Extracellular Vesicles, Apoptotic Bodies and Mitochondria: Stem Cell Bioproducts for Organ Regeneration

AbstractPurpose of ReviewIn the current work, we will present the characterization of the main different stem cell-derived vesicular bio-products with potential application in organ regeneration.Recent FindingsThe therapeutic effects of stem cell therapy in organ repair, specifically those utilizing mesenchymal stromal cells, are largely dependent on the cells ’ release of different bio-products. Among these bio-products, extracellular vesicles (EVs) appear to play a major role due to their ability to carry and deliver bioactive material for modulation of cellular pathways in recipient cells. Concurrently, mitochondria transfer emerged as a new mechanis m of cell communication, in which the bioenergetics of a damaged cell are restored. Finally, apoptotic bodies released by dying apoptotic stem cells contribute to stimulation of the tissue’s stem cells and modulation of the immune response.SummaryExploitation of isolated extracellular vesicles, mitochondria and apoptotic bodies in preclinical models of organ damage shows promising results. Here, we describe the results of the pre-clinical applications of stem cell vesicular products, as well as the first clinical trials approaching artificial administration of extracellular vesicles and mitochondria in human subjects and their possible benefits and limitations.
Source: Current Transplantation Reports - Category: Transplant Surgery Source Type: research

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A sizable portion of the variable efficacy of first generation stem cell therapies as presently practiced may be due to a poor quality of cells following expansion in culture. Regardless of quality, near all such cells die shortly after transplantation. Few clinics and few approaches to cell therapy lead to lasting survival and engraftment of transplanted cells, and beneficial effects are largely mediated by the short period of signaling produced by these cells. A range of approaches have been taken in attempts to make transplanted cells more robust: methodological improvements in the process of obtaining and culturing cel...
Source: Fight Aging! - Category: Research Authors: Tags: Daily News Source Type: blogs
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThe most serious DNA damage, DNA double strand breaks (DNA-dsb), leads to mutagenesis, carcinogenesis or apoptosis if left unrepaired. Non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) is the principle repair pathway employed by mammalian cells to repair DNA-dsb. Several proteins are involved in this pathway, defects in which can lead to human disease. This review updates on the most recent information available for the specific diseases associated with the pathway.Recent FindingsA new member of the NHEJ pathway, PAXX, has been identified, although no human disease has been associated with it. The clinical phenoty...
Source: Current Allergy and Asthma Reports - Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research
Preliminary research on the effects and mechanisms of umbilical cord‑derived mesenchymal stem cells in streptozotocin‑induced diabetic retinopathy. Int J Mol Med. 2020 Aug;46(2):849-858 Authors: Zhao K, Liu J, Dong G, Xia H, Wang P, Xiao X, Chen Z Abstract Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is one of the most prevalent microvascular complications of diabetes, and a common cause of blindness in working‑age individuals. Mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) transplantation has been considered a promising intervention therapy for DR, wherein the differentiation of MSCs into nerve cells plays an essential role. Howeve...
Source: International Journal of Molecular Medicine - Category: Molecular Biology Authors: Tags: Int J Mol Med Source Type: research
The objective of the study i...
Source: Stem Cell Research and Therapy - Category: Stem Cells Authors: Tags: Research Source Type: research
In conclusion, the present results indicated that OMSCs may have a superior sensitivity to CKIP‑1 in promoting osteogenesis compared with BMMSCs; therefore, CKIP‑1 KO in OMSCs may serve as an efficient strategy for maxillofacial bone repair. PMID: 32626993 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Molecular Medicine Reports - Category: Molecular Biology Tags: Mol Med Rep Source Type: research
This study investigated the immunomodulatory effect of ASCs on ischemic muscle repair and explored the specific mechanism. We found that the ability of RAW264.7 cells to migrate was impaired in hypoxia, whereas coculturing with ASCs could enhance the migration capac ity. In addition, under hypoxic conditions, the paracrine effect of ASCs was enhanced and ASCs could induce RAW264.7 macrophages towards the anti‐inflammatory M2 phenotype. We further demonstrated that ASCs‐derived interleukin 10 (IL‐10), mediated by hypoxia inducible factor‐1α (HIF‐1α), played a crucial role in the induction of M2 macroph...
Source: Stem Cells - Category: Stem Cells Authors: Tags: Regenerative Medicine Source Type: research
Fight Aging! publishes news and commentary relevant to the goal of ending all age-related disease, to be achieved by bringing the mechanisms of aging under the control of modern medicine. This weekly newsletter is sent to thousands of interested subscribers. To subscribe or unsubscribe from the newsletter, please visit: https://www.fightaging.org/newsletter/ Longevity Industry Consulting Services Reason, the founder of Fight Aging! and Repair Biotechnologies, offers strategic consulting services to investors, entrepreneurs, and others interested in the longevity industry and its complexities. To find out m...
Source: Fight Aging! - Category: Research Authors: Tags: Newsletters Source Type: blogs
Conclusion: HAMSCs have good biocompatibility and paracrine function to promote bone repair by stimulating endogenous regeneration.
Source: Theranostics - Category: Molecular Biology Authors: Tags: Research Paper Source Type: research
Conclusion:EPO-MSCs enhance anti-fibrotic efficacy, with higher cell viability and stronger migration ability compared with treatment with BM-MSCs only. These findings support improving the efficiency of MSCs transplantation as a potential therapeutic strategy for liver fibrosis.
Source: Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine - Category: Biotechnology Source Type: research
AbstractNijmegen breakage syndrome (NBS) is a DNA repair disorder characterized by combined immunodeficiency and a high predisposition to malignancies. HSCT appears to cure immunodeficiency, but remains challenging due to limited experience in long-term risks of transplant-associated toxicity and malignancies. Twenty NBS patients received 22 allogeneic HSCTs with TCR αβ/CD19+ graft depletion with fludarabine 150 mg/m2, cyclophosphamide 20 –40 mg/kg and thymoglobulin 5 mg/kg based conditioning regimens (CRs). Twelve patients additionally received low-dose busulfan 4 mg/kg (Bu group) and ...
Source: Journal of Clinical Immunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research
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