Cancers, Vol. 12, Pages 817: NK and NKT Cell-Mediated Immune Surveillance against Hematological Malignancies

Cancers, Vol. 12, Pages 817: NK and NKT Cell-Mediated Immune Surveillance against Hematological Malignancies Cancers doi: 10.3390/cancers12040817 Authors: Shimizu Iyoda Yamasaki Kadowaki Tojo Fujii Recent cancer treatment modalities have been intensively focused on immunotherapy. The success of chimeric antigen receptor T cell therapy for treatment of refractory B cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia has pushed forward research on hematological malignancies. Among the effector types of innate lymphocytes, natural killer (NK) cells show great importance in immune surveillance against infectious and tumor diseases. Particularly, the role of NK cells has been argued in either elimination of target tumor cells or escape of tumor cells from immune surveillance. Therefore, an NK cell activation approach has been explored. Recent findings demonstrate that invariant natural killer T (iNKT) cells capable of producing IFN-γ when optimally activated can promptly trigger NK cells. Here, we review the role of NKT and/or NK cells and their interaction in anti-tumor responses by highlighting how innate immune cells recognize tumors, exert effector functions, and amplify adaptive immune responses. In addition, we discuss these innate lymphocytes in hematological disorders, particularly multiple myeloma and acute myeloid leukemia. The immune balance at different stages of both diseases is explored in light of disease progression. Various types of innate immunity...
Source: Cancers - Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Tags: Review Source Type: research

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This study aimed to analyze the role of postoperative treatment for BC in the development of subsequent HM. Using the French National Health Data System, we examined the HM risks in patients diagnosed with an incident primary breast cancer between 2007 and 2015, who underwent surgery as first-line treatment for BC. Main outcomes were acute myeloid leukemia (AML), Myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS), myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs), multiple myeloma (MM), Hodgkin’s lymphoma or non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma (HL/NHL), and acute lymphoblastic leukemia or lymphocytic lymphoma (ALL/LL). Analyses were censored at HM o...
Source: Cancers - Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Tags: Article Source Type: research
Conclusions Several model systems are now available to characterize the MSC-tumour interplay in the TME. These offer early promise in establishing robust preclinical platforms for the identification of crucial molecular pathways and for the assessment of clinical efficacy of novel drugs to inhibit cancer development and progression. However, selection of the right model for a given study should be shaped on the purpose, and should also consider fixed biological, biochemical, and biophysical parameters according to the specific tumour type. Finally, in order to get reliable and useful results to be translated to the clinic...
Source: Frontiers in Oncology - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research
Yi He†, Wenyong Long† and Qing Liu* Department of Neurosurgery, Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Changsha, China Super-enhancers (SEs) refer to large clusters of enhancers that drive gene expressions. Recent data has provided novel insights in elucidating the roles of SEs in many diseases, including cancer. Many mechanisms involved in tumorigenesis and progression, ranging from internal gene mutation and rearrangement to external damage and inducement, have been demonstrated to be highly associated with SEs. Moreover, translocation, formation, deletion, or duplication of SEs themselves co...
Source: Frontiers in Pharmacology - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research
Conclusions: CAR T cell therapies have demonstrated the clinical benefits of harnessing our body's own defenses to combat tumor cells. Similar research is being conducted on lesser known modifications and gene-modified immune cells, which we highlight in this review. Introduction Chimeric antigen receptors and engineered T cell receptors (based on previously identified high affinity T cell receptors) function by redirecting T cells to a predefined tumor-specific (or tumor-associated) target. Most of these modifications use retroviral or lentiviral vectors to integrate the construct, and most of the receptors ...
Source: Frontiers in Oncology - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research
This study proposed a pilot study of a new tool for a reliable and accurate stratification of patients with acute leukemia based on an integrative model of leukemia behavior, cell characterization, and clinical features, in addition, to an evaluation of intra-tumor and inter-tumor heterogeneity. Together our approach allows us to introduce an integrative quantitative approach to use zebrafish and tumor characterization as a prediction tool for the behavior of acute leukemia in young adults. Materials and Methods Animal Care and Handling Zebrafish wild-type (A/B and TAB5) adults were raised and maintained according to st...
Source: Frontiers in Oncology - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research
This study aimed to develop a population pharmacokinetic model for lenalidomide in multiple cancers, including CLL, to identify any disease-related differences in disposition. METHODS: Lenalidomide concentrations from four clinical trials were collated (1999 samples, 125 subjects), covering four cancers (multiple myeloma, CLL, acute myeloid leukaemia and acute lymphoblastic leukaemia) and a large dose range (2.5 - 75mg). A population pharmacokinetic model was developed with NONMEM, and patient demographics were tested as covariates. RESULTS: The data were best fitted by a one-compartment kinetic model with absorp...
Source: Clinical Lymphoma and Myeloma - Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Tags: Br J Clin Pharmacol Source Type: research
In conclusion, 96.5% of patients with hematologic malignancies have adequate tissue for comprehensive genomic profiling. Most patients had unique molecular signatures, and 75% had alterations that may be pharmacologically tractable with gene- or immune-targeted agents.
Source: Cancers - Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Tags: Article Source Type: research
Objective: To investigate the clinical features of 2nd hematological malignancies post to the initial cancer treatment.METHODS: A retrospective study was performed to analyze the available clinical data of 116 patients diagnosed with 2nd hematologic malignancies after treatment of various malignant tumors from June 1998 to June 2018 at Sun Yat-sen University cancer center.RESULTS: The characteristics of the 116 patients diagnosed with 2nd hematological cancer post to initial cancer treatment were indicated as following: 62 males and 54 females. The primary tumor category was grouped as (according to ICD-10 International Di...
Source: Blood - Category: Hematology Authors: Tags: 904. Outcomes Research-Malignant Conditions Source Type: research
Introduction:Allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (alloHCT) has historically been reserved for younger, fit patients with hematologic malignancies. With the introduction of non-myeloablative conditioning regimens and improved supportive care, alloHCT has been increasingly offered to older adults.Objectives:To determine the association between functional status as measured by a cancer-specific comprehensive geriatric assessment (CGA) and post-transplant outcomes in an older alloHCT patient population.Methods:We conducted a prospective cohort study of patients aged 50 or older who underwent alloHCT at the University...
Source: Blood - Category: Hematology Authors: Tags: 904. Outcomes Research-Malignant Conditions: Poster II Source Type: research
Rearrangements involving the neurotrophic receptor kinase genes (NTRK1, NTRK2, and NTRK3; hereafter referred to as TRK) produce oncogenic fusions in a wide variety of cancers in adults and children. Although TRK fusions occur in fewer than 1% of all solid tumors, inhibition of TRK results in profound therapeutic responses, resulting in Breakthrough Therapy FDA approval of the TRK inhibitor larotrectinib for adult and pediatric patients with solid tumors, regardless of histology. In contrast to solid tumors, the frequency of TRK fusions and the clinical effects of targeting TRK in hematologic malignancies are unknown. Here,...
Source: Journal of Clinical Investigation - Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Source Type: research
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