Sleep Disorders in Four Patients With Myotonic Dystrophy Type 1

Sleep disturbances such as excessive daytime sleepiness, central and obstructive sleep apneas, restless legs syndrome, and rapid eye movement sleep dysregulation are prominent in patients with myotonic dystrophy type 1 (DM1). Mild intellectual deficits presented in many patients with DM1. In addition, psychosocial issues caused by neuropsychiatric symptoms are a clinical problem. We herein present the cases of four DM1 patients with sleep disturbances and neuropsychiatric symptoms in the preceding stage of clinically significant muscle symptoms. One of the cases exhibited a sleep disorder and neuropsychiatric symptoms before electromyography showed myotonic discharge, suggesting that careful follow-up is also important. Patients 1 and 2 were first referred to our department due to daytime sleepiness. Patients 3 and 4 were objectively suffering from daytime sleepiness of which they were not subjectively aware of. Patients 1, 3, and 4 obtained high apnea–hypopnea index (AHI) scores, which reflected central and/or obstructive apnea, whereas patient 2 had an AHI score of zero. The daytime cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) orexin levels of all patients ranged from the normal lower limit to low, although they were not as low as those observed in narcolepsy with typical cataplexy. Neuropsychological tests of patients 1 and 2 showed frontal lobe dysfunction. Patients 3 and 4 were diagnosed with mild intellectual disability and autism spectrum disorder, respectively. All patients exhibi...
Source: Frontiers in Neurology - Category: Neurology Source Type: research

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