Environmental factors affecting ecological niche of Coccidioides species and spatial dynamics of valley fever in the western United States

This study's objective was to estimate the impact of climate, soil, elevation and land cover on the Coccidioides species’ ecological niche. This research used maximum entropy ecological niche modeling based on disease case data from 2015 to 2016. Results found mean temperature of the driest quarter, and barren, shrub, and cultivated land covers influential in characterizing the niche. In addition to hotspots in central California and Arizona, the Columbia Plateau ecoregion of Washington and Oregon showed more favorable conditions for fungus presence than surrounding areas. The identification of influential spatial drivers will assist in future modeling efforts, and the potential distribution map generated may aid public health officials in watching for potential hotspots, assessing vulnerability, and refining endemicity.
Source: Spatial and Spatio-temporal Epidemiology - Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Related Links:

We report an apparently autochthonous coccidioidomycosis patient from Spokane, Washington, USA, a location to which Coccidioides spp. are not known to be endemic. PMID: 31922952 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Emerging Infectious Diseases - Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Tags: Emerg Infect Dis Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 21 December 2019Source: Antiviral ResearchAuthor(s): Melanie Rissmann, Franziska Stoek, Matthew J. Pickin, Martin H. GroschupAbstractRift Valley fever phlebovirus (RVFV) is an arthropod-borne virus that has caused substantial epidemics throughout Africa and in the Arabian Peninsula. The virus can cause severe disease in livestock and humans and therefore the control and prevention of viral outbreaks is of utmost importance. The epidemiology of RVFV has some particular characteristics. Unexpected and significant epidemics have been observed in spatially and temporally divergent patterns ac...
Source: Antiviral Therapy - Category: Virology Source Type: research
Abstract Rift Valley fever phlebovirus (RVFV) is an arthropod-borne virus that has caused substantial epidemics throughout Africa and in the Arabian Peninsula. The virus can cause severe disease in livestock and humans and therefore the control and prevention of viral outbreaks is of utmost importance. The epidemiology of RVFV has some particular characteristics. Unexpected and significant epidemics have been observed in spatially and temporally divergent patterns across the African continent. Sudden epidemics in previously unaffected areas are followed by periods of long-term apparent absence of virus and sudden,...
Source: Antiviral Research - Category: Virology Authors: Tags: Antiviral Res Source Type: research
This study showed an establishment of the first reverse genetics for AMTV, a lack of stability of AMTV NSs proteins in human cells, and an IFN-β gene antagonist function of AMTV NSs proteins in murine cells. The AMTV can be a nonpathogen ic surrogate model for studying phleboviruses including RVFV.
Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases - Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Source Type: research
Abstract PURPOSE: Coccidioidomycosis (CM) is a systemic fungal disease caused by the dimorphic fungi Coccidioides immitis and Coccidioides posadasii. In its endemic areas of the United States, CM is growing as a public health challenge with a marked increase in incidence in the last 15 years. Although Coccidioides infection is asymptomatic in most cases, symptomatic pulmonary disease occurs in ~40% and disseminated coccidioidomycosis (DCM) occurs in ~1% of previously healthy children and adults. DCM is markedly more common in immunocompromised people, who often experience life-threatening disease despite use of an...
Source: Clinical Therapeutics - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Tags: Clin Ther Source Type: research
The increasing risk of Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) infection as a global veterinary and public health threat demands the development of safe and accurate diagnostic tests. The aim of this study was to assess the suitability of a baculovirus expression system to produce recombinant RVFV nucleoprotein (N) for use as serodiagnostic antigen in an indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The ability of the recombinant N antigen to detect RVFV antibody responses was evaluated in ELISA format using antisera from sheep and cattle experimentally infected with two genetically distinct wild-type RVFV strains and sera fr...
Source: Journal of Clinical Microbiology - Category: Microbiology Authors: Tags: Clinical Veterinary Microbiology Source Type: research
Talaromyces (Penicillium) marneffei is an AIDS-defining infection in Southeast Asia and is associated with high mortality. It is rare in non-immunosuppressed individuals, especially children. Little is known about host immune response and genetic susceptibility to this endemic fungus. Genetic defects in the interferon-gamma (IFN-γ)/STAT1 signaling pathway, CD40/CD40 ligand- and IL12/IL12-receptor-mediated crosstalk between phagocytes and T-cells, and STAT3-mediated Th17 differentiation have been reported in HIV-negative children with talaromycosis and other endemic mycoses such as histoplasmosis, coccidioidomycosis, ...
Source: Frontiers in Immunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research
Coccidioides spp. are dimorphic fungi endemic to Central America, regions of South America and southwestern USA. Two species cause most human disease: Coccidioides immitis (primarily California isolates) and Cocc...
Source: BMC Infectious Diseases - Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Tags: Case report Source Type: research
Discussion Dengue is an important arboviral infection that affects about 40% of the world population. It is found mainly in topical and subtropical areas of the world mainly in developing countries but it range is spreading including the United States. A review of common arboviruses can be found here. It is a flaviavirus with 4 distinct serotypes named DENV-1 through DENV-4 and is spread by A. aegypti a day biting mosquito. Infection with one serotype confers immunity to that serotype but not the others. It does offer some protection for cross-infection but this only lasts a few months. Incubation period is 3-14 days with ...
Source: PediatricEducation.org - Category: Pediatrics Authors: Tags: Uncategorized Source Type: news
Coccidioidomycosis (Valley fever) is an infection caused by the soil-inhabiting molds, Coccidioides immitis or Coccidioides posadasii.2 Southern Arizona is one of the endemic region for this fungus, posing a unique challenge to the patients residing in this area. Of the 150,000 new coccidioidomycosis infections occuring annually in the United States, approximately 1% are disseminated infections and one third of these cases are often fatal.3 –5
Source: The American Journal of Medicine - Category: General Medicine Authors: Tags: Clinical Communication to the Editor Source Type: research
More News: Coccidioidomycosis (Valley Fever) | Endemics | Environmental Health | Epidemiology | Infectious Diseases | International Medicine & Public Health | Study | USA Health