Research Articles A durable protective immune response to wild-type measles virus infection of macaques is due to viral replication and spread in lymphoid tissues

Infection with wild-type (WT) measles virus (MeV) is an important cause of childhood mortality that leads to lifelong protective immunity in survivors. WT MeV and the live-attenuated MeV used in the measles vaccine (LAMV) are antigenically similar, but the determinants of attenuation are unknown, and protective immunity induced by LAMV is less robust than that induced by WT MeV. To identify factors that contribute to these differences, we compared virologic and immunologic responses after respiratory infection of rhesus macaques with WT MeV or LAMV. In infected macaques, WT MeV replicated efficiently in B and T lymphocytes with spreading throughout lymphoid tissues resulting in prolonged persistence of viral RNA. In contrast, LAMV replicated efficiently in the respiratory tract but displayed limited spread to lymphoid tissue or peripheral blood mononuclear cells. In vitro, WT MeV and LAMV replicated similarly in macaque primary respiratory epithelial cells and human lymphocytes, but LAMV-infected lymphocytes produced little virus. Plasma concentrations of interleukin-1β (IL-1β), IL-12, interferon- (IFN-), CCL2, CCL11, CXCL9, and CXCL11 increased in macaques after WT MeV but not LAMV infection. WT MeV infection induced more protective neutralizing, hemagglutinin-specific antibodies and bone marrow plasma cells than did LAMV infection, although numbers of MeV-specific IFN-– and IL-4–producing T cells were comparable. Therefore, MeV attenuation may involve ...
Source: Science Translational Medicine - Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Tags: Research Articles Source Type: research

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AbstractVaccines have contributed substantially to decreasing the morbidity and mortality rates of many infectious diseases worldwide. Despite this achievement, an increasing number of parents have adopted hesitant behaviours towards vaccines, delaying or even refusing their administration to children. This has implications not only on individuals but also society in the form of outbreaks for e.g. measles, chicken pox, hepatitis A, etc. A review of the literature was conducted to identify the determinants of vaccine hesitancy (VH) as well as vaccine confidence and link them to challenges and opportunities associated with v...
Source: Infectious Diseases and Therapy - Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research
[WHO] Geneva -Agencies call for joint effort to safely deliver routine immunization and proceed with vaccination campaigns against deadly vaccine-preventable diseases.
Source: AllAfrica News: Polio - Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: news
A new study of 129 countries found that the interruption of inoculation efforts could put 80 million babies at risk of getting deadly, preventable diseases.
Source: NYT Health - Category: Consumer Health News Authors: Tags: Coronavirus (2019-nCoV) Measles Poliomyelitis Vaccination and Immunization Medicine and Health Preventive Medicine Children and Childhood Third World and Developing Countries Gavi, the Vaccine Alliance World Health Organization United Source Type: news
Conditions:   Pneumococcal Immunisation;   Diphtheria Immunisation;   Tetanus Immunisation;   Pertussis Immunisation;   Hepatitis B Immunisation;   Haemophilus Influenzae Type b Immunisation;   Polio Immunisation;   Measles Immunisation;   Rubella Immunisation;   Varicella Immunisation;   Mumps Immunisation Interventions:   Biological: SP0202-IIb Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine formulation 1;   Biological: SP0202-VI Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine formulation 2;   Biological: SP0202...
Source: ClinicalTrials.gov - Category: Research Source Type: clinical trials
Vaccine hesitancy is a growing public health threat. Recent data suggest that only one-half of children in the U.S. are up-to-date for all recommended vaccines by 19-35 months, and over one third of children are on alternative or shot-limiting vaccine schedules.1 Measles infected 1,282 Americans in 2019 – the most cases since 1992 – and the US nearly lost its measles elimination status.2 One in 40 kindergartners attends school with a non-medical vaccine exemption, and many more kindergartners attend school under-immunized without plans to catch up.
Source: The Journal of Pediatrics - Category: Pediatrics Authors: Tags: Commentary Source Type: research
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Source: Human Vaccines and Immunotherapeutics - Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Source Type: research
Researchers have documented a drop in child vaccination rates in Michigan since restrictions were imposed to slow the spread of the novel coronavirus, according to a report published on Monday.Reuters Health Information
Source: Medscape Medical News Headlines - Category: Consumer Health News Tags: Pediatrics News Source Type: news
Conditions:   Measles;   Rubella;   Vaccination;   Healthy Interventions:   Biological: Measles Rubella Vaccine (MRV-SC);   Biological: MRV-MNP;   Other: PLA-MNP;   Other: PLA-SC Sponsors:   Micron Biomedical, Inc;   Medical Research Council;   Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Not yet recruiting
Source: ClinicalTrials.gov - Category: Research Source Type: clinical trials
Researchers have documented a drop in child vaccination rates in Michigan since restrictions were imposed to slow the spread of the novel coronavirus, raising concern about outbreaks of other diseases such as measles, the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention said in a report on Monday.
Source: Reuters: Health - Category: Consumer Health News Tags: healthNews Source Type: news
In Michigan, fewer than half of infants 5 months or younger are up to date on their vaccinations, which may allow for outbreaks in diseases like measles.
Source: NYT Health - Category: Consumer Health News Authors: Tags: Measles Children and Childhood Vaccination and Immunization Coronavirus (2019-nCoV) Preventive Medicine Epidemics Influenza Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Michigan Source Type: news
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