Whole-Brain Monosynaptic Inputs to Hypoglossal Motor Neurons in Mice

AbstractHypoglossal motor neurons (HMNs) innervate tongue muscles and play key roles in a variety of physiological functions, including swallowing, mastication, suckling, vocalization, and respiration. Dysfunction of HMNs is associated with several diseases, such as obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and sudden infant death syndrome. OSA is a serious breathing disorder associated with the activity of HMNs during different sleep –wake states. Identifying the neural mechanisms by which the state-dependent activities of HMNs are controlled may be helpful in providing a theoretical basis for effective therapy for OSA. However, the presynaptic partners governing the activity of HMNs remain to be elucidated. In the present stu dy, we used a cell-type-specific retrograde tracing system based on a modified rabies virus along with a Cre/loxP gene-expression strategy to map the whole-brain monosynaptic inputs to HMNs in mice. We identified 53 nuclei targeting HMNs from six brain regions: the amygdala, hypothalamus, midbrain, pons, medulla, and cerebellum. We discovered that GABAergic neurons in the central amygdaloid nucleus, as well as calretinin neurons in the parasubthalamic nucleus, sent monosynaptic projections to HMNs. In addition, HMNs received direct inputs from several regions associated with respiration, such as the pre-Botzinger complex, parabrachial nucleus, nucleus of the solitary tract, and hypothalamus. Some regions engaged in sleep–wake regulation (the parafacial...
Source: Neuroscience Bulletin - Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

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Source: Revista da Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical - Category: Tropical Medicine Source Type: research
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Source: The American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry - Category: Psychiatry Tags: Am J Geriatr Psychiatry Source Type: research
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Source: ClinicalTrials.gov - Category: Research Source Type: clinical trials
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Source: ClinicalTrials.gov - Category: Research Source Type: clinical trials
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