Quality of life: A universal or a disability specific concept?

Quality of life: A universal or a disability specific concept? Can J Occup Ther. 2019 Dec 04;:8417419831552 Authors: Erez AB, Gal E Abstract BACKGROUND.: Quality of life (QoL) is an important outcome of occupational therapy practice. Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder that impacts the individual throughout their lifespan and may substantially affect QoL. Measuring QoL of people with ASD presents a challenge and a debate whether to use general versus disability-specific adapted measures. PURPOSE.: This paper aims to (a) revisit the construct of QoL and discuss specific dilemmas pertaining to its measurement, and (b) discuss implications to the assessment of QoL in individuals with ASD while highlighting the potential contribution of occupational therapy to the development of measures. KEY ISSUES.: We suggest adding the domain of accessibility into QoL assessments, including, physical, sensory, social, and cognitive aspects, and to use disability-specific QoL measures. IMPLICATIONS.: The paper presents a call for occupational therapists to be involved in developing specific ASD disability-oriented measures that consider the unique characteristics of the disorder and environmental supports. PMID: 31795727 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Canadian Journal of Occupational Therapy - Category: Occupational Health Authors: Tags: Can J Occup Ther Source Type: research

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Autism is common. According to the most recent data from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), 1 out of every 59 children has been diagnosed with autism. That’s a marked rise from 2000, when only 1 in 150 children had been diagnosed with autism. There is a lot we don’t know about autism, such as exactly what causes it or why it is becoming more common. But one thing we do know is that the earlier we start treating it, the better. Communication and social skills are built very early. We have our best chance of improving things if we work within that natural window. That’s why there has been...
Source: Harvard Health Blog - Category: Consumer Health News Authors: Tags: Brain and cognitive health Children's Health Parenting Source Type: blogs
CONCLUSION: The CI demonstrated good evidence for construct validity and internal and test-retest reliability. Redundancy of items suggests that some items could be eliminated after further research. PMID: 31318674 [PubMed - in process]
Source: The American Journal of Occupational Therapy - Category: Occupational Health Authors: Tags: Am J Occup Ther Source Type: research
Conclusions: These results demonstrate that pathophysiological changes associated with ASD are more likely related to thalamocortical hyperconnectivity than to amygdala-cortical hypoconnectivity. Future studies should examine full sets of clinical and behavioral symptoms in combination with functional connectivity to explore possible biomarkers for ASD.IntroductionAutism spectrum disorder (ASD) is characterized by atypical social communication and restricted patterns of behavior, interest, or activities, both of which must be present in the early developmental period (1). Hyper- or hyporeactivity to sensory stimuli and unu...
Source: Frontiers in Psychiatry - Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research
CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: Sensory features can affect the everyday experiences of both children and caregivers. It is important for practitioners to understand the potentially enduring effects of children's sensory features on family functioning so as to begin to identify supportive interventions with more optimal long-term effects. PMID: 30915965 [PubMed - in process]
Source: The American Journal of Occupational Therapy - Category: Occupational Health Authors: Tags: Am J Occup Ther Source Type: research
Conclusions and implicationsIn contrast to previous studies, educational provision and satisfaction with educational provision are syndrome-specific. These results also highlight the need for training and raising awareness about the specific needs of children with neurodevelopmental disorders. In addition, our findings suggest improved communication between parents and the school is required about the type of support children with SEND are receiving.
Source: Research in Developmental Disabilities - Category: Disability Source Type: research
CASE: Sam is a 6-year-old boy with a diagnosis of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) who recently relocated and has an appointment with you, his new pediatric clinician, to establish care. He was previously followed by a psychiatrist for 2 years for additional diagnoses of insomnia, bipolar disorder, anxiety, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, and intellectual disability. He has tried and (apparently) failed multiple psychotropic trials including stimulants, nonstimulants, mood stabilizers, atypical antipsychotics, and nonbenzodiazepine hypnotics. He has a delayed sleep onset and frequent night awakenings each night f...
Source: Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics - Category: Child Development Tags: Challenging Case Source Type: research
CONCLUSIONS AND SIGNIFICANCE: These findings reveal that friendship quality, school participation, and loneliness have a considerable effect on the emotional well-being of adolescents with ASD, thus indicating the need for therapeutic interventions that address interpersonal relationships and emotional well-being. PMID: 29529904 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Scandinavian Journal of Occupational Therapy - Category: Occupational Health Tags: Scand J Occup Ther Source Type: research
Efficacy of Occupational Therapy Using Ayres Sensory Integration®: A Systematic Review. Am J Occup Ther. 2018 Jan/Feb;72(1):7201190010p1-7201190010p10 Authors: Schaaf RC, Dumont RL, Arbesman M, May-Benson TA Abstract This systematic review addresses the question "What is the efficacy of occupational therapy using Ayres Sensory Integration® (ASI) to support functioning and participation as defined by the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health for persons with challenges in processing and integrating sensory information that interfere with everyday life participa...
Source: The American Journal of Occupational Therapy - Category: Occupational Health Authors: Tags: Am J Occup Ther Source Type: research
CONCLUSIONS: Adults with autism spectrum disorder need more supportive social contexts and interventions to improve their quality of life. Social relationships, psychological health, and sensory processing difficulty must be considered when designing treatment programs for adults with autism spectrum disorder. Implications for Rehabilitation Adults with autism spectrum disorder scored significantly lower in all domains of quality of life than did the neuro-typical adults. Occupational therapy can provide more supportive social contexts and interventions on social relationship and sensory processing difficulty to improve th...
Source: Disability and Rehabilitation - Category: Rehabilitation Authors: Tags: Disabil Rehabil Source Type: research
ConclusionsNot only do these results confirm the stress‐reducing nature of two types of multisensory therapy, but they support the use of sAA as a potential tool for evaluating stress levels in individuals with intellectual disability and autism spectrum disorder, providing an important physiological lens that may guide strategies in clinical and non‐clinical care for individuals with disabilities.
Source: Journal of Intellectual Disability Research - Category: Disability Authors: Tags: Brief Report Source Type: research
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