How T'reg-ulate healing of the injured spinal cord?

How T'reg-ulate healing of the injured spinal cord? Immunology. 2019 Dec;158(4):253-254 Authors: Milling S, Edgar JM Abstract Regulatory T cells (Tregs) are important for limiting inflammation-dependent damage in neural tissue. However, Tregs have also been shown to inhibit neural repair associated with type 2 (anti-inflammatory/wound healing) immune responses. Recently, it was demonstrated that Sirtuins, a family of proteins that contribute to the control of cellular responses to metabolic stimuli, influence the functions of Tregs. Specifically, SIRT4 was found to suppress the anti-neuroinflammatory activity of Tregs infiltrating the spinal cord following injury; when SIRT4 expression was genetically suppressed, Tregs made more anti-inflammatory factors, IL-10, FoxP3, and transforming growth factor beta (TGFβ). Thus, understanding how the SIRT4-Treg pathway can be manipulated could provide useful avenues to control both pathogenic and neuroprotective immune responses. PMID: 31729761 [PubMed - in process]
Source: Immunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Tags: Immunology Source Type: research

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This study mainly explored the mechanism of TRPC5 gene in the treatment of spinal cord ischemia reperfusion injury from the perspective of angiogenesis. Western blot, immunohistochemistry, hematoxylin and eosin, ELISA, and reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) were used to detect the expression levels of related angiogenic proteins such as von Willebrend factor (vWF), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), CD31, and HIF-1α. The results showed that compared with the IR group, the Basso, Beattie, and Bresnahan scores of IR + adeno-associated virus (AAV) + TRPC5 group were higher with significant difference. And compar...
Source: NeuroReport - Category: Neurology Tags: Cellular, Molecular and Developmental Neuroscience Source Type: research
Axon regeneration failure causes neurological deficits and long-term disability after spinal cord injury (SCI). Here, we found that the α2δ2 subunit of voltage-gated calcium channels negatively regulates axon growth and regeneration of corticospinal neurons, the cells that originate the corticospinal tract. Increased α2δ2 expression in corticospinal neurons contributed to loss of corticospinal regrowth ability during postnatal development and after SCI. In contrast, α2δ2 pharmacological blockade through gabapentin administration promoted corticospinal structural plasticity and regenerati...
Source: Journal of Clinical Investigation - Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Source Type: research
Introduction - Minimal invasive segmental artery occlusion (MISAO) has been clinically introduced as an entirely endovascular approach to stage the segmental artery (SA) sacrifice in several sessions prior to total endovascular repair (ER) of thoraco-abdominal aortic aneurysm (TAAA) and thereby reduce ischemic spinal cord injury (iSCI) (1,2). The aim of our study was to report on our initial clinical experience and the SCI rates after MISAO and endovascular repair of TAAA.
Source: European Journal of Vascular and Endovascular Surgery - Category: Surgery Authors: Source Type: research
In this study, the neuroprotective potential of Spirulina platensis was investigated on ultrastructural and functional recovery of the spinal cord following surgical-induced injury. Twenty-four Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into three groups; sham group, control (trauma) group, and experimental (S. platensis) group (180 mg/kg) of eight rats each. For each group, the rats were then subdivided into two groups to allow measurement at two different timepoints (day 14 and 28) for the microscopic analysis. Rats in the control and experimental S. platensis groups were subjected to partial crush injury at the level of T12 with ...
Source: Ultrastructural Pathology - Category: Pathology Authors: Tags: Ultrastruct Pathol Source Type: research
AbstractRegenerative medicine is a branch of translational research that aims to reestablish irreparably damaged tissues and organs by stimulating the body ’s own repair mechanismsvia the implantation of stem cells differentiated into specialized cell types. A rich source of adult stem cells is located inside the tooth and is represented by human dental pulp stem cells, or hDPSCs. These cells are characterized by a high proliferative rate, have self-renewal and multi-lineage differentiation properties and are often used for tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. The present review will provide an overview of h...
Source: Cell and Tissue Research - Category: Cytology Source Type: research
Abstract The incidence of spinal cord injury (SCI) continues to increase; however, the involved mechanisms remain unclear. Anaphase promoting complex (APC) and its regulatory subunit Cdh1 play important roles in the growth, development, and repair of the central nervous system (CNS). Cdh1 is involved in the pathophysiological processes of neuronal apoptosis and astrocyte-reactive proliferation after ischemic brain injury, whereas the role played by APC-Cdh1 in the proliferation and activation of oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPCs) after SCI remains unresolved. Using primary cultures of spinal oligodendrocyte pr...
Source: Biomed Res - Category: Research Authors: Tags: Biomed Res Int Source Type: research
ConclusionsOpen repair DTAA using partial cardiopulmonary bypass showed operative outcomes comparable to TEVAR and lower reintervention rates, and thus remains an acceptable procedure for selected patients in this era of endovascular repair.
Source: General Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery - Category: Cardiovascular & Thoracic Surgery Source Type: research
In conclusion, our results show the involvement of TLR4 in the process of synaptic remodeling, indicating a new target for future research aimed at developing therapies for CNS and SNP repair. PMID: 31756421 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - Category: Neurology Authors: Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research
Abstract Olfactory ensheathing cells (OECs), the glial cells of the primary olfactory nervous system, support the natural regeneration of the olfactory nerve that occurs throughout life. OECs thus exhibit unique properties supporting neuronal survival and growth. Transplantation of OECs is emerging as a promising treatment for spinal cord injury; however, outcomes in both animals and humans are variable and the method needs improvement and standardization. A major reason for the discrepancy in functional outcomes is the variability in survival and integration of the transplanted cells, key factors for successful s...
Source: Cell Transplantation - Category: Cytology Authors: Tags: Cell Transplant Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 9 November 2019Source: Neuroscience LettersAuthor(s): Seung-Dam Heo, Jeongtae Kim, Yuna Choi, Poornima Ekanayake, Meejung Ahn, Taekyun ShinAbstractSpinal cord injury (SCI) is associated with inflammation with concurrent oxidative stress and glial activation. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether hesperidin, a representative flavonoid in citrus fruits, ameliorates SCI-induced motor dysfunction and neuro-pathologic degeneration in rat model. Rats received hesperidin (100 mg/kg body weight/daily, oral administration) from 7 days prior to SCI to 7 days post SCI. Behavioral test...
Source: Neuroscience Letters - Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research
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