Hes1 Knockdown Exacerbates Ischemic Stroke Following tMCAO by Increasing ER Stress-Dependent Apoptosis via the PERK/eIF2 α/ATF4/CHOP Signaling Pathway
In this study, using a mouse model of ischemic strokevia transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (tMCAO), we found that Hes1 was induced following brain injury, and that siRNA-mediated knockdown of Hes1 increased the cerebral infarction and worsened the neurological outcome, suggesting that Hes1 knockdown exacerbates ischemic stroke. In addition, mechanistically, Hes1 knockdown promoted apoptosis and activated the PERK/eIF2 α/ATF4/CHOP signaling pathway after tMCAO. These results suggest that Hes1 knockdown promotes ER stress-induced apoptosis. Furthermore, inhibition of PERK with the specific inhibitor GSK2606414...
Source: Neuroscience Bulletin - January 23, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Glial-neuronal Sensory Organs: Evolutionary Journey from Caenorhabditis elegans to Mammals
(Source: Neuroscience Bulletin)
Source: Neuroscience Bulletin - January 20, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

A Whole-brain Map of Long-range Inputs to GABAergic Interneurons in the Mouse Caudal Forelimb Area
AbstractThe caudal forelimb area (CFA) of the mouse cortex is essential in many forelimb movements, and diverse types of GABAergic interneuron in the CFA are distinct in the mediation of cortical inhibition in motor information processing. However, their long-range inputs remain unclear. In the present study, we combined the monosynaptic rabies virus system with Cre driver mouse lines to generate a whole-brain map of the inputs to three major inhibitory interneuron types in the CFA. We discovered that each type was innervated by the same upstream areas, but there were quantitative differences in the inputs from the cortex,...
Source: Neuroscience Bulletin - January 19, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Empathic Contagious Pain and Consolation in Laboratory Rodents: Species and Sex Comparisons
(Source: Neuroscience Bulletin)
Source: Neuroscience Bulletin - January 17, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Role of T-type Calcium Channels in Generating Hyperexcitatory Behaviors during Emergence from Sevoflurane Anesthesia in Neonatal Rats
AbstractIn the current study, we sought to investigate whether T-type Ca2+ channels (TCCs) in the brain are involved in generating post-anesthetic hyperexcitatory behaviors (PAHBs). We found that younger rat pups (postnatal days 9 –11) had a higher incidence of PAHBs and higher PAHB scores than older pups (postnatal days 16–18) during emergence from sevoflurane anesthesia. The power spectrum of the theta oscillations (4 Hz–8 Hz) in the prefrontal cortex was significantly enhanced in younger pups when PAHBs occurred, w hile there were no significant changes in older pups. Both the power of theta ...
Source: Neuroscience Bulletin - January 17, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Thioredoxin-Interacting Protein (TXNIP) Regulates Parkin/PINK1-mediated Mitophagy in Dopaminergic Neurons Under High-glucose Conditions: Implications for Molecular Links Between Parkinson ’s Disease and Diabetes
In this study, we investigated the roles of thioredoxin-interacting protein (TXNIP) in Parkin/PINK1-mediated mitophagy in dopaminergic (DA) cells under high-glucose (HG) conditions. In streptozotocin-induced diab etic mice, TXNIP was upregulated and autophagy was inhibited in the midbrain, while the loss of DA neurons was accelerated by hyperglycemia. In cultured PC12 cells under HG, TXNIP expression was upregulated and the intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels increased, leading to cell death. Autophagic flux was further blocked and PINK1 expression was decreased under HG conditions. Parkin expression in the ...
Source: Neuroscience Bulletin - January 14, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Injury of Muscular but not Cutaneous Nerve Drives Acute Neuropathic Pain in Rats
AbstractAcute pain is a common complication after injury of a peripheral nerve but the underlying mechanism is obscure. We established a model of acute neuropathic painvia pulling a pre-implanted suture loop to transect a peripheral nerve in awake rats. The tibial (both muscular and cutaneous), gastrocnemius –soleus (muscular only), and sural nerves (cutaneous only) were each transected. Transection of the tibial and gastrocnemius–soleus nerves, but not the sural nerve immediately evoked spontaneous pain and mechanical allodynia in the skin territories innervated by the adjacent intact nerves. Evans blue extrav...
Source: Neuroscience Bulletin - January 13, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Norepinephrine from the Locus Coeruleus Regulates Microglia Dynamics During Wakefulness
(Source: Neuroscience Bulletin)
Source: Neuroscience Bulletin - January 2, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Gut Microbiota and Short Chain Fatty Acids: Influence on the Autonomic Nervous System
(Source: Neuroscience Bulletin)
Source: Neuroscience Bulletin - January 1, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Meningeal Lymphatic Vessels: A Drain of the Brain Involved in Neurodegeneration?
(Source: Neuroscience Bulletin)
Source: Neuroscience Bulletin - January 1, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Test –Retest Reliability of Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging Activation for a Vergence Eye Movement Task
In this study, we established region of interest (ROI) masks for the vergence neural circuit. Twenty-seven binocularly normal young adults participated in two functional imaging sessions measured on different days on the same 3T Siemens scanner. The fMRI experiments used a block design of sustained visual fixation and rest blocks interleaved between task blocks that stimulated eight or four vergence eye movements. The test–retest reliability of task-activation was assessed using the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC), and that of spatial extent was assessed using the Dice coefficient. Functional activation duri...
Source: Neuroscience Bulletin - December 23, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Expression Patterns of Inducible Cre Recombinase Driven by Differential Astrocyte-Specific Promoters in Transgenic Mouse Lines
AbstractAstrocytes are the most abundant cell type in the central nervous system (CNS). They provide trophic support for neurons, modulate synaptic transmission and plasticity, and contribute to neuronal dysfunction. Many transgenic mouse lines have been generated to obtain astrocyte-specific expression of inducible Cre recombinase for functional studies; however, the expression patterns of inducible Cre recombinase in these lines have not been systematically characterized. We generated a new astrocyte-specificAldh1l1-CreERT2 knock-in mouse line and compared the expression pattern of Cre recombinase between this and five w...
Source: Neuroscience Bulletin - December 11, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Synchrotron Radiation-Based Three-Dimensional Visualization of Angioarchitectural Remodeling in Hippocampus of Epileptic Rats
In this study, synchrotron radiation (SR)-based X-ray in-line phase-contrast imaging (ILPCI) and quantitative 3D characterization were used to acquire high-resolution, high-contrast images of rat brain tissue under both normal and seizure conditions. The number of blood microvessels was markedly increased on days 1 and 14, but decreased on day 60 after seizures. The surface area, diameter distribution, mean tortuosity, and number of bifurcations and network segments also showed similar trends. These pathological changes were confirmed by histological tests. Thus, SR-based ILPCI provides systematic and detailed views of cer...
Source: Neuroscience Bulletin - December 10, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Topological Shape Changes Weaken the Innate Defensive Response to Visual Threat in Mice
(Source: Neuroscience Bulletin)
Source: Neuroscience Bulletin - December 7, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

DPP-4 Inhibitor Linagliptin is Neuroprotective in Hyperglycemic Mice with Stroke via the AKT/mTOR Pathway and Anti-apoptotic Effects
AbstractDipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP-4) inhibitors have been shown to have neuroprotective effects in diabetic patients suffering from stroke, but less research has focused on patients with mild hyperglycemia below the threshold for a diagnosis of diabetes. In this investigation, a hyperglycemic mouse model was generated by intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin and then subjected to focal cerebral ischemia. We demonstrated that the DPP-4 inhibitor linagliptin significantly decreased the infarct volume, reduced neuronal cell death, decreased inflammation, and improved neurological deficit compared with control mice. Li...
Source: Neuroscience Bulletin - December 5, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

In Vivo Two-photon Calcium Imaging in Dendrites of Rabies Virus-labeled V1 Corticothalamic Neurons
AbstractMonitoring neuronal activityin vivo is critical to understanding the physiological or pathological functions of the brain. Two-photon Ca2+ imagingin vivo using a cranial window and specific neuronal labeling enables real-time,in situ, and long-term imaging of the living brain. Here, we constructed a recombinant rabies virus containing the Ca2+ indicator GCaMP6s along with the fluorescent protein DsRed2 as a baseline reference to ensure GCaMP6s signal reliability. This functional tracer was applied to retrogradely label specific V1 –thalamus circuits and detect spontaneous Ca2+ activity in the dendrites of V1 ...
Source: Neuroscience Bulletin - December 5, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Sleep Disturbance: An Early Sign of Alzheimer ’s Disease
(Source: Neuroscience Bulletin)
Source: Neuroscience Bulletin - December 5, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

A Familial Phenotypic and Genetic Study of Mutations in PFN1 Associated with Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis
(Source: Neuroscience Bulletin)
Source: Neuroscience Bulletin - December 4, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Expert Consensus on the Care and Management of Patients with Cognitive Impairment in China
AbstractThe cognitive disease consensus was prepared by panels of health and public representatives based on actual clinical practice in Geriatric Departments in Chinese hospitals and a systematic literature review. This consensus reflects the medical knowledge accumulated by those experts and provides information about professional medical care and advice. A multidisciplinary panel of specialists (neurologists, psychiatrists, and nursing specialists) reports an expert consensus on the medical knowledge accumulated from those experts and provides information about professional medical care and advice. The recommendations f...
Source: Neuroscience Bulletin - December 2, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Interaction Between Variations in Dopamine D2 and Serotonin 2A Receptor is Associated with Short-Term Response to Antipsychotics in Schizophrenia
(Source: Neuroscience Bulletin)
Source: Neuroscience Bulletin - November 20, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Virus-Mediated Overexpression of ETS-1 in the Ventral Hippocampus Counteracts Depression-Like Behaviors in Rats
In this study, we found that chronic mild stress (CMS) decreased the expression of both ETS-1 and GalR2 in the ventral hippocampus of rats. Meanwhile, we demonstrated that overexpression of ETS-1 increased the expression of GalR2 in primary hippocampal neurons. Importantly, we showed that overexpression of ETS-1 in the ventral hippocampus counteracted the depression-like behaviors of CMS rats. Furthermore, we found that overexpression of ETS-1 increased the level of downstream phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated protein kinases 1 and 2 (p-ERK1/2) of GalR2 in the ventral hippocampus of CMS rats. Taken together, ou...
Source: Neuroscience Bulletin - November 20, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Recent Advances in the Genetic Dissection of Neural Circuits in Drosophila
AbstractNervous systems endow animals with cognition and behavior. To understand how nervous systems control behavior, neural circuits mediating distinct functions need to be identified and characterized. With superior genetic manipulability,Drosophila is a model organism at the leading edge of neural circuit analysis. We briefly introduce the state-of-the-art genetic tools that permit precise labeling of neurons and their interconnectivity and investigating what is happening in the brain of a behaving animal and manipulating neurons to determine how behaviors are affected. Brain-wide wiring diagrams, created by light and ...
Source: Neuroscience Bulletin - November 20, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Epidural Spinal Cord Stimulation Promotes Motor Functional Recovery by Enhancing Oligodendrocyte Survival and Differentiation and by Protecting Myelin after Spinal Cord Injury in Rats
AbstractEpidural spinal cord stimulation (ESCS) markedly improves motor and sensory function after spinal cord injury (SCI), but the underlying mechanisms are unclear. Here, we investigated whether ESCS affects oligodendrocyte differentiation and its cellular and molecular mechanisms in rats with SCI. ESCS improved hindlimb motor function at 7 days, 14 days, 21 days, and 28 days after SCI. ESCS also significantly increased the myelinated area at 28 days, and reduced the number of apoptotic cells in the spinal white matter at 7 days. SCI decreased the expression of 2 ′,3′-cyclic-nucleotide 3′-phosphodieste...
Source: Neuroscience Bulletin - November 16, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

A Review of Functional Near-Infrared Spectroscopy Studies of Motor and Cognitive Function in Preterm Infants
AbstractPreterm infants are vulnerable to brain injuries, and have a greater chance of experiencing neurodevelopmental disorders throughout development. Early screening for motor and cognitive functions is critical to assessing the developmental trajectory in preterm infants, especially those who may have motor or cognitive deficits. The brain imaging technology functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) is a portable and low-cost method of assessing cerebral hemodynamics, making it suitable for large-scale use even in remote and underdeveloped areas. In this article, we review peer-reviewed, scientific fNIRS studies of...
Source: Neuroscience Bulletin - November 12, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Towards the Framework of Understanding Autism Spectrum Disorders
(Source: Neuroscience Bulletin)
Source: Neuroscience Bulletin - November 9, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Stay Active to Cope with Fear: A Cortico-Intrathalamic Pathway for Conditioned Flight Behavior
(Source: Neuroscience Bulletin)
Source: Neuroscience Bulletin - November 6, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Subicular Pyramidal Neurons: A Key to Unlock the “Black Box” of Drug Resistance in Temporal Lobe Epilepsy
(Source: Neuroscience Bulletin)
Source: Neuroscience Bulletin - November 2, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Role of Elevated Thrombospondin-1 in Kainic Acid-Induced Status Epilepticus
In this study, changes in this pathway were assessed following kainic acid (KA)-induced status epileptic us (SE) in rats. The results showed that increases in the TSP-1/TGF-β1/pSmad2/3 levels spatially and temporally matched the increases in glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP)/chondroitin sulfate (CS56) levels following KA administration. Inhibition of TSP-1 expression by small interfering RNA or i nhibition of TGF-β1 activation with a Leu-Ser-Lys-Leu peptide significantly reduced the severity of KA-induced acute seizures. These anti-seizure effects were accompanied by decreased GFAP/CS56 expression and Smad2/...
Source: Neuroscience Bulletin - October 29, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Contribution of Baroreflex Afferent Pathway to NPY-Mediated Regulation of Blood Pressure in Rats
This study was designed to investigate the expression profiles of NPY receptors in the nodose ganglion (NG) and nucleus tractus solitary (NTS) under hypertensive conditions. To this end, rats with hypertension induced by NG-nitro-L-arginine methylester (L-NAME) or high fructose drinking (HFD), and spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs) were used to explore the effects/mechanisms of NPY on BP using functional, molecular, and electrophysiological approaches. The data showed that BP was elevated along with baroreceptor sensitivity dysfunction in model rats; Y1R was up- or down-regulated in the NG or NTS of male and female HFD...
Source: Neuroscience Bulletin - October 29, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Homeobox B8 Targets Sterile Alpha Motif Domain-Containing Protein 9 and Drives Glioma Progression
AbstractGliomas are the most commonly occurring tumors of the central nervous system. Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most malignant and aggressive brain cancer in adults. Further understanding of the mechanisms underlying the aggressive nature of GBM is urgently needed. Here we identified homeobox B8 (HOXB8), a member of the homeobox family, as a crucial contributor to the aggressiveness of GBM. Data mining of publicly accessible RNA sequence datasets and our patient cohorts confirmed a higher expression of HOXB8 in the tumor tissue of GBM patients, and a strong positive correlation between the expression level and p...
Source: Neuroscience Bulletin - October 23, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Biomarkers for Parkinson ’s Disease: How Good Are They?
AbstractParkinson ’s disease (PD) is a complex neurodegenerative disorder with no cure in sight. Clinical challenges of the disease include the inability to make a definitive diagnosis at the early stages and difficulties in predicting the disease progression. The unmet demand to identify reliable biomarkers for ea rly diagnosis and management of the disease course of PD has attracted a lot of attention. However, only a few reported candidate biomarkers have been tried in clinical practice at the present time. Studies on PD biomarkers have often overemphasized the discovery of novel identity, whereas efforts t o furt...
Source: Neuroscience Bulletin - October 23, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Blockade of c-Src Within the Paraventricular Nucleus Attenuates Inflammatory Cytokines and Oxidative Stress in the Mechanism of the TLR4 Signal Pathway in Salt-Induced Hypertension
AbstractToll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) and cellular Src (c-Src) are closely associated with inflammatory cytokines and oxidative stress in hypertension, so we designed this study to explore the exact role of c-Src in the mechanism of action of the TLR4 signaling pathway in salt-induced hypertension. Salt-sensitive rats were given a high salt diet for 10  weeks to induce hypertension. This resulted in higher levels of TLR4, activated c-Src, pro-inflammatory cytokines, oxidative stress, and arterial pressure. Infusion of a TLR4 blocker into the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) decreased the activated c-Src, while...
Source: Neuroscience Bulletin - October 22, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

AVP(4-8) Improves Cognitive Behaviors and Hippocampal Synaptic Plasticity in the APP/PS1 Mouse Model of Alzheimer ’s Disease
AbstractMemory deficits with aging are related to the neurodegeneration in the brain, including a reduction in arginine vasopressin (AVP) in the brain of patients with Alzheimer ’s disease (AD). AVP(4-8), different from its precursor AVP, plays memory enhancement roles in the CNS without peripheral side-effects. However, it is not clear whether AVP(4-8) can improve cognitive behaviors and synaptic plasticity in the APP/PS1 mouse model of AD. Here, we investigated for the first time the neuroprotective effects of AVP(4-8) on memory behaviors andin vivo long-term potentiation (LTP) in APP/PS1-AD mice. The results showe...
Source: Neuroscience Bulletin - October 12, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Dopamine D2 Receptor-Mediated Modulation of Rat Retinal Ganglion Cell Excitability
AbstractGanglion cells (RGCs) are the sole output neurons of the retinal circuity. Here, we investigated whether and how dopamine D2 receptors modulate the excitability of dissociated rat RGCs. Application of the selective D2 receptor agonist quinpirole inhibited outward K+ currents, which were mainly mediated by glybenclamide- and 4-aminopyridine-sensitive channels, but not the tetraethylammonium-sensitive channel. In addition, quinpirole selectively enhanced Nav1.6 voltage-gated Na+ currents. The intracellular cAMP/protein kinase A, Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II, and mitogen-activated protein kinase/extrace...
Source: Neuroscience Bulletin - October 12, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

A Novel Prognostic Approach to Predict Recovery in Patients with Chronic Disorders of Consciousness
(Source: Neuroscience Bulletin)
Source: Neuroscience Bulletin - September 20, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Cardiopulmonary Comorbidity, Radiomics and Machine Learning, and Therapeutic Regimens for a Cerebral fMRI Predictor Study in Psychotic Disorders
(Source: Neuroscience Bulletin)
Source: Neuroscience Bulletin - September 20, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Projection from the Anterior Cingulate Cortex to the Lateral Part of Mediodorsal Thalamus Modulates Vicarious Freezing Behavior
AbstractEmotional contagion, a primary form of empathy, is present in rodents. Among emotional contagion behaviors, social transmission of fear is the most studied. Here, we modified a paradigm used in previous studies to more robustly assess the social transmission of fear in rats that experienced foot-shock. We used resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging to show that foot-shock experience enhances the regional connectivity of the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC). We found that lesioning the ACC specifically attenuated the vicarious freezing behavior of foot-shock-experienced observer rats. Furthermore, ablati...
Source: Neuroscience Bulletin - September 17, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

A De Novo Variant Identified in the PPP2R1A Gene in an Infant Induces Neurodevelopmental Abnormalities
(Source: Neuroscience Bulletin)
Source: Neuroscience Bulletin - September 17, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Propofol Attenuates α-Synuclein Aggregation and Neuronal Damage in a Mouse Model of Ischemic Stroke
In this study, propofol administration significantly reduced the neurotoxic aggregation of α-synuclein, decreased the infarct area, and attenuated the neurological deficits after ischemic stroke in a mouse model. We then demo nstrated that the propofol-induced reduction of α-synuclein aggregation was associated with increased mammalian target of rapamycin/ribosomal protein S6 kinase beta-1 signaling pathway activity and reduction of the excessive autophagy occurring after acute ischemic stroke. (Source: Neuroscience Bulletin)
Source: Neuroscience Bulletin - September 13, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Scorpion Venom Heat-Resistant Peptide is Neuroprotective against Cerebral Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury in Association with the NMDA-MAPK Pathway
AbstractScorpion venom heat-resistant peptide (SVHRP) is a component purified fromButhus martensii Karsch scorpion venom. Our previous studies have shown that SVHRP is neuroprotective in models of Alzheimer ’s disease and Parkinson’s disease. The present study aimed to explore the potential neuroprotective effects of SVHRP on cerebral ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury, using a mouse model of middle cerebral artery occlusion/reperfusion (MCAO/R) and a cellular model of oxygen-glucose deprivation/reo xygenation (OGD/R). Our results showed that SVHRP treatment decreased the neurological deficit scores, edema forma...
Source: Neuroscience Bulletin - September 9, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

NONO Regulates Cortical Neuronal Migration and Postnatal Neuronal Maturation
(Source: Neuroscience Bulletin)
Source: Neuroscience Bulletin - September 9, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Early Intervention in Alzheimer ’s Disease: How Early is Early Enough?
(Source: Neuroscience Bulletin)
Source: Neuroscience Bulletin - September 7, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

L -type Calcium Channels are Involved in Iron-induced Neurotoxicity in Primary Cultured Ventral Mesencephalon Neurons of Rats
AbstractIn the present study, we investigated the mechanisms underlying the mediation of iron transport byL-type Ca2+ channels (LTCCs) in primary cultured ventral mesencephalon (VM) neurons from rats. We found that co-treatment with 100 µmol/L FeSO4 and MPP+ (1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium) significantly increased the production of intracellular reactive oxygen species, decreased the mitochondrial transmembrane potential and increased the caspase-3 activation compared to MPP+ treatment alone. Co-treatment with 500 µmol/L CaCl2 further aggravated the FeSO4-induced neurotoxicity in MPP+-treated VM neurons. Co-treatm...
Source: Neuroscience Bulletin - September 3, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Dependence of Generation of Hippocampal CA1 Slow Oscillations on Electrical Synapses
AbstractNeuronal oscillations in the hippocampus are critical for many brain functions including learning and memory. The underlying mechanism of oscillation generation has been extensively investigated in terms of chemical synapses and ion channels. Recently, electrical synapses have also been indicated to play important roles, as reported in various brain areasin vivo and in brain slices. However, this issue remains to be further clarified, including in hippocampal networks. Here, using the completely isolated hippocampus, we investigatedin vitro the effect of electrical synapses on slow CA1 oscillations (0.5  Hz&nd...
Source: Neuroscience Bulletin - August 29, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Ketamine Alleviates Fear Generalization Through GluN2B-BDNF Signaling in Mice
In this study, we investigated the effects of ketamine on fear generalization in a fear-generalized mouse model. The mice were given a single sub-anesthetic dose of ketamine (30  mg/kg, i.p.) 1 h before, 1 week before, immediately after, or 22 h after fear conditioning. The behavioral measure of fear (indicated by freezing level) and synaptic protein expression in the basolateral amygdala (BLA) and inferior-limbic pre-frontal cortex (IL-PFC) of mice were examined. We fo und that only ketamine administered 22 h after fear conditioning significantly decreased the fear generalization, and the effect w...
Source: Neuroscience Bulletin - August 23, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Rabies Virus Pseudotyped with CVS-N2C Glycoprotein as a Powerful Tool for Retrograde Neuronal Network Tracing
AbstractEfficient viral vectors for mapping and manipulating long-projection neuronal circuits are crucial in structural and functional studies of the brain. The SAD strain rabies virus with the glycoprotein gene deleted pseudotyped with the N2C glycoprotein (SAD-RV( ΔG)-N2C(G)) shows strong neuro-tropism in cell culture, but itsin vivo efficiency for retrograde gene transduction and neuro-tropism have not been systematically characterized. We compared these features in different mouse brain regions for SAD-RV-N2C(G) and two other widely-used retrograde tracers, SAD-RV( ΔG)-B19(G) and rAAV2-retro. We found that...
Source: Neuroscience Bulletin - August 23, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Failure of Placebo Analgesia Model in Rats with Inflammatory Pain
AbstractWith the shifting role of placebos, there is a need to develop animal models of placebo analgesia and elucidate the mechanisms underlying the effect. In the present study, male Sprague-Dawley rats with chronic inflammatory pain caused by complete Freund ’s adjuvant (CFA) underwent a series of conditioning procedures, in which morphine was associated with different cues, but they failed to induce placebo analgesia. Then, conditioning with the conditioned place preference apparatus successfully induced analgesic expectancy and placebo analgesia in naïve rats but only induced analgesic expectancy and no ana...
Source: Neuroscience Bulletin - August 21, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Gedunin Degrades Aggregates of Mutant Huntingtin Protein and Intranuclear Inclusions via the Proteasomal Pathway in Neurons and Fibroblasts from Patients with Huntington ’s Disease
AbstractHuntington ’s disease (HD) is a deadly neurodegenerative disease with abnormal expansion of CAG repeats in thehuntingtin gene. Mutant Huntingtin protein (mHTT) forms abnormal aggregates and intranuclear inclusions in specific neurons, resulting in cell death. Here, we tested the ability of a natural heat-shock protein 90 inhibitor, Gedunin, to degrade transfected mHTT in Neuro-2a cells and endogenous mHTT aggregates and intranuclear inclusions in both fibroblasts from HD patients and neurons derived from induced pluripotent stem cells from patients. Our data showed that Gedunin treatment degraded transfected ...
Source: Neuroscience Bulletin - August 20, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

MiR-125a-5p Regulates Vitamin D Receptor Expression in a Mouse Model of Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis
AbstractMultiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic and incurable autoimmune neurodegenerative disease of the central nervous system. Although the symptoms of MS can be managed by vitamin D3 treatment alone, this condition cannot be completely eradicated. Thus, there might be unknown factors capable of regulating the vitamin D receptor (VDR). Genome-wide analysis showed that miRNAs were associated with VDRs. We sought to determine the role and mechanism of action of miRNA-125a-5p and VDRs in a model of MS, mice with experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), which was induced by myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein 35 &ndash...
Source: Neuroscience Bulletin - August 19, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Chemical Stimulation of Renal Tissue Induces Sympathetic Activation and a Pressor Response via the Paraventricular Nucleus in Rats
In this study, we revealed an excitatory renal reflex (ERR) in rats induced by chemical stimulation of the kidney that regulated sympathetic activity and blood pressure. The ERR was induced by renal infusion of capsaicin, and evaluated by the changes in renal sympathetic outflow, blood pressure, and heart rate. Renal infusion of capsaicin dose-dependently increased the contralateral renal sympathetic nerve activity, mean arterial pressure, and heart rate. Capsaicin in the cortico-medullary  border had greater effects than in the cortex or medulla. Intravenous infusion of capsaicin had no significant effects. The effec...
Source: Neuroscience Bulletin - August 7, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research