Cancers, Vol. 12, Pages 407: Multiple Myeloma: Available Therapies and Causes of Drug Resistance

Cancers, Vol. 12, Pages 407: Multiple Myeloma: Available Therapies and Causes of Drug Resistance Cancers doi: 10.3390/cancers12020407 Authors: Pinto Bergantim Caires Seca Guimarães Vasconcelos Multiple myeloma (MM) is the second most common blood cancer. Treatments for MM include corticosteroids, alkylating agents, anthracyclines, proteasome inhibitors, immunomodulatory drugs, histone deacetylase inhibitors and monoclonal antibodies. Survival outcomes have improved substantially due to the introduction of many of these drugs allied with their rational use. Nonetheless, MM patients successively relapse after one or more treatment regimens or become refractory, mostly due to drug resistance. This review focuses on the main drugs used in MM treatment and on causes of drug resistance, including cytogenetic, genetic and epigenetic alterations, abnormal drug transport and metabolism, dysregulation of apoptosis, autophagy activation and other intracellular signaling pathways, the presence of cancer stem cells, and the tumor microenvironment. Furthermore, we highlight the areas that need to be further clarified in an attempt to identify novel therapeutic targets to counteract drug resistance in MM patients.
Source: Cancers - Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Tags: Review Source Type: research

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CONCLUSION: Extensive research have been carried out on various process for preparing Bortezomib and composition thereof. This type of dynamic research will clear the path for many generic players in the United States which lead in reduction of price of the composition and thereby enhancing global health care at cheaper prices. PMID: 32234004 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Recent Patents on Anti-Cancer Drug Discovery - Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Recent Pat Anticancer Drug Discov Source Type: research
Authors: Allegra A, Innao V, Allegra AG, Pulvirenti N, Pugliese M, Musolino C Abstract Protease inhibitors (PIs) inhibit HIV‑1 and HIV‑2 proteases, impeding virus replication and liberation of viral elements from infected cells. In human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) subjects receiving PI‑based treatment, an impressive decrease in the amount of HIV‑associated cancers, unconnected to viral burden or CD4 amount was observed. Research has reported that PIs have influence on cancer proliferation, spread, and survival as an effect on endoplasmic reticulum stress, proteasome, NF‑κB and Akt signalling....
Source: Oncology Reports - Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Oncol Rep Source Type: research
(American Society of Hematology) A case study of a patient in Wuhan, China, suggests that the immunosuppressant tocilizumab may be an effective COVID-19 treatment for very ill patients who also have multiple myeloma and other blood cancers. The report, published in Blood Advances, also suggests that blood cancer patients may have atypical COVID-19 symptoms.
Source: EurekAlert! - Infectious and Emerging Diseases - Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: news
CONCLUSIONS: The mean QALY gained from surgical decompression in the first 6 months and first year equals 1.2 months and 5 months of life in perfect health, respectively. These findings suggest that surgery might also be beneficial to patients with life expectancy
Source: Journal of Neurosurgery.Spine - Category: Neurosurgery Authors: Tags: J Neurosurg Spine Source Type: research
British Journal of Cancer, Published online: 03 April 2020; doi:10.1038/s41416-020-0830-xCorrection: Chromatin structure, transcriptional activity and DNA repair efficiency affect the outcome of chemotherapy in multiple myeloma
Source: British Journal of Cancer - Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Source Type: research
l;sch R PMID: 32241848 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Haematologica - Category: Hematology Authors: Tags: Haematologica Source Type: research
Sarclisa Approved to Treat Patients with Advancing Multiple Myeloma Multiple myeloma is an incurable blood cancer that forms in the bone marrow. This month, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved Sanofi’s Sarclisa...
Source: - Pharma News - Category: Pharmaceuticals Source Type: news
Abstract Three new cadinane sesquiterpenes, trichodermaloids A (1), B (2), and C (5) were isolated from a symbiotic fungus Trichoderma sp. SM16 derived from the marine sponge Dysidea sp., together with three known ones, aspergilloid G (3), rhinomilisin E (4), and rhinomilisin G (6). The complete structures of three new compounds were determined by HR-MS and NMR spectroscopic analyses coupled with ECD calculations. The absolute configurations of two known compounds (4 and 6) were determined for the first time. The six isolates were inactive as antibacterial agents. However, trichodermaloids A and B have shown cytot...
Source: Chemistry and Biodiversity - Category: Biochemistry Authors: Tags: Chem Biodivers Source Type: research
In this study, we sought to investigate whether scutellarin (STN), a flavonoid, could reduce MM progression, mitigate chemoresistance of MM cells to bortezomib (BTB), and cause MM cell apoptosis in a xenograft mouse model of MM. Epigenetic signalling plays a main role in the modulation of various pathways involved in multiple myeloma progression. At the outset, mechanistic analyses of the MM pathways indicated that key epigenetic molecules including HDAC1/3 and miR-34a were up-modulated and down-modulated respectively, in the MM mice. Besides, the downstream signalling analysis of miR-34a depicted that the c-Met/AKT/mTOR p...
Source: International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Pathology - Category: Pathology Authors: Tags: Int J Clin Exp Pathol Source Type: research
ojo Fujii Recent cancer treatment modalities have been intensively focused on immunotherapy. The success of chimeric antigen receptor T cell therapy for treatment of refractory B cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia has pushed forward research on hematological malignancies. Among the effector types of innate lymphocytes, natural killer (NK) cells show great importance in immune surveillance against infectious and tumor diseases. Particularly, the role of NK cells has been argued in either elimination of target tumor cells or escape of tumor cells from immune surveillance. Therefore, an NK cell activation approach has b...
Source: Cancers - Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Tags: Review Source Type: research
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