time the neurotoxic effects of domoic acid on dopaminergic neurons and this effect appears to be attributed to activation of AMPA/KA receptors on dopaminergic neurons. PMID: 29663739 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Folia Neuropathologica)
Source: Folia Neuropathologica - April 19, 2018 Category: Pathology Authors: Radad K, Al-Shraim M, Al-Emam A, Moldzio R, Rausch WD Tags: Folia Neuropathol Source Type: research

miRNA-223 regulates ischemic neuronal injury by targeting the type 1 insulin-like growth factor receptor (IGF1R).
Abstract Cerebral ischemia injury seriously endangers human health and its molecular mechanism is still not fully understood. microRNA-223 (miR-223) has been reported to be involved in many physiological functions but the specific role of miRNA-223 in ischemic neuronal injury is still unclear. An oxygen-glucose deprivation and simulated reperfusion (OGD/R) model was constructed here to investigate the possible role miR-223 played in ischemic neuronal injury. The expression of miRNA-223 in the OGD/R model and its effect on cell proliferation were studied by qPCR and CCK8 assay. We observed that miR-223 was signific...
Source: Folia Neuropathologica - April 19, 2018 Category: Pathology Authors: Feng SJ, Zhang XQ, Li JT, Dai XM, Zhao F Tags: Folia Neuropathol Source Type: research

Interactive involvement of hippocampal cAMP/PKA and cyclooxygenase-2 signaling pathways in spatial learning in the Morris water maze.
CONCLUSIONS: These results indicate the probable regulatory effects of cAMP/PKA and cyclooxygenase-2 signaling pathways on spatial memory acquisition in the Morris water maze. PMID: 29663741 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Folia Neuropathologica)
Source: Folia Neuropathologica - April 19, 2018 Category: Pathology Authors: Tabrizian K, Hashemzaei M, Nasiri AA, Najafi S, Amelinia F, Sanati M, Shamshirgaran F, Fanoudi S Tags: Folia Neuropathol Source Type: research

Degenerative effect of Ankaferd Blood Stopper ® on mice peripheral sensory neurons in vitro.
Degenerative effect of Ankaferd Blood Stopper® on mice peripheral sensory neurons in vitro. Folia Neuropathol. 2018;56(1):67-74 Authors: Üstün R, Oğuz EK Abstract Ankaferd Blood Stopper® (ABS) is a licensed medicinal herbal extract that ensures effective hemostasis on external, internal, postoperative and dental bleeds. Dorsal root ganglia (DRG) harbor cell bodies of peripheral sensory neurons. DRG neurons receive peripheral information and regularly send projections to nuclei in the brainstem and the spinal cord. These neurons play critical roles in neural development. Neuronal dys...
Source: Folia Neuropathologica - April 19, 2018 Category: Pathology Authors: Üstün R, Oğuz EK Tags: Folia Neuropathol Source Type: research

Intraspinal intradural nodular fasciitis mimicking glioblastoma metastasis: a case report.
We report the case of a 78-year-old male patient suffering from right temporal glioblastoma with radiographic meningeal tumor spread. During the further course of the disease he developed a rapidly progressive paraplegia. An magnetic resonance imaging scan showed a contrast enhancing an intraspinal intradural lesion with compression of the myelon on segment Th 8/9. With a high suspicion of a spinal metastasis of the known glioblastoma, emergency spinal decompression and resection of the intradural mass was performed. However, histopathological evaluation revealed nodular fasciitis without any signs of glial origin. PM...
Source: Folia Neuropathologica - April 19, 2018 Category: Pathology Authors: Zipser CM, Füllbier L, Beschorner R, Bösmüller H, Ziemann U, Tatagiba MS, Tabatabai G, Bender B, Behling F Tags: Folia Neuropathol Source Type: research

Dysregulation of Alzheimer's disease-related genes and proteins following cardiac arrest.
Authors: Pluta R, Ułamek-Kozioł M, Januszewski S, Czuczwar SJ Abstract Cardiac arrest, usually occurring in the aged population, is the most important cause of high morbidity and death in developed countries. Commonly, attention, depression, cognitive impairment, spatial memory, short- and long-term memory, executive functions, decreased quality of life and social participation are disturbed following circulation arrest. Deficits in cognitive function, similar to prodromal Alzheimer's disease dementia, following cardiac arrest remain an area of concern. Recent research has focused on the post-resuscitation period...
Source: Folia Neuropathologica - January 26, 2018 Category: Neurology Tags: Folia Neuropathol Source Type: research