Reversion of Injured Adult Neurons to an Embryonic State by Grafts of Neural Progenitor Cells After Spinal Cord Injury
(Source: Neuroscience Bulletin)
Source: Neuroscience Bulletin - September 23, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Axonal Iron Transport might Contribute to Iron Deposition in Parkinson ’s Disease
(Source: Neuroscience Bulletin)
Source: Neuroscience Bulletin - September 22, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Wiring the Brain by Clustered Protocadherin Neural Codes
We describe the adaptive evolution, genomic structure, and regulation of expression of the clusteredPcdhs. We specifically focus on the emerging 3-D architectural and biophysical mechanisms that generate an enormous number of diverse cell-surface Pcdhs as neural codes in the brain. (Source: Neuroscience Bulletin)
Source: Neuroscience Bulletin - September 17, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Impact of Chronic Stress on Attention Control: Evidence from Behavioral and Event-Related Potential Analyses
In this study, we examined the effects of chronic stress on individual executive function from a neurological perspective. The results may benefit the development of interventions to improve executive function in chronically stressed individuals. (Source: Neuroscience Bulletin)
Source: Neuroscience Bulletin - September 15, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Adult Stress Promotes Purinergic Signaling to Induce Visceral Pain in Rats with Neonatal Maternal Deprivation
This study was designed to explore the roles of P2X3 receptors (P2X3Rs) in the chronic visceral pain induced by combined stress. Here, we showed that P2X3Rs were co-expressed in β2 adrenergic receptor ( β2-AR)-positive dorsal root ganglion neurons and that NE significantly enhanced ATP-induced Ca2+ signals. NMD and AMS not only significantly increased the protein expression of P2X3Rs, but also greatly enhanced the ATP-evoked current density, number of action potentials, and intracellular Ca2+ concentration of colon-related DRG neurons. Intrathecal injection of the P2X3R inhibitor A317491 greatly attenuated the vi...
Source: Neuroscience Bulletin - September 9, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Cutaneous Hypersensitivity as an Indicator of Visceral Inflammation via C-Nociceptor Axon Bifurcation
AbstractPain on the body surface can accompany disorders in the deep tissue or internal organs. However, the anatomical and physiological mechanisms are obscure. Here, we provided direct evidence of axon bifurcation in primary C-nociceptive neurons that innervate both the skin and a visceral organ. Double-labeled dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons and Evans blue extravasation were observed in 3 types of chemically-induced visceral inflammation (colitis, urocystitis, and acute gastritis) rat models. In the colitis model, mechanical hypersensitivity and spontaneous activity were recordedin vivo from double-labeled C-nocicept...
Source: Neuroscience Bulletin - September 9, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Modeling the Degradation Effects of Autophagosome Tethering Compounds
(Source: Neuroscience Bulletin)
Source: Neuroscience Bulletin - September 7, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Complement Factor H Displays Opposite Expression Patterns Under Two Situations of Methamphetamine Administration: Acute Exposure and Chronic Dependence
(Source: Neuroscience Bulletin)
Source: Neuroscience Bulletin - September 7, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Characterization of the Expression of the ATP-Gated P2X7 Receptor Following Status Epilepticus and during Epilepsy Using a P2X7-EGFP Reporter Mouse
In this study, P2X7 expression was visualized by using a transgenic mouse model overexpressing P2X7 fused to the fluorescent protein EGFP. The results showed increased P2X7-EGFP expression after status epilepticus induced by intra-amygdala kainic acid and during epilepsy in different brain regions including the hippocampus, cortex, striatum, thalamus and cerebellum, and this was most evident in microglia and oligodendrocytes. Co-localization of P2X7-EGFP with cell type-specific markers was not detected in neurons or astrocytes. These data suggest that P2X7 activation is a common pathological hallmark across different brain...
Source: Neuroscience Bulletin - September 7, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Implication of Neuronal Versus Microglial P2X4 Receptors in Central Nervous System Disorders
AbstractThe P2X4 receptor (P2X4) is an ATP-gated cation channel that is highly permeable to Ca2+ and widely expressed in neuronal and glial cell types throughout the central nervous system (CNS). A growing body of evidence indicates that P2X4 plays key roles in numerous central disorders. P2X4 trafficking is highly regulated and consequently in normal situations, P2X4 is present on the plasma membrane at low density and found mostly within intracellular endosomal/lysosomal compartments. An increase in thede novo expression and/or surface density of P2X4 has been observed in microglia and/or neurons during pathological stat...
Source: Neuroscience Bulletin - September 5, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Spinal Cord Stimulation Enhances Microglial Activation in the Spinal Cord of Nerve-Injured Rats
AbstractMicroglia can modulate spinal nociceptive transmission. Yet, their role in spinal cord stimulation (SCS)-induced pain inhibition is unclear. Here, we examined how SCS affects microglial activation in the lumbar cord of rats with chronic constriction injury (CCI) of the sciatic nerve. Male rats received conventional SCS (50 Hz, 80% motor threshold, 180 min, 2 sessions/day) or sham stimulation on days 18 –20 post-CCI. SCS transiently attenuated the mechanical hypersensitivity in the ipsilateral hind paw and increased OX-42 immunoreactivity in the bilateral dorsal horns. SCS also upregulated the mRNAs of M1-like...
Source: Neuroscience Bulletin - September 5, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Sex Differences in Electrophysiological Properties of Mouse Medial Preoptic Area Neurons Revealed by In Vitro Whole-cell Recordings
In this study, by performing whole-cell patch clamp recordings of the mPOA, we investigated the influences of sex, cell type, and gonadal hormones on the electrophysiological properties of mPOA neurons. Notably, we uncovered significant sex differences in input resistance (male  >  female) and in the percentage of neurons that displayed post-inhibitory rebound (male >  female). Furthermore, we found that the current mediated by the T-type Ca2+ channel (IT), which is known to underlie post-inhibitory rebound, was indeed larger in male mPOA neurons. Thus, we have identified salient electroph...
Source: Neuroscience Bulletin - September 4, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Implications of Transient Receptor Potential Cation Channels in Migraine Pathophysiology
AbstractMigraine is a common and debilitating headache disorder. Although its pathogenesis remains elusive, abnormal trigeminal and central nervous system activity is likely to play an important role. Transient receptor potential (TRP) channels, which transduce noxious stimuli into pain signals, are expressed in trigeminal ganglion neurons and brain regions closely associated with the pathophysiology of migraine. In the trigeminal ganglion, TRP channels co-localize with calcitonin gene-related peptide, a neuropeptide crucially implicated in migraine pathophysiology. Many preclinical and clinical data support the roles of T...
Source: Neuroscience Bulletin - September 1, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

A Novel Potassium Nanosensor Powers up the Detection of Extracellular K + Dynamics in Neuroscience
(Source: Neuroscience Bulletin)
Source: Neuroscience Bulletin - September 1, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Role of the C9ORF72 Gene in the Pathogenesis of Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis and Frontotemporal Dementia
AbstractSince the discovery of theC9ORF72 gene in 2011, great advances have been achieved in its genetics and in identifying its role in disease models and pathological mechanisms; it is the most common genetic cause of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and frontotemporal dementia (FTD). ALS patients withC9ORF72 expansion show heterogeneous symptoms. Those who areC9ORF72 expansion carriers have shorter survival after disease onset than non-C9ORF72 expansion patients. Pathological and clinical features ofC9ORF72 patients have been well mimickedvia several models, including induced pluripotent stem cell-derived neurons and...
Source: Neuroscience Bulletin - August 29, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

The First National Prevalence of Autism Spectrum Disorder in China
(Source: Neuroscience Bulletin)
Source: Neuroscience Bulletin - August 29, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Chronic Oral Administration of Magnesium- L -Threonate Prevents Oxaliplatin-Induced Memory and Emotional Deficits by Normalization of TNF- α/NF-κB Signaling in Rats
AbstractAntineoplastic drugs such as oxaliplatin (OXA) often induce memory and emotional deficits. At present, the mechanisms underlying these side-effects are not fully understood, and no effective treatment is available. Here, we show that the short-term memory deficits and anxiety-like and depression-like behaviors induced by intraperitoneal injections of OXA (4  mg/kg per day for 5 consecutive days) were accompanied by synaptic dysfunction and downregulation of the NR2B subunit of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors in the hippocampus, which is critically involved in memory and emotion. The OXA-induced behavioral and s...
Source: Neuroscience Bulletin - August 28, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Correction to: Projection from the Anterior Cingulate Cortex to the Lateral Part of Mediodorsal Thalamus Modulates Vicarious Freezing Behavior
The authors found that in this article (Source: Neuroscience Bulletin)
Source: Neuroscience Bulletin - August 28, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Drosophila Ortholog of Mammalian Immediate-Early Gene Npas4 is Specifically Responsive to Reversal Learning
(Source: Neuroscience Bulletin)
Source: Neuroscience Bulletin - August 27, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Gray Matter-Based Age Prediction Characterizes Different Regional Patterns
(Source: Neuroscience Bulletin)
Source: Neuroscience Bulletin - August 19, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

The Joubert Syndrome Gene arl13b is Critical for Early Cerebellar Development in Zebrafish
AbstractJoubert syndrome is characterized by unique malformation of the cerebellar vermis. More than thirty Joubert syndrome genes have been identified, includingARL13B. However, its role in cerebellar development remains unexplored. We found that knockdown or knockout ofarl13b impaired balance and locomotion in zebrafish larvae. Granule cells were selectively reduced in the corpus cerebelli, a structure homologous to the mammalian vermis. Purkinje cell progenitors were also selectively disturbed dorsomedially. The expression ofatoh1 andptf1, proneural genes of granule and Purkinje cells, respectively, were selectively dow...
Source: Neuroscience Bulletin - August 18, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Spinal CCL2 Promotes Pain Sensitization by Rapid Enhancement of NMDA-Induced Currents Through the ERK-GluN2B Pathway in Mouse Lamina II Neurons
AbstractPrevious studies have shown that CCL2 (C –C motif chemokine ligand 2) induces chronic pain, but the exact mechanisms are still unknown. Here, we established models to explore the potential mechanisms. Behavioral experiments revealed that an antagonist of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) inhibited not only CCL2-induced inflamma tory pain, but also pain responses induced by complete Freund’s adjuvant. We posed the question of the intracellular signaling cascade involved. Subsequent experiments showed that CCL2 up-regulated the expression of phosphorylated ERK (pERK) and N-methyl D-aspartate rec...
Source: Neuroscience Bulletin - August 18, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Pgant4 and Tango1 Mediate Anoxia and Reoxygenation Injury
(Source: Neuroscience Bulletin)
Source: Neuroscience Bulletin - August 16, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Miniature Fluorescence Microscopy for Imaging Brain Activity in Freely-Behaving Animals
AbstractAn ultimate goal of neuroscience is to decipher the principles underlying neuronal information processing at the molecular, cellular, circuit, and system levels. The advent of miniature fluorescence microscopy has furthered the quest by visualizing brain activities and structural dynamics in animals engaged in self-determined behaviors. In this brief review, we summarize recent advances in miniature fluorescence microscopy for neuroscience, focusing mostly on two mainstream solutions – miniature single-photon microscopy, and miniature two-photon microscopy. We discuss their technical advantages and limitation...
Source: Neuroscience Bulletin - August 14, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Cortical Astrocyte-neuronal Metabolic Coupling Emerges as a Critical Modulator of Stress-induced Hopelessness
(Source: Neuroscience Bulletin)
Source: Neuroscience Bulletin - August 13, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Astrocyte-Derived Lactate Modulates the Passive Coping Response to Behavioral Challenge in Male Mice
AbstractEvery organism inevitably experiences stress. In the face of acute, intense stress, for example, periods of passivity occur when an organism ’s actions fail to overcome the challenge. The occurrence of inactive behavior may indicate that struggling would most likely be fruitless. Repeated serious stress has been associated with mood disorders such as depression. The modulation of passive coping response patterns has been explored with a focus on the circuit level. However, the cellular and molecular mechanisms are largely uncharacterized. Here, we report that lactate is a key factor in the astrocytic modulati...
Source: Neuroscience Bulletin - August 12, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Molecular Basis for Cephalic Mechanosensitivity of Drosophila Larvae
(Source: Neuroscience Bulletin)
Source: Neuroscience Bulletin - August 6, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

New Insights into the Dysfunctions of Pericytes and Neurovascular Units in Neurodegenerative Diseases
(Source: Neuroscience Bulletin)
Source: Neuroscience Bulletin - August 3, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Visuospatial Memory Alteration in Alzheimer ’s Disease
(Source: Neuroscience Bulletin)
Source: Neuroscience Bulletin - August 2, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Changes of Effective Connectivity in the Alpha Band Characterize Differential Processing of Audiovisual Information in Cross-Modal Selective Attention
AbstractCross-modal selective attention enhances the processing of sensory inputs that are most relevant to the task at hand. Such differential processing could be mediated by a swift network reconfiguration on the macroscopic level, but this remains a poorly understood process. To tackle this issue, we used a behavioral paradigm to introduce a shift of selective attention between the visual and auditory domains, and recorded scalp electroencephalographic signals from eight healthy participants. The changes in effective connectivity caused by the cross-modal attentional shift were delineated by analyzing spectral Granger C...
Source: Neuroscience Bulletin - July 26, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Mapping the Brain-Wide Cholinergic Neurons Projecting to Skeletal Muscle in Mice by High-Throughput Light Sheet Tomography
(Source: Neuroscience Bulletin)
Source: Neuroscience Bulletin - July 26, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Quantitative Determination of Glymphatic Flow Using Spectrophotofluorometry
AbstractFollowing intrathecal injection of fluorescent tracers,ex vivo imaging of brain vibratome slices has been widely used to study the glymphatic system in the rodent brain. Tracer penetration into the brain is usually quantified by image-processing, even though this approach requires much time and manual operation. Here, we illustrate a simple protocol for the quantitative determination of glymphatic activity using spectrophotofluorometry. At specific time-points following intracisternal or intrastriatal injection of fluorescent tracers, certain brain regions and the spinal cord were harvested and tracers were extract...
Source: Neuroscience Bulletin - July 25, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Neuronal and Non-neuronal Cell Types Displaying Circadian Rhythmicity in the Mammalian Suprachiasmatic Nucleus
(Source: Neuroscience Bulletin)
Source: Neuroscience Bulletin - July 24, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Joint Multi-modal Parcellation of the Human Striatum: Functions and Clinical Relevance
AbstractThe human striatum is essential for both low- and high-level functions and has been implicated in the pathophysiology of various prevalent disorders, including Parkinson ’s disease (PD) and schizophrenia (SCZ). It is known to consist of structurally and functionally divergent subdivisions. However, previous parcellations are based on a single neuroimaging modality, leaving the extent of the multi-modal organization of the striatum unknown. Here, we investigated th e organization of the striatum across three modalities—resting-state functional connectivity, probabilistic diffusion tractography, and struc...
Source: Neuroscience Bulletin - July 23, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Whole-Brain Map of Long-Range Monosynaptic Inputs to Different Cell Types in the Amygdala of the Mouse
AbstractThe amygdala, which is involved in various behaviors and emotions, is reported to connect with the whole brain. However, the long-range inputs of distinct cell types have not yet been defined. Here, we used a retrograde trans-synaptic rabies virus to generate a whole-brain map of inputs to the main cell types in the mouse amygdala. We identified 37 individual regions that projected to neurons expressing vesicular glutamate transporter 2, 78 regions to parvalbumin-expressing neurons, 104 regions to neurons expressing protein kinase C- δ, and 89 regions to somatostatin-expressing neurons. The amygdala received ...
Source: Neuroscience Bulletin - July 20, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Macrophage –NLRP3 Inflammasome Activation Exacerbates Cardiac Dysfunction after Ischemic Stroke in a Mouse Model of Diabetes
In this study, we found that the cardiac dysfunction induced by ischemic stroke is more severe in a mouse model of type 2 diabetes. Meanwhile, M1-polarized macrophage in filtration and NLRP3 inflammasome activation increased in the cardiac ventricle after diabetic stroke. Importantly, the NLRP3 inflammasome inhibitor CY-09 restored cardiac function, indicating that the M1-polarized macrophage–NLRP3 inflammasome activation is a pathway underlying the brain–heart interaction after diabetic stroke. (Source: Neuroscience Bulletin)
Source: Neuroscience Bulletin - July 18, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Eye-Opening Alters the Interaction Between the Salience Network and the Default-Mode Network
(Source: Neuroscience Bulletin)
Source: Neuroscience Bulletin - July 17, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Relationship Between Hematoma Expansion Induced by Hypertension and Hyperglycemia and Blood –brain Barrier Disruption in Mice and Its Possible Mechanism: Role of Aquaporin-4 and Connexin43
In conclusion, the optimized HE model is induced by hypertension and hyperglycemia with the criterion of hematoma volume expanding ≥ 45.0%. HH-HE leads to BBB disruption, which is dependent on AQP4 and Cx43. (Source: Neuroscience Bulletin)
Source: Neuroscience Bulletin - July 5, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Transcriptional Control of the Development of Myelinated Mechano-nociceptors
(Source: Neuroscience Bulletin)
Source: Neuroscience Bulletin - July 2, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Neuroimage-Based Consciousness Evaluation of Patients with Secondary Doubtful Hydrocephalus Before and After Lumbar Drainage
AbstractHydrocephalus is often treated with a cerebrospinal fluid shunt (CFS) for excessive amounts of cerebrospinal fluid in the brain. However, it is very difficult to distinguish whether the ventricular enlargement is due to hydrocephalus or other causes, such as brain atrophy after brain damage and surgery. The non-trivial evaluation of the consciousness level, along with a continuous drainage test of the lumbar cistern is thus clinically important before the decision for CFS is made. We studied 32 secondary mild hydrocephalus patients with different consciousness levels, who received T1 and diffusion tensor imaging ma...
Source: Neuroscience Bulletin - July 1, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Prevalence of Autism Spectrum Disorder in China: A Nationwide Multi-center Population-based Study Among Children Aged 6 to 12 Years
This study aimed to obtain the first national estimate of the prevalence of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in Chinese children. We targeted the population of 6 to 12-year-old children for this prevalence study by multistage convenient cluster sampling. The Modified Chinese Autism Spectrum Rating Scale was used for the screening process. Of the target population of 142,086 children, 88.5% (n = 125,806) participated in the study. A total of 363 children were confirmed as having ASD. The observed ASD prevalence rate was 0.29% (95% CI: 0.26%–0.32%) for the overall population. After adjustment for response r...
Source: Neuroscience Bulletin - June 30, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Inflammation in Mental Disorders: Is the Microbiota the Missing Link?
AbstractResearch suggests that inflammation is important in the pathophysiology of mental disorders. In addition, a growing body of evidence has led to the concept of the microbiota-gut-brain axis. To understand the potential interactions, we begin by exploring the liaison between the immune system and mental disorders, then we describe the evidence that the microbiota impact the immune response in the developing brain. Next, we review the literature that has documented microbiome alterations in major mental disorders. We end with a summary of therapeutic applications, ranging from psycho-biotics to immunomodulatory drugs ...
Source: Neuroscience Bulletin - June 27, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Iron Aggravates the Depressive Phenotype of Stressed Mice by Compromising the Glymphatic System
(Source: Neuroscience Bulletin)
Source: Neuroscience Bulletin - June 24, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

New Progress on Binocular Disparity in Higher Visual Areas Beyond V1
(Source: Neuroscience Bulletin)
Source: Neuroscience Bulletin - June 22, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Adding Fuel to the Fire by Increased GABAergic Inhibition: A Seizure-Amplifying Nigra-Parafascicular Pathway
(Source: Neuroscience Bulletin)
Source: Neuroscience Bulletin - June 22, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Internal States Influence the Representation and Modulation of Food Intake by Subthalamic Neurons
In conclusion, our results support the hypothesis that STN neurons are activated by feeding behavior, depending on energy homeostatic status and the palatability of food, and modulation of these neurons is sufficient to regulate food intake. (Source: Neuroscience Bulletin)
Source: Neuroscience Bulletin - June 21, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Image-Forming Visual Basis of Empathy for Pain in Mice
(Source: Neuroscience Bulletin)
Source: Neuroscience Bulletin - June 20, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

HLY78 Attenuates Neuronal Apoptosis via the LRP6/GSK3 β/β-Catenin Signaling Pathway After Subarachnoid Hemorrhage in Rats
In conclusion, HLY78 at tenuates neuronal apoptosis and improves neurological deficits through the LRP6/GSK3β/β-catenin signaling pathway after SAH in rats. HLY78 is a promising therapeutic agent to attenuate early brain injury after SAH. (Source: Neuroscience Bulletin)
Source: Neuroscience Bulletin - June 20, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Guidelines for Acute Ischemic Stroke Treatment
(Source: Neuroscience Bulletin)
Source: Neuroscience Bulletin - June 19, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Synaptic Adaptation Contributes to Stimulus-Specific Adaptation in the Thalamic Reticular Nucleus
(Source: Neuroscience Bulletin)
Source: Neuroscience Bulletin - June 18, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research