Revealing the Precise Role of Calretinin Neurons in Epilepsy: We Are on the Way
AbstractEpilepsy is a common neurological disorder characterized by hyperexcitability in the brain. Its pathogenesis is classically associated with an imbalance of excitatory and inhibitory neurons. Calretinin (CR) is one of the three major types of calcium-binding proteins present in inhibitory GABAergic neurons. The functions of CR and its role in neural excitability are still unknown. Recent data suggest that CR neurons have diverse neurotransmitters, morphologies, distributions, and functions in different brain regions across various species. Notably, CR neurons in the hippocampus, amygdala, neocortex, and thalamus are...
Source: Neuroscience Bulletin - July 29, 2021 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Hot Topics in Recent Parkinson ’s Disease Research: Where We are and Where We Should Go
AbstractParkinson ’s disease (PD), the second most common neurodegenerative disease, is clinically characterized by both motor and non-motor symptoms. Although overall great achievements have been made in elucidating the etiology and pathogenesis of PD, the exact mechanisms of this complicated systemic disease are still far from being clearly understood. Consequently, most of the currently-used diagnostic tools and therapeutic options for PD are symptomatic. In this perspective review, we highlight the hot topics in recent PD research for both clinicians and researchers. Some of these hot topics, such as slee p disor...
Source: Neuroscience Bulletin - July 27, 2021 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

ubtor Mutation Causes Motor Hyperactivity by Activating mTOR Signaling in Zebrafish
AbstractMechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling governs important physiological and pathological processes key to cellular life. Loss of mTOR negative regulators and subsequent over-activation of mTOR signaling are major causes underlying epileptic encephalopathy. Our previous studies showed thatUBTOR/KIAA1024/MINAR1 acts as a negative regulator of mTOR signaling, but whetherUBTOR plays a role in neurological diseases remains largely unknown. We therefore examined a zebrafish model and found thatubtor disruption caused increased spontaneous embryonic movement and neuronal activity in spinal interneurons, as well a...
Source: Neuroscience Bulletin - July 26, 2021 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Complement C3 Aggravates Post-epileptic Neuronal Injury Via Activation of TRPV1
This study provides support for the hypothesis that the C3–TRPV1 pathway is involved in the prevention and treatment of neuronal injury and cognitive disorders. (Source: Neuroscience Bulletin)
Source: Neuroscience Bulletin - July 26, 2021 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

The Periaqueductal Gray and Its Extended Participation in Drug Addiction Phenomena
AbstractThe periaqueductal gray (PAG) is a complex mesencephalic structure involved in the integration and execution of active and passive self-protective behaviors against imminent threats, such as immobility or flight from a predator. PAG activity is also associated with the integration of responses against physical discomfort (e.g., anxiety, fear, pain, and disgust) which occurs prior an imminent attack, but also during withdrawal from drugs such as morphine and cocaine. The PAG sends and receives projections to and from other well-documented nuclei linked to the phenomenon of drug addiction including: (i) the ventral t...
Source: Neuroscience Bulletin - July 24, 2021 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

cFos-ANAB: A cFos-based Web Tool for Exploring Activated Neurons and Associated Behaviors
AbstractcFos is one of the most widely-studied genes in the field of neuroscience. Currently, there is no systematic database focusing on cFos in neuroscience. We developed a curated database —cFos-ANAB—a cFos-based web tool for exploring activated neurons and associated behaviors in rats and mice, comprising 398 brain nuclei and sub-nuclei, and five associated behaviors: pain, fear, feeding, aggression, and sexual behavior. Direct relationships among behaviors and nuclei (even cell types) under specific stimulating conditions were constructed based on cFos expression profiles extracted from original publicatio...
Source: Neuroscience Bulletin - July 24, 2021 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Chronic Exposure to Hypoxia Inhibits Myelinogenesis and Causes Motor Coordination Deficits in Adult Mice
AbstractExposure to chronic hypoxia is considered to be a risk factor for deficits in brain function in adults, but the underlying mechanisms remain largely unknown. Since active myelinogenesis persists in the adult central nervous system, here we aimed to investigate the impact of chronic hypoxia on myelination and the related functional consequences in adult mice. Using a transgenic approach to label newly-generated myelin sheaths (NG2-CreERTM; Tau-mGFP), we found that myelinogenesis was highly active in most brain regions, such as the motor cortex and corpus callosum. After exposure to hypoxia (10% oxygen) 12 h per day ...
Source: Neuroscience Bulletin - July 22, 2021 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Overexpression of MECP2 in the Suprachiasmatic Nucleus Alters Circadian Rhythm and Induces Abnormal Social Behaviors
(Source: Neuroscience Bulletin)
Source: Neuroscience Bulletin - July 20, 2021 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

A Standardized Protocol for the Induction of Specific Social Fear in Mice
(Source: Neuroscience Bulletin)
Source: Neuroscience Bulletin - July 20, 2021 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Reprogramming Glial Cells into Functional Neurons for Neuro-regeneration: Challenges and Promise
AbstractThe capacity for neurogenesis in the adult mammalian brain is extremely limited and highly restricted to a few regions, which greatly hampers neuronal regeneration and functional restoration after neuronal loss caused by injury or disease. Meanwhile, transplantation of exogenous neuronal stem cells into the brain encounters several serious issues including immune rejection and the risk of tumorigenesis. Recent discoveries of direct reprogramming of endogenous glial cells into functional neurons have provided new opportunities for adult neuro-regeneration. Here, we extensively review the experimental findings of the...
Source: Neuroscience Bulletin - July 20, 2021 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Evidence of Altered Cortical Processing of Dynamic Lexical Tone Pitch Contour in Chinese Children with Autism
(Source: Neuroscience Bulletin)
Source: Neuroscience Bulletin - July 19, 2021 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Know Thy Enemy: Untangling the Mysteries of Neuropathic Pain
(Source: Neuroscience Bulletin)
Source: Neuroscience Bulletin - July 17, 2021 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Effect of Sodium Salicylate on Calcium Currents and Exocytosis in Cochlear Inner Hair Cells: Implications for Tinnitus Generation
AbstractSodium salicylate is an anti-inflammatory medication with a side-effect of tinnitus. Here, we used mouse cochlear cultures to explore the effects of salicylate treatment on cochlear inner hair cells (IHCs). We found that IHCs showed significant damage after exposure to a high concentration of salicylate. Whole-cell patch clamp recordings showed that 1 –5 mmol/L salicylate did not affect the exocytosis of IHCs, indicating that IHCs are not involved in tinnitus generation by enhancing their neuronal input. Instead, salicylate induced a larger peak amplitude, a more negative half-activation voltage, and a steepe...
Source: Neuroscience Bulletin - July 7, 2021 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Steroid Receptor Coactivator 3 Regulates Synaptic Plasticity and Hippocampus-dependent Memory
In this study, we addressed the function of steroid receptor coactivator 3 (SRC3) – a member of the p160 SRC protein family that is expressed predominantly in the hippocampus. While hippocampal development was not altered inSrc3+/ − mice, hippocampus-dependent functions such as short-term memory and spatial memory were impaired. We further demonstrated that the deficient learning and memory inSrc3+/ − mice was strongly associated with the impairment of long-term potentiation (LTP) at Schaffer Collateral-CA1 synapses. Mechanistic studies indicated thatSrc3+/ − mutation altered the composition of N-me...
Source: Neuroscience Bulletin - July 6, 2021 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Developments in Biological Mechanisms and Treatments for Negative Symptoms and Cognitive Dysfunction of Schizophrenia
AbstractThe causal mechanisms and treatment for the negative symptoms and cognitive dysfunction in schizophrenia are the main issues attracting the attention of psychiatrists over the last decade. The first part of this review summarizes the pathogenesis of schizophrenia, especially the negative symptoms and cognitive dysfunction from the perspectives of genetics and epigenetics. The second part describes the novel medications and several advanced physical therapies (e.g., transcranial magnetic stimulation and transcranial direct current stimulation) for the negative symptoms and cognitive dysfunction that will optimize th...
Source: Neuroscience Bulletin - July 5, 2021 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

The Relationship Between the Gut Microbiome and Neurodegenerative Diseases
This article summarizes the known interactions between the gut microbiome and neurodegenerative diseases, highlighting assay techniques for the gut microbiome, and we also discuss the potential therapeutic role of microbiome-based therapies in diseases. (Source: Neuroscience Bulletin)
Source: Neuroscience Bulletin - July 3, 2021 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

ASIC2 Synergizes with TRPV1 in the Mechano-Electrical Transduction of Arterial Baroreceptors
In this study, experiments using aortic arch –aortic nerve preparations isolated from rats revealed that both ASIC2 and TRPV1 are functionally necessary, as blocking either abrogated nearly all pressure-dependent neural discharge. However, whether ASIC2 and TRPV1 work in coordination remained unclear. So we carried out cell-attached patch-cl amp recordings in HEK293T cells co-expressing ASIC2 and TRPV1 and found that inhibition of ASIC2 completely blocked stretch-activated currents while inhibition of TRPV1 only partially blocked these currents. Immunofluorescence staining of aortic arch–aortic adventitia from ...
Source: Neuroscience Bulletin - July 2, 2021 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Topography of Visual Features in the Human Ventral Visual Pathway
AbstractVisual object recognition in humans and nonhuman primates is achieved by the ventral visual pathway (ventral occipital-temporal cortex, VOTC), which shows a well-documented object domain structure. An on-going question is what type of information is processed in the higher-order VOTC that underlies such observations, with recent evidence suggesting effects of certain visual features. Combining computational vision models, fMRI experiment using a parametric-modulation approach, and natural image statistics of common objects, we depicted the neural distribution of a comprehensive set of visual features in the VOTC, i...
Source: Neuroscience Bulletin - July 2, 2021 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

A Neural Circuit Mechanism Controlling Breathing by Leptin in the Nucleus Tractus Solitarii
AbstractLeptin, an adipocyte-derived peptide hormone, has been shown to facilitate breathing. However, the central sites and circuit mechanisms underlying the respiratory effects of leptin remain incompletely understood. The present study aimed to address whether neurons expressing leptin receptor b (LepRb) in the nucleus tractus solitarii (NTS) contribute to respiratory control. Both chemogenetic and optogenetic stimulation of LepRb-expressing NTS (NTSLepRb) neurons notably activated breathing. Moreover, stimulation of NTSLepRb neurons projecting to the lateral parabrachial nucleus (LPBN) not only remarkably increased bas...
Source: Neuroscience Bulletin - July 2, 2021 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

The Eyes Have It: Perception of Social Interaction Unfolds Through Pupil Dilation
(Source: Neuroscience Bulletin)
Source: Neuroscience Bulletin - July 1, 2021 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Correction to: Comprehensive Management of Daily Living Activities, behavioral and Psychological Symptoms, and Cognitive Function in Patients with Alzheimer ’s Disease: A Chinese Consensus on the Comprehensive Management of Alzheimer’s Disease
(Source: Neuroscience Bulletin)
Source: Neuroscience Bulletin - June 29, 2021 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Interaction Between Conscious and Unconscious Information-Processing of Faces and Words
AbstractIt is widely acknowledged that holistic processing is a key characteristic of face perception. Although holistic processing implies the automatic integration of face parts, it is unclear whether such processing requires the awareness of face parts. Here, we investigated the interactions between visible face parts and face parts rendered invisible using continuous flash suppression (CFS). In the first experiment with the upper half-face visible and the lower half-face invisible, the results showed that perceived face identity was influenced by the invisible lower half-face, suggesting that integration occurs between...
Source: Neuroscience Bulletin - June 25, 2021 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Functional Near-Infrared Spectroscopy Neurofeedback of Cortical Target Enhances Hippocampal Activation and Memory Performance
(Source: Neuroscience Bulletin)
Source: Neuroscience Bulletin - June 24, 2021 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Co-editing PINK1 and DJ-1 Genes Via Adeno-Associated Virus-Delivered CRISPR/Cas9 System in Adult Monkey Brain Elicits Classical Parkinsonian Phenotype
AbstractWhether direct manipulation of Parkinson ’s disease (PD) risk genes in the adult monkey brain can elicit a Parkinsonian phenotype remains an unsolved issue. Here, we used an adeno-associated virus serotype 9 (AAV9)-delivered CRISPR/Cas9 system to directly co-editPINK1 andDJ-1 genes in the substantia nigras (SNs) of two monkey groups: an old group and a middle-aged group. After the operation, the old group exhibited all the classic PD symptoms, including bradykinesia, tremor, and postural instability, accompanied by key pathological hallmarks of PD, such as severe nigral dopaminergic neuron loss (>64%) and ...
Source: Neuroscience Bulletin - June 24, 2021 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Residual Recurrence Risk of Ischemic Cerebrovascular Events: Elements and Implications
(Source: Neuroscience Bulletin)
Source: Neuroscience Bulletin - June 23, 2021 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Simultaneous 3D Visualization of the Microvascular and Neural Network in Mouse Spinal Cord Using Synchrotron Radiation Micro-Computed Tomography
In this study, we combined Golgi staining with angiography and synchrotron radiation micro-computed tomography (SR μCT) to visualize the 3D neurovascular network in the mouse spinal cord. Using our method, the 3D neurons, nerve fibers, and vasculature in a broad region could be visualized in the same image at cellular resolution without destructive sectioning. Besides, we found that the 3D morphology of neurons , nerve fiber tracts, and vasculature visualized by SRμCT were highly consistent with that visualized using the histological method. Moreover, the 3D neurovascular structure could be quantitatively evaluated b...
Source: Neuroscience Bulletin - June 19, 2021 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Magnetic Resonance Imaging-Guided and Navigated Individualized Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation for Cognitive Impairment in Schizophrenia
(Source: Neuroscience Bulletin)
Source: Neuroscience Bulletin - June 18, 2021 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Reduced Firing of Nucleus Accumbens Parvalbumin Interneurons Impairs Risk Avoidance in DISC1 Transgenic Mice
AbstractA strong animal survival instinct is to approach objects and situations that are of benefit and to avoid risk. In humans, a  large proportion of mental disorders are accompanied by impairments in risk avoidance. One of the most important genes involved in mental disorders is disrupted-in-schizophrenia-1 (DISC1), and animal models in which this gene has some level of dysfunction show emotion-related impairments. However, it is not known whetherDISC1 mouse models have an impairment in avoiding potential risks. In the present study, we usedDISC1-N terminal truncation (DISC1-NTM) mice to investigate risk...
Source: Neuroscience Bulletin - June 18, 2021 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Pharmacological Activation of RXR- α Promotes Hematoma Absorption via a PPAR-γ-dependent Pathway After Intracerebral Hemorrhage
In conclusion, the pharmacological activation of RXR-α confers robust neuroprotection against ICH by accelerating hematoma clearance and repolarizing microglia/macrophages towards the M2 phenotype through PPAR-γ-related mechanisms. Our data support the notion that RXR-α might be a promising therapeutic target for ICH. (Source: Neuroscience Bulletin)
Source: Neuroscience Bulletin - June 17, 2021 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Combination of Biomedical Techniques and Paradigms to Improve Prognostications for Disorders of Consciousness
(Source: Neuroscience Bulletin)
Source: Neuroscience Bulletin - June 15, 2021 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Recent Progress in Non-motor Features of Parkinson ’s Disease with a Focus on Circadian Rhythm Dysregulation
AbstractParkinson ’s disease (PD) is the second most common neurodegenerative disease, which manifests with both motor and non-motor symptoms. Circadian rhythm dysregulation, as one of the most challenging non-motor features of PD, usually appears long before obvious motor symptoms. Moreover, the dysregulated circa dian rhythm has recently been reported to play pivotal roles in PD pathogenesis, and it has emerged as a hot topic in PD research. In this review, we briefly introduce the circadian rhythm and circadian rhythm-related genes, and then summarize recent research progress on the altered circadian rhythm in PD,...
Source: Neuroscience Bulletin - June 15, 2021 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Developing Neuroimaging Biomarker for Brain Diseases with a Machine Learning Framework and the Brainnetome Atlas
(Source: Neuroscience Bulletin)
Source: Neuroscience Bulletin - June 14, 2021 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

A Frameshift Variant in the SEMA6B Gene Causes Global Developmental Delay and Febrile Seizures
(Source: Neuroscience Bulletin)
Source: Neuroscience Bulletin - June 10, 2021 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Evolving Models and Tools for Microglial Studies in the Central Nervous System
AbstractMicroglia play multiple roles in such processes as brain development, homeostasis, and pathology. Due to their diverse mechanisms of functions, the complex sub-classifications, and the large differences between different species, especially compared with humans, very different or even opposite conclusions can be drawn from studies with different research models. The choice of appropriate research models and the associated tools are thus key ingredients of studies on microglia. Mice are the most commonly used animal models. In this review, we summarizein vitro andin vivo models of mouse and human-derived microglial ...
Source: Neuroscience Bulletin - June 9, 2021 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Dicer Deletion in Astrocytes Inhibits Oligodendroglial Differentiation and Myelination
AbstractIncreasing evidence has shown that astrocytes are implicated in regulating oligodendrocyte myelination, but the underlying mechanisms remain largely unknown. To understand whether microRNAs in astrocytes function in regulating oligodendroglial differentiation and myelination in the developing and adult CNS, we generated inducible astrocyte-specific Dicer conditional knockout mice (hGFAP-CreERT; Dicer fl/fl). By using a reporter mouse line (mT/mG), we confirmed that hGFAP-CreERT drives an efficient and astrocyte-specific recombination in the developing CNS, upon tamoxifen treatment from postnatal day 3 (P3) to P7. T...
Source: Neuroscience Bulletin - June 9, 2021 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Mitochondrial Events Determine the Status of Hippocampal Cells in the Post-Ischemic Period
(Source: Neuroscience Bulletin)
Source: Neuroscience Bulletin - June 7, 2021 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Reprogramming Restores Vision in Mice by Changing DNA Methylation
(Source: Neuroscience Bulletin)
Source: Neuroscience Bulletin - June 7, 2021 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Pinocembrin Promotes OPC Differentiation and Remyelination via the mTOR Signaling Pathway
AbstractThe exacerbation of progressive multiple sclerosis (MS) is closely associated with obstruction of the differentiation of oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPCs). To discover novel therapeutic compounds for enhancing remyelination by endogenous OPCs, we screened for myelin basic protein expression using cultured rat OPCs and a library of small-molecule compounds. One of the most effective drugs was pinocembrin, which remarkably promoted OPC differentiation and maturation without affecting cell proliferation and survival. Based on thesein vitro effects, we further assessed the therapeutic effects of pinocembrin in an...
Source: Neuroscience Bulletin - June 6, 2021 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

PQBP1: A New Player in Metabotropic Glutamate Receptor Signaling and Synaptic Plasticity
(Source: Neuroscience Bulletin)
Source: Neuroscience Bulletin - June 6, 2021 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

A Temporal Precision Approach for Deep Transcranial Optogenetics with Non-invasive Surgery
(Source: Neuroscience Bulletin)
Source: Neuroscience Bulletin - June 6, 2021 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Illuminating Neural Circuits in Alzheimer ’s Disease
AbstractAlzheimer ’s disease (AD) is the most common neurodegenerative disorder and there is currently no cure. Neural circuit dysfunction is the fundamental mechanism underlying the learning and memory deficits in patients with AD. Therefore, it is important to understand the structural features and mechanisms und erlying the deregulated circuits during AD progression, by which new tools for intervention can be developed. Here, we briefly summarize the most recently established cutting-edge experimental approaches and key techniques that enable neural circuit tracing and manipulation of their activity. We als o disc...
Source: Neuroscience Bulletin - June 5, 2021 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

The ATP Level in the mPFC Mediates the Antidepressant Effect of Calorie Restriction
In this study, we showed that deletion of IP3R2 blocked the antidepressant-like effect induced by calorie restriction.Invivo microdialysis experiments demonstrated that calorie restriction induced an increase in ATP level in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) in na ïve mice but this effect disappeared in IP3R2-knockout mice, suggesting a role of astrocytic ATP in the calorie restriction-induced antidepressant effect. Further experiments showed that systemic administration and local infusion of ATP into the mPFC induced an antidepressant effect, whereas decrea sing ATP by Apyrase in the mPFC blocked calorie restrictio...
Source: Neuroscience Bulletin - June 5, 2021 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

GABA Signaling Pathway-associated Gene PLCL1 Rare Variants May be Associated with Autism Spectrum Disorders
(Source: Neuroscience Bulletin)
Source: Neuroscience Bulletin - June 5, 2021 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Lateral Habenula Serves as a Potential Therapeutic Target for Neuropathic Pain
(Source: Neuroscience Bulletin)
Source: Neuroscience Bulletin - June 4, 2021 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

The Amygdala Responds Rapidly to Flashes Linked to Direct Retinal Innervation: A Flash-evoked Potential Study Across Cortical and Subcortical Visual Pathways
AbstractRapid detection and response to visual threats are critical for survival in animals. The amygdala (AMY) is hypothesized to be involved in this process, but how it interacts with the visual system to do this remains unclear. By recording flash-evoked potentials simultaneously from the superior colliculus (SC), lateral posterior nucleus of the thalamus, AMY, lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN) and visual cortex, which belong to the cortical and subcortical pathways for visual fear processing, we investigated the temporal relationship between these regions in visual processing in rats. A quick flash-evoked potential (FEP...
Source: Neuroscience Bulletin - June 4, 2021 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Heteromolecular Plasticity in Striatal Astrocytes
(Source: Neuroscience Bulletin)
Source: Neuroscience Bulletin - June 2, 2021 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Growth Differentiation Factor-15 Produces Analgesia by Inhibiting Tetrodotoxin-Resistant Nav1.8 Sodium Channel Activity in Rat Primary Sensory Neurons
AbstractGrowth differentiation factor 15 (GDF-15) is a member of the transforming growth factor- β superfamily. It is widely distributed in the central and peripheral nervous systems. Whether and how GDF-15 modulates nociceptive signaling remains unclear. Behaviorally, we found that peripheral GDF-15 significantly elevated nociceptive response thresholds to mechanical and thermal stimuli in na ïve and arthritic rats. Electrophysiologically, we demonstrated that GDF-15 decreased the excitability of small-diameter dorsal root ganglia (DRG) neurons. Furthermore, GDF-15 concentration-dependently suppressed tetrodotox...
Source: Neuroscience Bulletin - June 2, 2021 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

An Evolved Human-specific Epigenetic Mechanism for Cortical Expansion and Gyrification
(Source: Neuroscience Bulletin)
Source: Neuroscience Bulletin - June 2, 2021 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Vasopressin Signaling Buffers Synaptic Metaplasticity in a Sex-specific Manner
(Source: Neuroscience Bulletin)
Source: Neuroscience Bulletin - May 31, 2021 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Descending Modulation of Spinal Itch Transmission by Primary Somatosensory Cortex
(Source: Neuroscience Bulletin)
Source: Neuroscience Bulletin - May 31, 2021 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research