Regulation of Barrier Immunity and Homoeostasis by Integrin-Mediated TGF β activation.
Regulation of Barrier Immunity and Homoeostasis by Integrin-Mediated TGFβ activation. Immunology. 2019 Dec 02;: Authors: McEntee CP, Gunaltay S, Travis MA Abstract Transforming growth factor beta (TGFβ) is a multifunctional cytokine that regulates cell growth, differentiation, adhesion, migration and death dependent on cell type, developmental stage, or tissue conditions. Various cell types secrete TGFβ, but always as an inactive complex. Thus, for TGFβ to function, this latent complex must somehow be activated. Work in recent years has highlighted a critical role for members of th...
Source: Immunology - December 2, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: McEntee CP, Gunaltay S, Travis MA Tags: Immunology Source Type: research

The IFITM protein family in adaptive immunity.
ton T Abstract The family of interferon-inducible transmembrane (IFITM) proteins are small homologous proteins, localised in the plasma and endolysosomal membranes, which confer cellular resistance to many viruses. In addition, several distinct functions have been associated with different IFITM family members, including germ cell specification (IFITM1-IFITM3), osteoblast function and bone mineralisation (IFITM5) and immune functions (IFITM1-3, IFITM6). IFITM1-3 are expressed by T cells and recent experiments have shown that the IFITM proteins are directly involved in adaptive immunity and that they regulate CD4+ ...
Source: Immunology - December 2, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Yánez DC, Ross S, Crompton T Tags: Immunology Source Type: research

How T'reg-ulate healing of the injured spinal cord?
Abstract Regulatory T cells (Tregs) are important for limiting inflammation-dependent damage in neural tissue. However, Tregs have also been shown to inhibit neural repair associated with type 2 (anti-inflammatory/wound healing) immune responses. Recently, it was demonstrated that Sirtuins, a family of proteins that contribute to the control of cellular responses to metabolic stimuli, influence the functions of Tregs. Specifically, SIRT4 was found to suppress the anti-neuroinflammatory activity of Tregs infiltrating the spinal cord following injury; when SIRT4 expression was genetically suppressed, Tregs made more...
Source: Immunology - November 16, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Milling S, Edgar JM Tags: Immunology Source Type: research

Origin and Ontogeny of Lung Macrophages: From Mice to Humans.
Abstract Macrophages are tissue-resident myeloid cells with essential roles in host defense, tissue repair, and organ homeostasis. The lung harbors a large number of macrophages that reside in alveoli. Due to their strategic location, alveolar macrophages are critical sentinels of healthy lung function and barrier immunity. They phagocytose inhaled material and initiate protective immune responses to pathogens, while preventing excessive inflammatory responses and tissue damage. Apart from alveolar macrophages, other macrophage populations are found in the lung and recent single-cell RNA-sequencing studies indicat...
Source: Immunology - November 12, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Evren E, Ringqvist E, Willinger T Tags: Immunology Source Type: research

Skin Barrier Immunity and Ageing.
Abstract The skin is the outermost layer of the body with an extensive surface area of approximately 1.8 m2 , is the first line of defence against a multitude of external pathogens and environmental insults. The skin also has important homeostatic functions such as reducing water loss and contributing to thermoregulation of the body. The structure of the skin and cellular composition work in harmony to prevent infection, deal with physical and chemical challenges from the outside World. In this review we discuss how the structural cells such as keratinocytes, fibroblasts and adipocytes contribute to barrier immuni...
Source: Immunology - November 11, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Chambers ES, Vukmanovic-Stejic M Tags: Immunology Source Type: research

Ectopic germline recombination activity of the widely-used Foxp3-YFP-Cre mouse: a case-report.
Abstract Regulatory T cell (Treg)-specific deletion of a gene of interest is a procedure widely used to study mechanisms controlling Treg development, homeostasis and function. Accordingly, several transgenic mouse lines have been generated that bear the Cre-recombinase under control of the Foxp3 promoter either as a random transgene insertion or knocked into the endogenous Foxp3 locus, with the Foxp3YFP-Cre strain of mice being one of the most widely used. In an attempt to generate Tregs which lacked expression of the insulin receptor (Insr), we crossed Foxp3YFP-Cre mice to Insrfl/fl mice. Using a conventional tw...
Source: Immunology - November 11, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Wu D, Huang Q, Orban PC, Levings MK Tags: Immunology Source Type: research

Body fluid from the parasitic worm Ascaris suum inhibits broad-acting pro-inflammatory programs in dendritic cells.
Abstract Dendritic cells (DCs) are essential for generating T cell-based immune responses via sensing of potential inflammatory and metabolic cues in the local environment. However, there is still limited insight into the processes defining the end DC phenotype, including the type of early transcriptional changes in pro-inflammatory cues towards regulatory or type 2 immune-based cues induced by a variety of exogenous and endogenous molecules. Here, we compared the ability of a selected number of molecules to modulate the pro-inflammatory phenotype of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and interferon-gamma (IFN-γ)-stim...
Source: Immunology - November 9, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Arora P, Moll JM, Andersen D, Workman CT, Williams AR, Kristiansen K, Brix S Tags: Immunology Source Type: research

USP7 Small-molecule Inhibitors Enhance Type I-Interferon Antiviral Efficacy by Destabilizing SOCS1.
In this study, we report that the deubiquitinase USP7 negatively regulates IFN-I-mediated antiviral activity. USP7 physically interacts with SOCS1 and enhances SOCS1 protein stability by deubiquitination effects, which in turn restricts IFN-I-induced activation of JAK-STAT1 signaling. Interestingly, viral infection upregulates USP7 and therefore facilitates viral immune evasion. Importantly, USP7 small-molecule inhibitors, P5091 and P22077, inhibit SOCS1 expression and enhance IFN-I antiviral efficacy. Our findings identify a novel regulator of IFN-I antiviral activity, and reveal that USP7 inhibitors could be potential en...
Source: Immunology - November 5, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Yuan Y, Miao Y, Zeng C, Liu J, Chen X, Qian L, Wang X, Qian F, Yu Z, Wang J, Qian G, Fu Q, Lv H, Zheng H Tags: Immunology Source Type: research

Actin polymerization regulates recruitment of Nck to CD3 ε upon T cell receptor triggering.
Actin polymerization regulates recruitment of Nck to CD3ε upon T cell receptor triggering. Immunology. 2019 Nov 01;: Authors: Wipa P, Paensuwan P, Ngoenkam J, Woessner NM, Minguet S, Schamel WW, Pongcharoen S Abstract Following T cell antigen receptor (TCR) engagement, rearrangement of the actin cytoskeleton supports intracellular signal transduction and T cell activation. The non-catalytic region of tyrosine kinase (Nck) molecule is an adapter protein implicated in TCR-induced actin polymerization. Further, Nck is recruited to the CD3ε subunit of the TCR upon TCR triggering. Here we e...
Source: Immunology - November 1, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Wipa P, Paensuwan P, Ngoenkam J, Woessner NM, Minguet S, Schamel WW, Pongcharoen S Tags: Immunology Source Type: research

T cell addiction: can pathogenic T cells be controlled using dopamine receptors?
Abstract Crosstalk between the immune system and the nervous system, via neurotransmitters such as dopamine, is increasingly of interest as we begin to learn how lymphocytes in peripheral tissues can both produce and respond to these molecules. This crosstalk can modulate immune responses by influencing the local tissue environment and can, for instance, influence the activation status and migration of T cells. Immune cells also use neurotransmitters to communicate with each other. Understanding how neurotransmitters influence the immune system may provide novel approaches for targeting diseases associated with ti...
Source: Immunology - October 20, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Bain KA, Milling S Tags: Immunology Source Type: research

The immunoglobulin γ marker 17 allotype and KIR/HLA genes prevent the development of chronic hepatitis B in humans.
The immunoglobulin γ marker 17 allotype and KIR/HLA genes prevent the development of chronic hepatitis B in humans. Immunology. 2019 Oct 15;: Authors: Di Bona D, Pandey JP, Aiello A, Bilancia M, Candore G, Caruso C, Colomba C, Duro G, Ligotti ME, Macchia L, Rizzo S, Accardi G Abstract Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection causes a self-limiting disease in most individuals. However,
Source: Immunology - October 15, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Di Bona D, Pandey JP, Aiello A, Bilancia M, Candore G, Caruso C, Colomba C, Duro G, Ligotti ME, Macchia L, Rizzo S, Accardi G Tags: Immunology Source Type: research

The Immunosuppressive Functions of Two Novel Tick serpins, HlSerpin-a and HlSerpin-b, from Haemaphysalis longicornis.
In this study, we reported the cloning and functional characterizations of two novel serpin genes, HlSerpin-a and HlSerpin-b, from the hard tick Haemaphysalis longicornis of China. Recombinant HlSerpin-a and HlSerpin-b displayed protease inhibitory activities against multiple mammalian proteases. Similar to other tick serpins, HlSerpin-a and HlSerpin-b suppressed the expression of inflammatory cytokines such as TNF-α, IL6 and IL-1β from LPS stimulated mouse bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDMs) or mouse bone marrow-derived dendritic cells (BMDCs). The minimum active region (Reaction Centre Loop) of HlSerpin-a,...
Source: Immunology - October 13, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Wang F, Song Z, Chen J, Wu Q, Zhou X, Ni X, Dai J Tags: Immunology Source Type: research

Myeloid HIF-1 α regulates pulmonary inflammation during experimental Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection.
Myeloid HIF-1α regulates pulmonary inflammation during experimental Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection. Immunology. 2019 Oct 13;: Authors: Resende M, Ferreira CM, Barbosa AM, Cardoso MS, Sousa J, Saraiva M, Castro AG, Appelberg R, Torrado E Abstract The transcription factor hypoxia inducible factor-1 alpha (HIF-1α) is as key regulator of the response and function of myeloid cells in hypoxic and inflammatory microenvironments. To define the role of HIF-1α in tuberculosis, the progression of aerosol Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection was analyzed in mice deficient in HIF-1&alp...
Source: Immunology - October 13, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Resende M, Ferreira CM, Barbosa AM, Cardoso MS, Sousa J, Saraiva M, Castro AG, Appelberg R, Torrado E Tags: Immunology Source Type: research

Zoledronate rescues immunosuppressed monocytes in sepsis patients.
Abstract Severe sepsis is often accompanied by a transient immune paralysis, which is associated with enhanced susceptibility to secondary infections and poor clinical outcomes. The functional impairment of antigen-presenting cells is considered to be a major hallmark of this septic immunosuppression, with reduced HLA-DR expression on circulating monocytes serving as predictor of mortality. Unconventional lymphocytes like γδ T cells have the potential to restore immune defects in a variety of pathologies including cancer but their use to rescue sepsis-induced immunosuppression has not been investigated...
Source: Immunology - October 13, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Raffray L, Burton RJ, Baker SE, Morgan MP, Eberl M Tags: Immunology Source Type: research

Tailoring subtractive cell biopanning to identify diffuse gastric adenocarcinoma-associated antigens via human scFv antibodies.
Abstract Among various solid tumors, gastric cancer (GC) is one of the leading causes of cancer-related deaths worldwide. Expansion into peritoneal cavity which results from dissemination of diffuse cancer cells is the main cause of mortality in gastric adenocarcinoma patients. Therefore, investigation of putative biomarkers involved in metastasis is prerequisite for GC management. In an effort to discover potential tumor markers associated with peritoneal metastasis of GC, a semi-synthetic human scFv library (Tomlinson I) was used to isolate novel antibody fragments recognizing MKN-45, a poorly differentiated dif...
Source: Immunology - October 9, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Mehdipour T, Tohidkia MR, Ata Saei A, Kazemi A, Khajeh S, Rahim Rahimi AA, Nikfarjam S, Farhadi M, Halimi M, Soleimani R, Zubarev RA, Nouri M Tags: Immunology Source Type: research

Are there differences in immune responses following delivery of vaccines through acutely or chronically sun-exposed compared with sun-unexposed skin?
Abstract The majority of human vaccines are administered above the deltoid muscle of the arm, a site which is chronically sun-exposed in many people. It is known that exposure of the skin to the UV wavelengths in sunlight stimulates systemic immunosuppression, an outcome which is associated with reduced immunity to microbial infections in animal models. Here we consider whether immunisation of humans through a UV-irradiated skin site will lead to a less effective immune response compared with immunisation through an unexposed site. Studies showing that the efficacy of vaccination can be reduced when surrogates of ...
Source: Immunology - October 8, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Hart PH, Norval M Tags: Immunology Source Type: research

Blockage of immune checkpoint molecules increases T cell priming potential of dendritic cell vaccine.
In this study, we silenced the expression of PD-L1 in DCs and PD-1 in T cells by siRNA-loaded chitosan-dextran sulfate nanoparticles (NPs) and evaluated the DC phenotypic and functional characteristics and T cells functions following tumor antigen recognition on DCs, ex vivo. Our results showed that synthesized NPs had good physicochemical characteristics (size of 77.5 nm and zeta potential of 14.3) that was associated with efficient cellular uptake and target gene silencing. Moreover, PD-L1 silencing was associated with stimulatory characteristics of DCs. On the other hand, presentation of tumor antigens by PD-L1 negative...
Source: Immunology - October 6, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Hassannia H, Ghasemi Chaleshtari M, Atyabi F, Nosouhian M, Masjedi A, Hojjat-Farsangi M, Namdar A, Azizi G, Mohammadi H, Ghalamfarsa G, Sabz G, Hasanzadeh S, Yousefi M, Jadidi-Niaragh F Tags: Immunology Source Type: research

Monocyte isolation techniques significantly impact the phenotype of both isolated monocytes and derived macrophages in vitro.
er HJ Abstract Monocyte-derived macrophages (MDMs) generated from peripheral blood monocytes are widely used to model human macrophages for in vitro studies. However, the possible impact of different isolation methods on the resulting MDM phenotype is poorly described. We aimed to investigate the effects of three commonly used monocyte isolation techniques on resulting MDM phenotype. Plastic adhesion, negative selection, and CD14pos selection was compared. MDMs were generated by 5 days culture with M-CSF and GM-CSF. We investigated monocyte and MDM yields, purity, viability, and cell phenotype. CD14pos selection r...
Source: Immunology - October 1, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Nielsen MC, Andersen MN, Møller HJ Tags: Immunology Source Type: research

High levels of serum glycans monovalent IgG immune complexes detected by dissociative ELISA in experimental visceral leishmaniasis.
de HF Abstract Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is epidemic in Brazil with an increasing incidence of human cases and canine reservoirs, with host hypergammaglobulinemia. Conventional enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (cELISA) based on several parasitic antigens is the main method for diagnosis and indication of treatment. Dissociative ELISA (dELISA) uses acidic treatment to free immunoglobulin G (IgG) from immune complexes, and its use revealed a significant positive fraction of suspected cases with negative serology. Looking for small molecules or haptens that block IgG antibodies, we purified by molecular exclusion ...
Source: Immunology - October 1, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: de Carvalho CA, Ferrão TF, de Freitas FRN, de Andrade HF Tags: Immunology Source Type: research

An agonistic anti-Toll-like receptor 4 monoclonal antibody as an effective adjuvant for cancer immunotherapy.
In conclusion, the agonistic anti-TLR4 mAb induces potent CD8 T-cell-dependent antitumour immunity and an inflammatory response of lesser magnitude than does LPS. The agonistic anti-TLR4 mAb has potential as an adjuvant for use in vaccines against cancer. PMID: 31515801 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Immunology)
Source: Immunology - September 15, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Tsukamoto H, Kubota K, Shichiku A, Maekawa M, Mano N, Yagita H, Ohta S, Tomioka Y Tags: Immunology Source Type: research

Sophisticated specificity in the innate immune response.
Abstract Immunologists are sometimes guilty of describing the innate immune response as 'non-specific'. What we really mean is that the pattern recognition receptors of innate immune cells are not able to recombine and mutate to bind the spectacular range of molecular patterns that can be recognised by B and T cells. So, while it may be accurate to describe the innate immune response as less specific than adaptive immunity, even this belies the emerging complexity of the receptors and receptor complexes that control inflammatory responses. This complexity is necessary to recognise danger, and therefore successfull...
Source: Immunology - September 15, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Milling S Tags: Immunology Source Type: research

Helios: Still Behind the Clouds.
Abstract T Regulatory (Treg) cells are a subset of CD4+ T cells that are critical for the maintenance of self-tolerance. The forkhead box transcription factor Foxp3 is a master regulator for the Treg phenotype and function and its expression is essential in Treg cells, as the loss of Foxp3 results in lethal autoimmunity. Two major subsets of Treg cells have been described in vivo; thymic-derived Treg cells (tTreg) that develop in the thymus and peripherally induced Treg cells (pTreg) that are derived from conventional CD4+ Foxp3- T cells and are converted in peripheral tissues to cells that express Foxp3 and acqui...
Source: Immunology - September 13, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Thornton AM, Shevach EM Tags: Immunology Source Type: research

The IL-13/ OVOL1/FLG axis in atopic dermatitis.
Abstract Despite sharing IL-4Rα in their signaling cascades, IL-4 and IL-13 have different functions in atopic inflammation. IL-13 preferentially participates in the peripheral tissues because tissue-resident group 2 innate lymphoid cells produce IL-13 but not IL-4. In contrast, lymph node T follicular helper cells express IL-4 but not IL-13 to regulate B cell immunity. The dominant microenvironment of IL-13 is evident in the lesional skin of atopic dermatitis (AD). The IL-13-rich local milieu causes barrier dysfunction by downregulating the OVOL1-filaggrin (FLG) axis and upregulating the periostin-IL-24 axi...
Source: Immunology - September 11, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Furue K, Ito T, Tsuji G, Ulzii D, Vu YH, Kido-Nakahara M, Nakahara T, Furue M Tags: Immunology Source Type: research

Forkhead transcription factor FOXO3a mediates IFN- γ induced MHC II transcription in macrophages.
In conclusion, our data unveil a novel role for FOXO3a in the regulation of MHC II transcription in macrophages. PMID: 31509237 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Immunology)
Source: Immunology - September 11, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Wu X, Fan Z, Chen M, Chen Y, Rong D, Cui Z, Yuan Y, Zhuo L, Xu Y Tags: Immunology Source Type: research

Intestinal epithelial cells: at the interface of the microbiota and mucosal immunity.
Abstract The intestinal epithelium forms a barrier between the microbiota and the rest of the body. In addition, beyond acting as a physical barrier, the function of intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) in sensing and responding to microbial signals is increasingly appreciated and likely has numerous implications for the vast network of immune cells within and below the intestinal epithelium. IECs also respond to factors produced by immune cells, and these can regulate IEC barrier function, proliferation and differentiation as well as influence the composition of the microbiota. The mechanisms involved in IEC-microb...
Source: Immunology - September 11, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Soderholm AT, Pedicord VA Tags: Immunology Source Type: research

Tolerogenic Dendritic Cell Transfer Ameliorates Systemic Lupus Erythematosus in Mice.
In conclusion, these results suggest that the transfer of histone-loaded tolDCs could improve only some SLE symptoms and reduced anti-nuclear antibodies. This is the first study to evaluate antigen-specific tolDCs administration to treat SLE. Our report strengthens the clinical relevance of tolDCs generation with CoPP, dexamethasone and rosiglitazone and the use of these modified cells as a therapy for systemic autoimmunity. PMID: 31509246 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Immunology)
Source: Immunology - September 11, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Funes SC, Ríos M, Gómez-Santander F, Fernández-Fierro A, Altamirano-Lagos MJ, Rivera-Perez D, Pulgar-Sepúlveda R, Jara EL, Rebolledo-Zelada D, Villarroel A, Roa JC, Mackern-Oberti JP, Kalergis AM Tags: Immunology Source Type: research

Cancer immune escape: MHC expression in primary tumours versus metastases.
This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. PMID: 31509607 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Immunology)
Source: Immunology - September 11, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Garrido F, Aptsiauri N Tags: Immunology Source Type: research

Recognition of the microbiota by Nod2 contributes to the oral adjuvant activity of cholera toxin through the induction of interleukin-1 β.
In this study, we examined the role of the microbiota in the adjuvant activity of CT induced after oral immunization with antigen. Germ-free (GF) mice showed impaired production of antibody responses and T-cell-specific cytokines after oral immunization when compared with that observed in conventionally raised mice. Similar to GF mice, Nod2-deficient mice showed reduced humoral responses upon oral immunization with antigen and CT. Treatment with CT enhanced the production of interleukin-1β (IL-1β), but not tumor necrosis factor-α or IL-12p40, induced by stimulation of dendritic cells with muramyl dipeptide,...
Source: Immunology - September 2, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Kim D, Kim YM, Kim WU, Park JH, Núñez G, Seo SU Tags: Immunology Source Type: research

Upregulation of PD-1 follows tumour development in the AOM/DSS model of inflammation-induced colorectal cancer in mice.
In this study, we investigated the expression of different systemic and mucosal T-cell subsets during the course of azoxymethane (AOM)/dextran sulphate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis and colitis-associated CRC. In addition, we examined the expression of PD-1 and its ligands PD-L1 and PD-L2 as well as other molecular targets related to T-cell exhaustion. We found a significant increase in PD-1 expression on all examined mucosal T-cell subsets of the colon and the ileum, which correlated with disease progression. We also observed an upregulation of PD-L1 and PD-L2 mRNA expression throughout the AOM/DSS regime. Blocking PD-1 si...
Source: Immunology - August 21, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Yassin M, Sadowska Z, Djurhuus D, Nielsen B, Tougaard P, Olsen J, Pedersen AE Tags: Immunology Source Type: research

Adipokines and the control of mast cell functions: from obesity to inflammation?
Abstract Adipokines are peptide mediators produced by fat cells in adipose tissue that exert a powerful influence on many body systems, including the immune system. Leptin and adiponectin are among the best known of these molecules and have been shown to affect the functions of, for instance, dendritic cells, neutrophils, and innate lymphoid cells. Here we present the results of a new study that describes the effects of leptin and adiponectin on mast cells, a cell type which plays an important role in controlling inflammatory responses. This provides an improved understanding of how obesity may contribute to chron...
Source: Immunology - August 21, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Milling S Tags: Immunology Source Type: research

Bacterial Type I CRISPR-Cas systems influence inflammasome activation in mammalian host by promoting autophagy.
This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. PMID: 31429483 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Immunology)
Source: Immunology - August 20, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Wu Q, Wang B, Zhou C, Lin P, Qin S, Gao P, Wang Z, Xia Z, Wu M Tags: Immunology Source Type: research

Instantaneous depolarization of T cells via dopamine receptors, and inhibition of activated T cells of Psoriasis patients and inflamed human skin, by D1-like receptor agonist: Fenoldopam.
This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. PMID: 31424569 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Immunology)
Source: Immunology - August 19, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Keren A, Gilhar A, Ullmann Y, Zlotkin-Frušić M, Soroka Y, Domb AJ, Levite M Tags: Immunology Source Type: research

Immune evasion by Salmonella: Exploiting the VPAC1/VIP axis in human monocytes.
Abstract Immune evasion is a critical survival mechanism for bacterial colonization of deeper tissues and may lead to life-threatening conditions such as endotoxemia and sepsis. Understanding these immune evasion pathways would be an important step for the development of novel anti-microbial therapeutics. Here, we report a hitherto unknown mechanisms by which Salmonella exploits an anti-inflammatory pathway in human immune cells to obtain survival advantage. We show that Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium strain 4/74 significantly (P
Source: Immunology - August 13, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Askar B, Higgins J, Barrow P, Foster N Tags: Immunology Source Type: research

The role of CCR1 and therapeutic effects of anti-CCL3 antibody in Herpes Simplex Virus-induced Beh çet's disease mouse model.
This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. PMID: 31393598 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Immunology)
Source: Immunology - August 8, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Sayeed HM, Lee ES, Byun HO, Sohn S Tags: Immunology Source Type: research

Using monoclonal antibodies to investigate molecular immunology: there's more to know!
Abstract The study of cellular and molecular immunology is almost completely dependent on monoclonal antibody technology. Despite the relatively long history of monoclonal antibodies, there is still huge potential for developing novel and transformative uses for this technology. In this issue of Immunology, we present two such papers, one focussing on anti-complement (C5) antibodies, the other on anti-CD6-specific antibodies. Both manuscripts describe novel ways that monoclonal antibodies may be used for scientific and potentially for therapeutic benefit. PMID: 31291693 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Immunology)
Source: Immunology - July 12, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Milling S Tags: Immunology Source Type: research

The next five years for Immunology.
PMID: 31225652 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Immunology)
Source: Immunology - June 22, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Milling S Tags: Immunology Source Type: research

Regulatory T cells in cancer: where are we now?
Abstract There have been substantial strides forward in our understanding of the contribution of regulatory T (Treg) cells to cancer immunosuppression. In this issue, we present a series of papers highlighting emerging themes on this topic relevant not only to our understanding of the fundamental biology of tumour immunosuppression but also to the design of new immunotherapeutic approaches. The substantially shared biology of CD4+ conventional T (Tconv) and Treg cells necessitates a detailed understanding of the potentially opposing functional consequences that immunotherapies will have on Treg and Tconv cells, a ...
Source: Immunology - June 22, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Gallimore A, Quezada SA, Roychoudhuri R Tags: Immunology Source Type: research

Adipocytokines leptin and adiponectin function as mast cell activity modulators.
This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. PMID: 31220342 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Immunology)
Source: Immunology - June 20, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Żelechowska P, Brzezińska-Błaszczyk E, Wiktorska M, Różalska S, Wawrocki S, Kozłowska E, Agier J Tags: Immunology Source Type: research

Gut IgA abundance in adult life is a major determinant of resistance to DSS-colitis and can compensate for the effects of inadequate maternal IgA received by neonates.
This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. PMID: 31215020 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Immunology)
Source: Immunology - June 18, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Gupta S, Basu S, Bal V, Rath S, George A Tags: Immunology Source Type: research

In HIV primary infection, early cART reduced γδ T cell activation but failed to restore their polyfunctionality.
In conclusion, during primary HIV infection, the baseline Vδ1 T cell activation is correlated with immune reconstitution potential. Moreover, an altered γδ polyfunctional profile occurred, persisting also after cART. Further studies are needed to understand whether a longer treatment of primary infection may increase γδ T cell functionality. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. PMID: 31206171 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Immunology)
Source: Immunology - June 17, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Casetti R, Sacchi A, Bordoni V, Grassi G, Cimini E, Besi F, Pinnetti C, Mondi A, Antinori A, Agrati C Tags: Immunology Source Type: research

Domain-specific CD6 monoclonal antibodies identify CD6 isoforms generated by alternative-splicing.
This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. PMID: 31162836 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Immunology)
Source: Immunology - June 4, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Santos RF, Oliveira L, Brown MH, Carmo AM Tags: Immunology Source Type: research

Announcing our new Editor-in-Chief at Immunology.
PMID: 31106863 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Immunology)
Source: Immunology - May 22, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Fears CC Tags: Immunology Source Type: research

Obesity affects peripheral lymphoid organs immune response in murine asthma model.
This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. PMID: 31112301 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Immunology)
Source: Immunology - May 21, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: de Oliveira EE, de Castro E Silva FM, Ayupe MC, Ambrósio MGE, de Souza VP, Macedo GC, Ferreira AP Tags: Immunology Source Type: research

PI3K δ is a Treg target in cancer immunotherapy.
This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. PMID: 31107985 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Immunology)
Source: Immunology - May 20, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Lim EL, Okkenhaug K Tags: Immunology Source Type: research

Intratumoral regulatory T cells: markers, subsets and their impact on anti-tumor immunity.
This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. PMID: 31087644 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Immunology)
Source: Immunology - May 14, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Yano H, Andrews LP, Workman CJ, Vignali DAA Tags: Immunology Source Type: research

Chemerin partly mediates tumor-inhibitory effect of all-trans retinoic acid via CMKLR1-dependent NK cells recruitment.
This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. PMID: 31063220 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Immunology)
Source: Immunology - May 7, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Song Y, Yin W, Dan Y, Sheng J, Zeng Y, He R Tags: Immunology Source Type: research

Knowns and unknowns of tissue-resident memory T cells.
Abstract Advances in transcriptomics and other approaches are shedding considerable light on tissue-resident immune cells as distinct from recirculating cells. The advances encompass antigen-presenting cell subsets, Tregs and importantly, tissue-resident memory cells (TRM). What are the transcriptional programmes and functional properties that distinguish the requirements for an effective tissue resident cell in brain relative to lung, skin, adipose tissue or the genital tract? Another important conundrum has been the extent to which TRM cells are specialized either as a 'sense and alarm' population or as a local,...
Source: Immunology - April 14, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Altmann DM Tags: Immunology Source Type: research

Corrigendum.
Authors: PMID: 30977129 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Immunology)
Source: Immunology - April 14, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: Immunology Source Type: research

Erratum.
Authors: PMID: 30873602 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Immunology)
Source: Immunology - March 16, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: Immunology Source Type: research

'Just 17 if you know what I mean' … but what do we really mean to say about Th17 immunity?
'Just 17 if you know what I mean' … but what do we really mean to say about Th17 immunity? Immunology. 2019 Apr;156(4):297-298 Authors: Altmann DM Abstract Th17-derived IL-17 might be considered the archetypal pro-inflammatory cytokine of adaptive immunity, to be targeted by new therapeutics for alleviation of autoimmune and inflammatory disease. However, the IL-17 family of cytokines is produced by diverse innate and adaptive cells, including Th17, Tc17, ILC3, NK cells and γδ T-cells. These responses are appreciated to underpin diverse aspects of protective, physiological immunity,...
Source: Immunology - March 16, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Altmann DM Tags: Immunology Source Type: research