A diterpene derivative enhanced insulin signaling induced by high glucose level in HepG2 cells

This study explores the hypoglycemic effect ofent-3α-formylabieta-8(14),13(15)-dien-16,12β-olide and studied its mechanism. The insulin response of HepG2 cells followingent-3α-formylabieta-8(14),13(15)-dien-16,12β-olide treatment, as a model for liver cancer cells, was assessed. The results demonstrated that hyperglycemia resulted in a significant increase in the levels of insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS-1) serine phosphorylation and decrease in Akt phosphorylation. High glucose also inhibited the phosphorylation of insulin-dependent GSK3β.ent-3α-Formylabieta-8(14),13(15)-dien-16,12β-olide treatment improved the effect of insulin on the phosphorylation of IRS-1 Ser307. In addition, this study demonstrated that the effect ofent-3α-formylabieta-8(14),13(15)-dien-16,12β-olide was dependent on the activation of AMP-activated protein kinase. Collectively, experimental data indicated an association between insulin resistance and hyperglycemia in HepG2 cells, and thatent-3α-formylabieta-8(14),13(15)-dien-16,12β-olide reduces IRS-1 Ser307 phosphorylation via activating AMPK, thereby decreasing the insulin signaling blockade.
Source: Journal of Natural Medicines - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

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Are healthy habits worth cultivating? A recent study suggests healthy habits may help people tack on years of life and sidestep serious illnesses, such as diabetes and cancer. After all, if you’re going to gain an extra decade of life on this earth, you want to enjoy it! What did this research focus on? Researchers from the Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health looked at data from more than 73,000 women enrolled in the Nurses’ Health Study (NHS) who were followed for 34 years, and more than 38,000 men enrolled in the Health Professionals Follow-up Study (HPFS) who were followed for 28 years. In a previous s...
Source: Harvard Health Blog - Category: Consumer Health News Authors: Tags: Exercise and Fitness Health Healthy Aging Healthy Eating Men's Health Women's Health Source Type: blogs
Obesity is characterized by an excess of adipose tissue, due to adipocyte hypertrophy and hyperplasia. Adipose tissue is an endocrine organ producing many bioactive molecules, called adipokines. During obesity, dysfunctional adipocytes alter adipokine secretion, contributing to pathophysiology of obesity-associated diseases, including metabolic syndrome, type 2-diabetes, cardiovascular diseases and many types of malignancies. Circulating adiponectin levels are inversely correlated with BMI, thus adiponectin concentrations are lower in obese than normal-weight subjects. Many clinical investigations highlight that low adipon...
Source: Frontiers in Endocrinology - Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research
Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is a metabolic disorder of insulin resistance — a reduced sensitivity to the action of insulin — which leads to high blood sugar, or hyperglycemia. Approximately 12% of American adults have T2D, and more than one-third of Americans have prediabetes, a precursor to T2D. This is a major public health concern, as T2D dramatically increases risk for heart disease, including heart attacks, atrial fibrillation, and heart failure. The development and progression of T2D is affected by many factors. Some, such as a person’s race/ethnicity, age, and gender cannot be modified. Others, including...
Source: Harvard Health Blog - Category: Consumer Health News Authors: Tags: Diabetes Exercise and Fitness Healthy Eating Heart Health Source Type: blogs
Gallbladder cancer is the most common biliary tract cancer with poor prognosis and wide variation in incidence rates worldwide, being very high in some countries in Latin America and Asia. Treatment of type 2 diabetes with metformin causes a reduction in the incidence of cancer. Till date, there are no reports on the anti-tumor effects of metformin in gall bladder cancer. Therefore, this study evaluated the effects of metformin on the proliferation of human gallbladder adenocarcinoma cells in vitro and in vivo, as well as explored the microRNAs associated with the anti-tumor effects of metformin. Metformin inhibited the pr...
Source: Anti-Cancer Drugs - Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Preclinical Reports Source Type: research
In conclusion, most of the studies reviewed demonstrate clear changes in microbe abundances and in the production of fermentation products, such as short-chain fatty acids and phytochemicals following dietary change, but the significance of th e microbiota changes to human health, with the possible exception of the stimulation of butyrogenic taxa by fiber-rich foods, is generally implied and not measured. Further studies are needed to determine how these changes in microbiota composition and metabolism can improve our health and be used t o prevent and treat disease.
Source: Digestive Diseases and Sciences - Category: Gastroenterology Source Type: research
ConclusionsMetformin could reduce the risk of gastric cancer in T2DM patients, particularly in Asian populations. However, it is debatable whether metformin use can improve the prognosis of gastric cancer in T2DM patients.
Source: Clinical and Translational Oncology - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research
Chronic inflammation is an important component of degenerative aging. Excessive inflammatory signaling and activation of the immune system arises due to a combination of many factors, of which some are more important than others, such as the presence of lingering senescent cells. Most of the research focused on controlling inflammation is more interested in sabotaging the mechanisms of control than in removing root causes, however. The work here is an example of the type, in which scientists identify an important feature of the regulatory system controlling inflammation. Forcing a sizable reduction of inflammation via this...
Source: Fight Aging! - Category: Research Authors: Tags: Daily News Source Type: blogs
ConclusionWe identified several genetic and non ‐genetic determinants of inter‐individual variability in the responses to coffee and caffeine consumption, indicating that some of the health benefits of coffee may only occur in a subgroup of subjects.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved
Source: Molecular Nutrition and Food Research - Category: Food Science Authors: Tags: Review Source Type: research
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Source: OnMedica Latest News - Category: UK Health Source Type: news
by Shuang Song, Wei Jiang, Lin Hou, Hongyu Zhao Genetic risk prediction is an important problem in human genetics, and accurate prediction can facilitate disease prevention and treatment. Calculating polygenic risk score (PRS) has become widely used due to its simplicity and effectiveness, where only summary statistics from genome-wide associat ion studies are needed in the standard method. Recently, several methods have been proposed to improve standard PRS by utilizing external information, such as linkage disequilibrium and functional annotations. In this paper, we introduce EB-PRS, a novel method that leverages inform...
Source: PLoS Computational Biology - Category: Biology Authors: Source Type: research
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