Mechanisms by Which Glucagon-Like-Peptide-1 Receptor Agonists and Sodium-Glucose Cotransporter-2 Inhibitors Reduce Cardiovascular Risk in Adults With Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

Publication date: Available online 24 September 2019Source: Canadian Journal of DiabetesAuthor(s): Abhinav Sharma, Subodh VermaAbstractThe growing global burden of type 2 diabetes mellitus confers significant morbidity and mortality in addition to significant cost to local health-care systems. In recent years, 2 classes of therapies have shown some promise in reducing the risk of adverse cardiovascular (CV) events: 1) glucagon-like-peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor agonists and 2) sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 (SGLT-2) inhibitors. The mechanisms whereby these therapies reduce the risk of adverse CV outcomes are emerging. Both classes of therapies have overlapping yet distinct mechanisms of action. GLP-1 receptor agonists appear to target the incretin axis, inhibit gastric mobility pathways, modify CV risk factors through weight reduction, induce protection of ischemia/reperfusion injury and improve endothelial dysfunction. In comparison, SGLT-2 inhibitors appear to improve ventricular loading conditions, reduce sympathetic nervous system activation, reduce cardiac fibrosis, reduce renal hypoxia and renal-cardiac signalling, reduce left ventricular mass and improve cardiac energetics. In this review, we summarize the potential mechanisms whereby GLP-1 receptor agonists and SGLT-2 inhibitors improve CV outcomes in patients with type 2 diabetes and highlight evidence for their use in populations without diabetes.RésuméOutre les coûts importants liés aux syst...
Source: Canadian Journal of Diabetes - Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

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Source: Brain Research Bulletin - Category: Neurology Authors: Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research
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Source: Current Diabetes Reviews - Category: Endocrinology Authors: Tags: Curr Diabetes Rev Source Type: research
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Abstract Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) leads to exaggerated cardiovascular responses to exercise, in part due to an exaggerated exercise pressor reflex. Accumulating data suggest excessive oxidative stress contributes to an exaggerated exercise pressor reflex in cardiovascular-related diseases. Excessive oxidative stress is also a primary underlying mechanism for the development and progression of T2DM. However, whether oxidative stress plays a role in mediating the exaggerated exercise pressor reflex in T2DM is not known. Therefore, this review explores the potential role of oxidative stress leading to increase...
Source: Autonomic Neuroscience - Category: Neuroscience Authors: Tags: Auton Neurosci Source Type: research
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