Whole-Brain Monosynaptic Inputs to Hypoglossal Motor Neurons in Mice
AbstractHypoglossal motor neurons (HMNs) innervate tongue muscles and play key roles in a variety of physiological functions, including swallowing, mastication, suckling, vocalization, and respiration. Dysfunction of HMNs is associated with several diseases, such as obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and sudden infant death syndrome. OSA is a serious breathing disorder associated with the activity of HMNs during different sleep –wake states. Identifying the neural mechanisms by which the state-dependent activities of HMNs are controlled may be helpful in providing a theoretical basis for effective therapy for OSA. However, the presynaptic partners governing the activity of HMNs remain to be elucidated. In the present stu dy, we used a cell-type-specific retrograde tracing system based on a modified rabies virus along with a Cre/loxP gene-expression strategy to map the whole-brain monosynaptic inputs to HMNs in mice. We identified 53 nuclei targeting HMNs from six brain regions: the amygdala, hypothalamus, midbrain, pons, medulla, and cerebellum. We discovered that GABAergic neurons in the central amygdaloid nucleus, as well as calretinin neurons in the parasubthalamic nucleus, sent monosynaptic projections to HMNs. In addition, HMNs received direct inputs from several regions associated with respiration, such as the pre-Botzinger complex, parabrachial nucleus, nucleus of the solitary tract, and hypothalamus. Some regions engaged in sleep–wake regulation (the parafacial...
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Publication date: Available online 10 October 2020Source: IJC Heart &VasculatureAuthor(s): Dominik Linz, Jeroen Hendriks
Background: Obesity is strongly associated with both Blount disease and obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). Obesity increases risks for anesthetic and postoperative complications, and OSA can further exacerbate these risks. Since children with Blount disease might have both conditions, we sought to determine the perioperative complications and the prevalence of OSA among these children. Methods: Patients younger than 18 years undergoing corrective surgery for Blount disease were identified from 2 sources as follows: a retrospective review of records at a single institution and querying of the Kids’ Inpatient Database...
Publication date: Available online 9 October 2020Source: Molecular MetabolismAuthor(s): Xiao Tan, Lieve van Egmond, Jonathan Cedernaes, Christian Benedict
Date: Thursday, 10 08, 2020; Speaker: Craig Heller, Ph.D., Stanford University; Sigrid Veasey, M.D., University of Pennsylvania; Colleen McClung, Ph.D., University of Pittsburgh; Gary Aston-Jones, Ph.D., Rutgers University; Thomas Kilduff, Ph.D., SRI International, ; Ryan Logan, Ph.D., University of Pittsburg; Carol Everson, Ph.D., Medical College of Wisconsin; Xiaoke Chen, Ph.D., Stanford University ; Michael T. Smith, Ph.D., Johns Hopkins University; Henry Yaggi, M.D., Yale University ; Andre Huhn, Ph.D., Johns Hopkins University ; Mark Greenwald, Ph.D., Wayne State; Scott Bunce, Ph.D., Penn State University ; Johanna El...
DR MICHAEL MOSLEY: Now, lots of people have a late-night tipple because they believe that alcohol helps them sleep better. But recent research shows quite clearly that this is a myth.
Conclusions: Bioinformatics analysis is a useful tool to explore the mechanism and pathogenesis of PHN. The identified hub genes may participate in the onset and development of PHN and serve as therapeutic targets. PMID: 33029266 [PubMed - in process]
Conditions: Obstructive Sleep Apnea of Adult; Periodontal Diseases; Periodontal Pocket; Periodontal Attachment Loss Intervention: Sponsor: I.M. Sechenov First Moscow State Medical University Not yet recruiting
Condition: Post-traumatic Stress Disorder Interventions: Behavioral: Sleep recording; Behavioral: Cognitive tasks; Other: Questionnaires Sponsor: Direction Centrale du Service de Santé des Armées Not yet recruiting
Conclusion: High levels of plasma melatonin during the overnight period of intensive care cohort patients did not improve sleep nor decreased the prevalence of delirium. This trial is registered with Anzctr.org.au/ACTRN12620000661976.aspx. PMID: 33029397 [PubMed]