Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine Modulates Macrophage-mediated Innate Immunity in Pneumonia Caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae Following Influenza

Publication date: Available online 17 January 2020Source: Microbes and InfectionAuthor(s): Kazuyuki Mimura, Soichiro Kimura, Chiaki Kajiwara, Sho Nakakubo, Matthew A. Schaller, Yoshikazu Ishii, Theodore J. Standiford, Steven L. Kunkel, Kazuhiro TatedaAbstractPneumococcal conjugate vaccination (PCV) may prevent influenza-related pneumonia, including Streptococcus pneumoniae pneumonia. To investigate PCV efficacy against secondary pneumococcal pneumonia following influenza, PCV was administered intramuscularly 2 and 5 weeks before S. pneumoniae serotype-3 colonization of murine nasopharynges followed by intranasal challenge with a sublethal dose of influenza A virus. Bacterial and viral loads, including innate immune responses were compared across conditions. PCV vaccination improved the survival of mice with secondary pneumococcal pneumonia and significantly reduced the pulmonary bacterial burden. Increased monocyte/macrophage influx into the lungs, alleviated loss of alveolar macrophages and decreased neutrophil influx into the lungs occurred in PCV-treated mice irrespective of pneumococcal colonization. Higher monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 levels and lower levels of CXCL1, interferon-γ, interleukin-17A, and IL-10, were detected in PCV-treated mice. Additionally, PCV treatment activated the macrophage intracellular killing of S. pneumoniae. Collectively, PCV potentially modulates the host’s innate immunity and specific antibodies induction. Macrophage-related...
Source: Microbes and Infection - Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

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This study aimed to investigate the effectiveness of PPSV23 in reducing the risk of pneumonia among elderly patients with colorectal cancer. A total of 120,605 newly diagnosed patients with colorectal cancer were identified from the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database between 1996 and 2010. Of these patients, 18,468 were 75 years or older in 2007 to 2010, and 3515 received PPSV23. People aged 75 years or older have been considered eligible for receiving PPSV23 vaccination in Taiwan since 2007. The specific “vaccination period” of October 2008 to December 2008 was used to minimize the potential i...
Source: Medicine - Category: Internal Medicine Tags: Research Article: Observational Study Source Type: research
Conclusions: The results gained in the survey revealed the insufficient level of physicians’ knowledge in management of patients with CAP. On the one hand, a number of issues need to be considered more carefully, on the other hand, educational activities have to be conducted among physicians of medical and preventive treatment facilities.
Source: European Respiratory Journal - Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Tags: Medical education, web and internet Source Type: research
Different abnormalities account for the increased risk of viral and bacterial infection in patients with diabetes mellitus (DM). Main irregularities include: decreased CD4/CD8 lymphocyte ratios, reduced monocyte phagocytic function and defects in interleukin-2 production [1 –6]. Individuals with DM are 6 time more likely to be hospitalized and 3 times more likely to die from complications of influenza or pneumonia when compared to those in general population [7]. People with DM have higher rates of hepatitis B due to contact with infected blood or through improper eq uipment use (glucose monitoring devices or infected needles) [8].
Source: Primary Care Diabetes - Category: Primary Care Authors: Tags: Original research Source Type: research
The objective of this study was to analyze the incidence, clinical presentation, and severity of invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD)-causing serotypes and the impact of the 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccination during epidemic and nonepidemic influenza periods in Catalonia, Spain. This was a prospective study in persons aged
Source: Journal of Clinical Microbiology - Category: Microbiology Authors: Tags: Epidemiology Source Type: research
Conclusions: Human challenge studies and systems biology approaches are important tools that should be used in concert to advance our understanding of influenza infection and provide targets for novel therapeutics and immunizations. Introduction Although influenza virus was recognized as an important pathogen over a century ago, influenza continues to cause a significant burden of disease. In the United States alone, it's estimated that in the 2017–2018 season there were 959,000 hospitalizations related to influenza illness, and 79,400 deaths (CDC, 2018). Worldwide, WHO estimates that annual influenza...
Source: Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology - Category: Microbiology Source Type: research
In conclusion, we demonstrated that the selective boosting of lung innate immunity is a conceptually advantageous approach for improving the effectiveness of antibiotic treatment and fighting antibiotic-resistant bacteria. Introduction Pneumonia constitutes a major cause of death, morbidity and health resource use worldwide. The main causative agents identified in adult patients hospitalized for community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) are viruses (in 27–30% of cases, the most common being rhinovirus, influenza and coronavirus) and bacteria (14–23% of cases, with a marked predominance of Streptococcus pneumonia...
Source: Frontiers in Immunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research
(CNN) — Flu activity remains high across the nation, and there’s a second wave of severe infections striking some states. There were as many as 26.3 million flu illnesses, 12.4 million medical visits and 347,000 flu hospitalizations between October 1 and March 2, according to the weekly flu report released Friday by the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. “We’re still having flu. And we’re still seeing a steady stream of patients who are being admitted to hospital with influenza,” said Dr. William Schaffner, medical director of the National Foundation for Infectious Diseases. ...
Source: WBZ-TV - Breaking News, Weather and Sports for Boston, Worcester and New Hampshire - Category: Consumer Health News Authors: Tags: Health News CNN Flu Source Type: news
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Source: Human Vaccines and Immunotherapeutics - Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Source Type: research
Authors: Feldman C, Shaddock E Abstract INTRODUCTION: Lower respiratory tract infections (LRTIs) are the leading infectious disease cause of death in the world and the fifth overall cause of death. From an epidemiological point of view, most consider pneumonia, influenza, bronchitis (including acute exacerbations in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease [AECOPD]), and bronchiolitis to be the most important LRTIs. Areas covered: This review will describe the epidemiology of LRTIs in adults focusing on community-acquired pneumonia, influenza, and AECOPD, utilizing data from the more recent literature. Expert commenta...
Source: Expert Review of Respiratory Medicine - Category: Respiratory Medicine Tags: Expert Rev Respir Med Source Type: research
(CNN) — Most US adults have not gotten a flu shot this season, according to a new survey from NORC, a research organization at the University of Chicago. As of mid-November, only 43% of surveyed people 18 or older said they had gotten vaccinated against the flu, according to NORC, which has conducted the National Immunization Survey for the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention since 2005. Another 14% who remain unvaccinated claim that they will get the shot, the survey indicates. Even if they do as they intend, that leaves considerably more than a third of adults (41%) who have not — and will not &mdas...
Source: WBZ-TV - Breaking News, Weather and Sports for Boston, Worcester and New Hampshire - Category: Consumer Health News Authors: Tags: Health News Flu Flu Shot Local TV Source Type: news
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