Diminished responses to bodily threat and blunted interoception in suicide attempters

We examined interoceptive processing across a panel of tasks: breath-hold challenge, cold-pressor challenge, and heartbeat perception during and outside of functional magnetic resonance imaging. Suicide attempters tolerated the breath-hold and cold-pressor challenges for significantly longer and displayed lower heartbeat perception accuracy than non-attempters. These differences were mirrored by reduced activation of the mid/posterior insula during attention to heartbeat sensations. Our findings suggest that suicide attempters exhibit an ‘interoceptive numbing’ characterized by increased tolerance for aversive sensations and decreased awareness of non-aversive sensations. We conclude that blunted interoception may be implicated in suicidal behavior.
Source: eLife - Category: Biomedical Science Tags: Neuroscience Source Type: research

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AbstractAlthough structural and functional brain abnormalities have been observed in depressed suicide attempters (DS), structural deficits and functional impairments together with their relationship in DS remain unclear. To clarify this issue, we aimed to examine the differences in gray matter (GM) alteration, corresponding functional connectivity (FC) change, and their relationship between DS and depressed non-suicide attempters (NDS). Sixty-eight DS, 119 NDS and 103 healthy controls were enrolled and subjected to magnetic resonance imaging scans. The patients were evaluated using the 17-item Hamilton Rating Scale for De...
Source: Brain Imaging and Behavior - Category: Neurology Source Type: research
Abstract Functional alterations in the subregions of the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) have been observed in patients with major depressive disorder (MDD). Studies have shown that higher depressive symptoms are associated with altered functional connectivity (FC) in different ACC sub-regions. Suicide is highly prevalent in patients with MDD; however, it is unclear whether suicidal behavior is associated with the FC alterations in the subregions of the ACC in these indibiduals. Seventy-six patients with MDD (41 with and 35 without a history of suicidal behavior) underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fM...
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - Category: Neurology Authors: Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research
ConclusionsWe found evidence suggesting widespread white matter microstructure deficits in adolescents and young adults with NSSI versus HC. We also report inverse associations between white matter integrity and clinical characteristics (duration of NSSI and attentional impulsivity). These white matter microstructural deficits may represent a possible neurobiologically-based vulnerability to developing maladaptive coping mechanisms, such as NSSI. Additionally, results suggest that this white matter disorganization may either worsen with prolonged engagement in NSSI or predict persistent NSSI; thereby highlighting the impor...
Source: Frontiers in Psychiatry - Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research
Finding neural features of suicide attempts (SA) in major depressive disorder (MDD) may be helpful in preventing suicidal behavior. The ventral and medial prefrontal cortex (PFC), as well as the amygdala form a circuit implicated in emotion regulation and the pathogenesis of MDD. The aim of this study was to identify whether patients with MDD who had a history of SA show structural and functional connectivity abnormalities in the amygdala and PFC relative to MDD patients without a history of SA. We measured gray matter volume in the amygdala and PFC and amygdala-PFC functional connectivity using structural and functional m...
Source: Frontiers in Psychiatry - Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research
CONCLUSION: More research is needed to study how social media users discuss health through sharing images online, and how public health professionals can communicate effectively using image-sharing social media. PMID: 31852039 [PubMed]
Source: The Permanente journal - Category: General Medicine Tags: Perm J Source Type: research
Our study aimed to clarify the neuroimaging correlates of suicide attempt by comparing differences in functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) among depressed suicide attempters, depressed patients without suicide attempt history, and healthy controls ...
Source: SafetyLit - Category: International Medicine & Public Health Tags: Suicide and Self-Harm Source Type: news
This study analyzes the tumor homing and therapeutic abilities of clinical grade human mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) in an orthotopic glioblastoma mouse model. Our time course analysis demonstrated that MSCs display a rapid targeted migration to intracerebral U87 glioma xenografts growing in the contralateral hemisphere within the first 48h hours after application as assessed by histology and 7T magnetic resonance imaging. MSCs accumulated predominantly peritumorally but also infiltrated the main tumor mass and targeted distant tumor satellites while no MSCs were found in other regions of the brain. Intratumoral applicatio...
Source: Oncotarget - Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Oncotarget Source Type: research
This article was originally published on Undark. Read the original article.
Source: TIME: Science - Category: Science Authors: Tags: Uncategorized onetime psychology syndication Source Type: news
This study examined whether neural processing of social rejection interacted with negative social experiences to predict suicidal ideation. Thus, to our knowledge this is the first study to examine how brain function may interact with the environment to contribute to suicidal ideation in youth, consistent with a developmental psychopathology perspective. Thirty-six anxious youth (ages 11 to 16) completed diagnostic interviews and questionnaires, an ecological momentary assessment (EMA) protocol, and a functional magnetic resonance imaging paradigm. Results showed that youth experienced greater severity of suicidal ideation...
Source: Child Psychiatry and Human Development - Category: Child Development Authors: Tags: Child Psychiatry Hum Dev Source Type: research
Interpersonal stress is a common trigger of nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI) behavior. Here, we addressed whether NSSI adolescents have a negative bias in reading social interactions. We developed a task that investigates the neural correlates of social interaction in a simulated online environment in the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scanner.
Source: Biological Psychiatry - Category: Psychiatry Authors: Source Type: research
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