Combining immunotherapy and radiotherapy in head and neck squamous cell cancers: which perspectives?

Purpose of review The role of the immune system is important in both initiation and development of head and neck cancers. Various immune checkpoints have been discovered that can be exploited by cancer to evade immune mediated destruction. Therefore, immune checkpoint inhibitors have been developed to overcome cancer immune-evasion and are currently in clinical use in head and neck cancers. In addition, the immune system appears to play an important role in the response to radiotherapy. The combination of immunotherapy with radiotherapy may increase the ability to induce immunogenic death by removing the locks blocking the immune system. Recent findings Although the antitumour efficacy of radiotherapy is based primarily on the toxicity of DNA damage, studies have suggested that this efficacy is based not only on this local cytotoxic and antiproliferative effect, but also on the interactions between the tumor and its microenvironment that are altered. Thus, the cytotoxic action of radiotherapy on tumor cells provides T lymphocytes with tumor neoantigens, and releases proinflammatory cytokines that promote the immune response. Cell death inducing this type of immune response is called immunogenic death. Therefore, several phase 3 clinical trials are currently ongoing evaluating the combination of radiotherapy and immune checkpoint inhibitors in head and neck cancers. Summary Combining immunotherapy and radiotherapy in head and neck cancers is promising. Several phase 3 ...
Source: Current Opinion in Oncology - Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: HEAD AND NECK: Edited by Joël Guigay Source Type: research

Related Links:

Immunotherapy with nivolumab is effective in the treatment of R/M SCCHN. However, reliable predictive markers have remained unclear. Higher pre ‐treatment NLR and mGPS were significantly associated with worse survival, suggesting that these markers may be predictors of treatment with nivolumab. AbstractBackgroundThere is increasing evidence that immunotherapy with nivolumab, an anti ‐programmed death 1 monoclonal antibody, is effective in the treatment of recurrent or metastatic squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (R/M SCCHN). However, the predictive role of hematological inflammatory markers such as neutrophi...
Source: Cancer Medicine - Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Tags: ORIGINAL RESEARCH Source Type: research
Immunotherapy enhances a patient's own immune system to fight against malignancy and has become increasingly popular during the last decade. Tumor cells can escape destruction by the patient's immune system by overexpression of immunosuppressive molecules such as cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated antigen-4 (CTLA-4), programmed cell death-1 (PD-1) receptor, and its ligand PD-L1. Immunotherapy agents target these inhibitors and basically reactivate the cytotoxic lymphocytes to destroy the tumor cells. Immunotherapy agents currently are FDA-approved for advanced malignancies including melanoma, Hodgkin lymphoma, head and neck...
Source: Contemporary Diagnostic Radiology - Category: Radiology Tags: ARTICLE Source Type: research
o Muto Ionna : Head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCCs) are a very heterogeneous group of malignancies arising from the upper aerodigestive tract. They show different clinical behaviors depending on their origin site and genetics. Several data support the existence of at least two genetically different types of HNSCC, one virus-related and the other alcohol and/or tobacco and oral trauma-related, which show both clinical and biological opposite features. In fact, human papillomavirus (HPV)-related HNSCCs, which are mainly located in the oropharynx, are characterized by better prognosis and response to ther...
Source: Cancers - Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Tags: Review Source Type: research
This article describes the role of immune therapy in HPV-associated HNSCC along with the evidence and perspective behind differing therapeutic considerations. PMID: 32293695 [PubMed - in process]
Source: Oncology (Williston Park, N.Y.) - Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Tags: Oncology (Williston Park) Source Type: research
AbstractBackgroundNivolumab improves overall survival (OS) in patients with platinum-refractory recurrent and metastatic head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (R/M HNSCC). In one study, however, Kaplan –Meier OS and progression-free survival (PFS) curves for the nivolumab and cytotoxic agent arms crossed at 3–6 months, suggesting that patients with initial resistance to immunotherapy might have better outcomes with cytotoxic treatment. Here, we explored the conditions and candidates which are predictive of nivolumab outcomes in R/M HNSCC.MethodsWe retrospectively reviewed the clinical records of 27 consecu...
Source: International Journal of Clinical Oncology - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research
Patients with metastatic thyroid cancer (mTC) have limited options for effective therapies. Tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) remain the mainstay of treatment, often at the expense of significant systemic side effects without a proven survival benefit. The use of immunotherapy has revolutionized the treatment of cancer, however, its specific utility in mTC is not yet known.
Source: International Journal of Radiation Oncology * Biology * Physics - Category: Radiology Authors: Tags: Non-squamous Cell Malignancies of the Head and Neck: thyroid, sarcomas, skin cancers, salivary gland and sinus cancers Source Type: research
Sinonasal mucosal melanoma is an aggressive cancer with high mortality, due in part to the significant proportion of patients who develop distant metastases. The standard of care is surgical resection followed by post-operative radiotherapy. Recently, immunotherapy has been added as adjuvant treatment. Identifying patients at increased risk of distant metastasis is important for both management and prognostic reasons. Calculation of tumor volume (TV) has been described in other head and neck cancer types to assist with predicting disease progression and survival.
Source: International Journal of Radiation Oncology * Biology * Physics - Category: Radiology Authors: Tags: Non-squamous Cell Malignancies of the Head and Neck: thyroid, sarcomas, skin cancers, salivary gland and sinus cancers Source Type: research
SCCHNs are a complex and difficult-to-treat group of aggressive cancers. Surgery and radiotherapy remain the primary treatments for locoregional SCCHN; however, they are associated with significant morbidity and high recurrence rates. Although immune checkpoint inhibitors such as the anti-PD-1 antibody nivolumab are active in SCCHN, strategies to improve response rate and durability are needed. The development of more effective therapies is hindered by the immunosuppressive nature of these tumors.
Source: International Journal of Radiation Oncology * Biology * Physics - Category: Radiology Authors: Tags: Immunology and Immunotherapy Source Type: research
Efficient use of nivolumab in recurrent/metastatic head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (r/mHNSCC) has been limited by the lack of a definitive predictive biomarker. We aimed to investigate the association between pretreatment neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) and outcome of patients with r/mHNSCC treated with nivolumab.
Source: International Journal of Radiation Oncology * Biology * Physics - Category: Radiology Authors: Tags: Immunology and Immunotherapy Source Type: research
We present findings from the HNSCC sub-cohort of the pan-cancer RESILIENT trial where patients with advanced refractory disease were treated with ETA guided treatments regimens.
Source: International Journal of Radiation Oncology * Biology * Physics - Category: Radiology Authors: Tags: Poster Theater Presentations Source Type: research
More News: Cancer | Cancer & Oncology | Clinical Trials | Head and Neck Cancer | Immunotherapy | Squamous Cell Carcinoma | Study | Toxicology