Bio-inspired encapsulation and functionalization of iron oxide nanoparticles for biomedical applications

Publication date: Available online 17 November 2019Source: European Polymer JournalAuthor(s): Samson O. Aisida, Paul A. Akpa, Ishaq Ahmad, Ting-kai Zhao, M. Maaza, Fabian I. EzemaAbstractCancer cells are typified by proliferating mass of cells that grow faster than other smaller cell tissues within the body. Efforts to combat this effect through chemotherapy, radiotherapy, immunotherapy and surgery are still challenging. Magnetic Iron oxide nanoparticles (FeO-NPs) encapsulated with biopolymers as a local drug delivery system with the control via an external magnetic field has been widely used as a drug delivery system in cancer therapy, minimizing the side effects and lack of pathological site-specific action common to the conventional approaches. For the FeO-NPs to function optimally in actualizing the applications as mentioned earlier, it requires that the FeO-NPs have high magnetization values, narrow particle size distribution and a special surface encapsulation. Biopolymers used for surface functionalization offer several advantages in biomedical applications, owing to their defined primary structures, nontoxicity, biocompatibility and biodegradability. The functionalized FeO-NPs offer various possibilities, which include targeting ligands, proteins, antibodies and covalent attachment of drugs using an external magnetic field for cancer therapeutic purposes. This work discusses recent advances in the development of FeO-NPs from fabrication to applications and the state-o...
Source: European Polymer Journal - Category: Chemistry Source Type: research

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AbstractPurpose of ReviewCancer therapeutics have seen tremendous growth in the last decade and have been effective in the treatment of several cancer types. However, with advanced therapies like kinase inhibitors and immunotherapies, there have been unintended consequences of cardiotoxicities. While traditional chemotherapy and radiation-induced cardiotoxicity have been well studied, further research is needed to understand the adverse effects of newer regimens.Recent FindingsBoth immune-mediated and non-immune-medicated cytotoxicity have been noted with targeted therapies such as tyrosine kinase inhibitors and immune che...
Source: Current Cardiology Reports - Category: Cardiology Source Type: research
Scientists at the National Cancer Institute'sSurgery Branch have developed a method to identify and generate T-cell receptor (TCR) engineered T- cells for personalized cancer therapy. The TCR is a complex of integral membrane proteins that recognizes antigens and activates T cells. Human cancers contain genetic mutations that are unique in each patient. The researchers found cancer-specific mutations by sequencing tumors and comparing with normal cells. Using tandem minigene constructs encoding all of the patient's tumor mutations, they first identified T cells that were reactive with the unique mutated antigens expressed ...
Source: NIH OTT Licensing Opportunities - Category: Research Authors: Source Type: research
ConclusionsBTLA detected in cancerous tissues can predict poor outcome of EOC patients. Inhibition of BTLA combined with chemotherapy can elevate immune activation and generate potent anti-tumor effects. Thus, the combination of chemotherapy and anti-BTLA antibody may hold potential clinical application for the treatment of EOC patients.Trial registrationThe Trial Registration Number wasNCT00854399.
Source: Journal for Immunotherapy of Cancer - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research
Yicheng Ni Cancer remains a major cause of death globally. Given its relapsing and fatal features, curing cancer seems to be something hardly possible for the majority of patients. In view of the development in cancer therapies, this article summarizes currently available cancer therapeutics and cure potential by cancer type and stage at diagnosis, based on literature and database reviews. Currently common cancer therapeutics include surgery, chemotherapy, radiotherapy, targeted therapy, and immunotherapy. However, treatment with curative intent by these methods are mainly eligible for patients with localized diseas...
Source: Cancers - Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Tags: Review Source Type: research
Authors: Unni P, Seshaiyer P Abstract Over the last few decades, there have been significant developments in theoretical, experimental, and clinical approaches to understand the dynamics of cancer cells and their interactions with the immune system. These have led to the development of important methods for cancer therapy including virotherapy, immunotherapy, chemotherapy, targeted drug therapy, and many others. Along with this, there have also been some developments on analytical and computational models to help provide insights into clinical observations. This work develops a new mathematical model that combines ...
Source: Computational and Mathematical Methods in Medicine - Category: Statistics Tags: Comput Math Methods Med Source Type: research
Conclusion: FOXC2 drives a tumor-promoting gene expression program in melanoma and is a prognostic indicator of patient response to multiple cancer therapies.
Source: Cancer Genomics and Proteomics - Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Tags: Article Source Type: research
The application of immunological checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) has modified many treatment strategies of malignant tumors, which has become a milestone in cancer therapy. The principle of action can be explained as " brake theory " . After releasing the brakes by ICIs, unprecedented systemic toxicities, even some refractory and fatal immune-related adverse effects (irAEs) may develop. In this article, we summarized the recommended treatments of grade 3-4 severe irAEs in the latest European Society for Medical Oncology (ESMO), National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN)/American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO)...
Source: Chinese Journal of Lung Cancer - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research
Borgia Lung cancer continues to be a major worldwide health issue, with more than 50% of patients having incurable metastatic disease at diagnosis. Fortunately, the advanced lung cancer treatment landscape is changing rapidly as a result of the positive impact of effective inhibitors of tumor driver mutations, and the more recent discovery that immune modulation with anti-PD-1/PD-L1 monoclonal antibodies results in tumor regression and prolonged survival. While a relatively small subset of lung cancer patients are candidates for inhibitors of driver mutations, the majority of advanced lung cancer patients are candidat...
Source: Cancers - Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Tags: Perspective Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 17 October 2019Source: Life SciencesAuthor(s): Keywan Mortezaee, Yaiza Potes, Hanifeh Mirtavoos-Mahyari, Elahe Motevaseli, Dheyauldeen Shabeeb, Ahmed Eleojo Musa, Masoud Najafi, Bagher FarhoodAbstractCancer is a disease of high complexity. Resistance to therapy is a major challenge in cancer targeted therapies. Overcoming this resistance requires a deep knowledge of the cellular interactions within tumor. Natural killer (NK) cells and cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) are the main anti-cancer immune cells, while T regulatory cells (Tregs) and cancer associated fibroblasts (CAFs) facilitate i...
Source: Life Sciences - Category: Biology Source Type: research
AbstractPARP (poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase) inhibitors represent a novel class of anti-cancer therapy; they take advantage of synthetic lethality and induce cell death by exploiting a defect in DNA repair. This class of medication was initially evaluated in patients with BRCA-associated tumors, but efficacy was also demonstrated in other populations. Since 2014, four PARP inhibitors have been approved in various indications: olaparib, niraparib, and rucaparib in high-grade serous ovarian cancer, and olaparib and talazoparib in metastatic breast cancer. The exact indications and study populations vary slightly between the di...
Source: Targeted Oncology - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research
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