The Potential Role of Dysfunctions in Neuron - Microglia Communication in the Pathogenesis of Brain Disorders.

The Potential Role of Dysfunctions in Neuron - Microglia Communication in the Pathogenesis of Brain Disorders. Curr Neuropharmacol. 2019 Nov 12;: Authors: Chamera K, Trojan E, Szuster-Głuszczak M, Basta-Kaim A Abstract The bidirectional communication between neurons and microglia is fundamental for the proper functioning of the central nervous system (CNS). Chemokines and clusters of differentiation (CD) along with their receptors represent ligand - receptor signalling that is uniquely important for neuron - microglia communication. Among these molecules, CX3CL1 (fractalkine) and CD200 (OX-2 membrane glycoprotein) come to the fore because of their cell-type-specific localization. They are principally expressed by neurons when their receptors, CX3CR1 and CD200R, respectively, are predominantly present on microglia, resulting in the specific axis that maintains the CNS homeostasis. Disruptions to this balance are suggested as the contributors or even the basis for many neurological diseases. In this review, we discuss the roles of CX3CL1, CD200 and their receptors in both physiological and pathological processes within the CNS. We want to underline the critical involvement of these molecules in the controlling of neuron - microglia communication, noting that dysfunctions in their interactions constitute a key factor in severe neurological diseases, such as schizophrenia, depression and neurodegeneration-based conditions. PMID: 31729301 [PubMed - as s...
Source: Current Neuropharmacology - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Tags: Curr Neuropharmacol Source Type: research

Related Links:

CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest a relationship between the risk of cardiovascular disease and the duration and overall severity of schizophrenia and also highlights the role of antipsychotics in this relationship. PMID: 31801314 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Psychiatry Investigation - Category: Psychiatry Tags: Psychiatry Investig Source Type: research
Authors: Pershad Y, Guo M, Altman RB Abstract One in five Americans experience mental illness, and roughly 75% of psychiatric prescriptions do not successfully treat the patient's condition. Extensive evidence implicates genetic factors and signaling disruption in the pathophysiology of these diseases. Changes in transcription often underlie this molecular pathway dysregulation; individual patient transcriptional data can improve the efficacy of diagnosis and treatment. Recent large-scale genomic studies have uncovered shared genetic modules across multiple psychiatric disorders - providing an opportunity for an in...
Source: Pacific Symposium on Biocomputing - Category: Bioinformatics Tags: Pac Symp Biocomput Source Type: research
Scientists from 22 institutions, including UCLA, are recommending early diagnosis, prevention and treatment of severe chronic inflammation to reduce the risk of chronic disease and death worldwide.The group of international experts, which also includes scientists from the National Institutes of Health, Stanford University, Harvard Medical School, Columbia University Medical Center and University College London, point to inflammation-related diseases as the cause of 50 percent of all deaths worldwide.Inflammation is a naturally occurring response by the body ’s immune system that helps fight illness and infection. Whe...
Source: UCLA Newsroom: Health Sciences - Category: Universities & Medical Training Source Type: news
We all love and look forward to the holidays, but even good things can be stressful.  Listen in as our guest, PsychCentral.com’s founder, Dr. John Grohol, tells us how to avoid overindulging this year, how to handle the extra work burdens of the season, and how to deal with that annoying relative. SUBSCRIBE &REVIEW Guest information for ‘Holiday Coping’ Podcast Episode John M. Grohol, Psy.D. is a pioneer in online mental health and psychology. Recognizing the educational and social potential of the Internet in 1995, Dr. Grohol has transformed the way people could access mental health and psyc...
Source: World of Psychology - Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Tags: Family General Holiday Coping Interview LifeHelper Podcast Relationships Stress The Psych Central Show Source Type: blogs
AbstractAccumulating studies have implicated intracellular signaling through muscarinic acetylcholine receptors (mAChRs) in psychiatric illness. In the present study, carbamylcholine chloride (carbachol)-induced G αi/o and G αq/11 activation was identified in postmortem human prefrontal cortical membranes. The following two sample cohorts were used: subjects [1], consisting of 40 controls without neuropsychiatric disorders, and subjects [2], consisting of 20 with bipolar disorder (BP), 20 major depressive disorder (MDD), 20 schizophrenia, and 20 controls, strictly sex- and age-matched. Carbachol-stimulated [35S...
Source: European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience - Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research
Am I an Alcoholic? Alcoholism (also known as Alcohol Use Disorder, or AUD) is a chronic, relapsing disease affecting millions of individuals in the United States. According to the 2017 National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH), 51 percent of the population aged 12 and older reported binge drinking in the past month. More than 14 million individuals aged 12 and older were suffering from alcoholism. And each year, more than 2,200 individuals die due to alcohol poisoning. Many may come to wonder, “Am I an alcoholic?” What Causes Alcoholism? Some individuals are more prone to alcoholism than others. Alcoholism...
Source: Cliffside Malibu - Category: Addiction Authors: Tags: Alcohol Alcoholism alcohol abuse alcohol treatment alcohol treatment center alcohol treatment facility alcoholic alcoholic behavior alcoholics Source Type: blogs
Highly selective, positive allosteric modulators (PAMs) of the M1 subtype of muscarinic acetylcholine receptor have emerged as an exciting new approach to potentially improve cognitive function in patients suffering from Alzheimer’s disease and schizophrenia. Discovery programs have produced a structurally diverse range of M1 receptor PAMs with distinct pharmacological properties, including different extents of agonist activity and differences in signal bias. This includes biased M1 receptor PAMs that can potentiate coupling of the receptor to activation of phospholipase C (PLC) but not phospholipase D (PLD). However...
Source: Signal Transduction Knowledge Environment - Category: Science Authors: Tags: STKE Research Articles Source Type: news
Abstract Sex is a critical factor in the diagnosis and development of a number of mental health disorders including autism, schizophrenia, depression, anxiety, Parkinson's disease, multiple sclerosis, anorexia nervosa and others; likely due to differences in sex steroid hormones and genetics. Recent evidence suggests that sex can also influence the complexity and diversity of microbes that we harbour in our gut; and reciprocally that our gut microbes can directly and indirectly influence sex steroid hormones and central gene activation. There is a growing emphasis on the role of gastrointestinal microbiota in the ...
Source: Frontiers in Neuroendocrinology - Category: Endocrinology Authors: Tags: Front Neuroendocrinol Source Type: research
CONCLUSIONS: The male fetal-placental unit appears to be more sensitive to maternal inflammation than females. Effects are particularly marked on cerebral inhibition. Deficits in cerebral inhibition 1 month after birth, similar to those observed in several mental illnesses, including schizophrenia, indicate fetal developmental pathways that may lead to later mental illness. Deficits in early infant behavior follow. Early intervention before birth, including prenatal vitamins, folate, and choline supplements, may help prevent fetal development of pathophysiological deficits that can have life-long consequences for mental he...
Source: Psychological Medicine - Category: Psychiatry Authors: Tags: Psychol Med Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 30 November 2019Source: NeuroscienceAuthor(s): Kai Ma, Jintai Yu, Wei Shao, Xijia Xu, Zhiqiang Zhang, Daoqiang ZhangAbstractPsychopath and neuropath often exhibit similar symptoms in clinical functional performances. However, few studies ever demonstrate the existence of overlapped brain functional mechanism between neurological and psychiatric disorders. Accordingly, in this paper, we have made an attempt to verify the existence of functional overlaps among neurological and psychiatric disorders through brain network analysis. Specifically, our findings suggest that functional overlaps e...
Source: Neuroscience - Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research
More News: Brain | Depression | Drugs & Pharmacology | Neurology | Schizophrenia