IJERPH, Vol. 17, Pages 2146: Cancer and Non-Cancer Risk Concerns from Metals in Electronic Cigarette Liquids and Aerosols

IJERPH, Vol. 17, Pages 2146: Cancer and Non-Cancer Risk Concerns from Metals in Electronic Cigarette Liquids and Aerosols International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health doi: 10.3390/ijerph17062146 Authors: Jefferson Fowles Tracy Barreau Nerissa Wu We evaluated metal concentrations in e-liquids and e-aerosols from eight studies and estimated the range of corresponding cancer and non-cancer risks. Chromium and nickel were the leading contributors to cancer risk, with minor contributions from cadmium, lead, and arsenic. The increased cancer risks, assuming exposure to 2 mL/day, ranged from 5.7 to 30,000 additional cancers in a million e-cigarette users. The average cancer risk was 3 in 1000. Cancer risks in the mid to upper end of these ranges exceed acceptable levels. The hazard quotient (HQ) approach was used to evaluate non-cancer risks. Hazard quotients exceeding 1.0 indicate the possibility for non-cancer adverse health effects. Estimated exposures at the maximum reported concentrations of nickel, chromium, and manganese resulted in HQ values of 161, 1.1, and 1.0, respectively, with additional contributions from lead. The average concentration of nickel resulted in an HQ value of 14. We conclude from these studies that exposure to metals in e-cigarette liquids and aerosols may pose a significant cancer and non-cancer health risk at the mid and upper end of the reported ranges. The device design and heating elements appear to be the main source...
Source: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health - Category: Environmental Health Authors: Tags: Article Source Type: research

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