Chitosan nanoparticles release nimodipine in response to tissue acidosis to attenuate spreading depolarization evoked during forebrain ischemia.

Chitosan nanoparticles release nimodipine in response to tissue acidosis to attenuate spreading depolarization evoked during forebrain ischemia. Neuropharmacology. 2019 Nov 09;:107850 Authors: Tóth OM, Menyhárt Á, Varga VÉ, Hantosi D, Ivánkovits-Kiss O, Varga DP, Szabó Í, Janovák L, Dékány I, Farkas E, Bari F Abstract Stroke is an important cause of mortality and disability. Treatment options are limited, therefore the progress in this regard is urgently needed. Nimodipine, an L-type voltage-gated calcium channel antagonist dilates cerebral arterioles, but its systemic administration may cause potential side effects. We have previously constructed chitosan nanoparticles as drug carriers, which release nimodipine in response to decreasing pH typical of cerebral ischemia. Here we have set out to evaluate this nanomedical approach to deliver nimodipine selectively to acidic ischemic brain tissue. After washing a nanoparticle suspension with or without nimodipine (100 μM) on the exposed brain surface of anesthetized rats (n = 18), both common carotid arteries were occluded to create forebrain ischemia. Spreading depolarizations (SDs) were elicited by 1M KCl to deepen the ischemic insults. Local field potential, cerebral blood flow (CBF) and tissue pH were recorded from the cerebral cortex. Microglial activation and neuronal survival were evaluated in brain sections by immunocytoch...
Source: Neuropharmacology - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Tags: Neuropharmacology Source Type: research

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In this study, changes in the bio-impedance spectroscopy using a two-electrode method with varying frequencies from 100 to 35  kHz have been assessed in a model of global cerebral ischemia in anesthetized rats during normal, occlusion and reperfusion conditions. Global cerebral ischemia was induced by bilateral common carotid artery occlusion for 40  min following 40 min of reperfusion. The concentration of sodium, potassium, calcium and chloride ions in the whole rat brain was determined by electrolyte analyzer. For the interpretation of in vivo results, changes in electrical impedance with vary...
Source: Physiological Measurement - Category: Physiology Authors: Source Type: research
This meta-analysis pools individual patient data to estimate the association between receipt of general anesthesia vs procedural sedation and 3-month disability among patients with acute ischemic stroke undergoing mechanical thrombectomy from 3 randomized trials.
Source: JAMA - Category: General Medicine Source Type: research
Abstract Early recanalization of the closed cerebral arteries after acute ischemic stroke (AIS) is the only treatment to minimize long-term disability and to reduce the associated morbidity and mortality. For a long time the only proven causal treatment of AIS was intravenous thrombolysis; however, after the publication of a series of randomized prospective studies concerning endovascular mechanical thrombectomy using stent retriever systems after AIS, new guidelines were published. It was found that endovascular treatment (EVT) dramatically improves the outcome of eligible patients. The stent retriever ...
Source: Der Anaesthesist - Category: Anesthesiology Authors: Tags: Anaesthesist Source Type: research
Research led by a UCLA scientist found that a new nerve stimulation therapy to increase blood flow could help patients with the most common type of stroke up to 24 hours after onset.A study of 1,000 patients found evidence that the technique, called active nerve cell cluster stimulation, reduced the patients ’ degree of disability three months after they suffered an acute cortical ischemic stroke, which affects the surface of the brain.Dr. Jeffrey Saver, director of theUCLA Comprehensive Stroke Center, was the co-principal investigator of the study, which was conducted at 73 medical centers in 18 countries.“We ...
Source: UCLA Newsroom: Health Sciences - Category: Universities & Medical Training Source Type: news
Hongfei Gu1†, Shuang Shao2†, Jie Liu3,4,5, Zhenqian Fan2, Yu Chen2, Jingxian Ni3,4,5, Conglin Wang6, Jun Tu3,4,5, Xianjia Ning3,4,5, Yongzhong Lou1*, Bin Li1* and Jinghua Wang3,4,5* 1Department of Neurology, Tianjin Haibin People's Hospital, Tianjin, China 2Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, The Second Hospital of Tianjin Medical University, Tianjin, China 3Department of Neurology, Tianjin Medical University General Hospital, Tianjin, China 4Laboratory of Epidemiology, Tianjin Neurological Institute, Tianjin, China 5Key Laboratory of Post-Neuroinjury Neuro-Repair and Regeneration i...
Source: Frontiers in Neurology - Category: Neurology Source Type: research
Conclusion: Using three different strategies to either prevent formation or enhance elimination of O2⋅_ during the post-asphyxial period, we saw both reduced leukocyte adherence and preserved BBB function with treatment. These findings suggest that agents which lower O2⋅_ in brain may be attractive new therapeutic interventions for the protection of the neonatal brain following asphyxia. Introduction Asphyxia is a relatively common source of neonatal brain damage (1), affecting ~2 in every 1,000 births (2). The hypoxic ischemia resulting from this oxygen deprivation can produce long-term sequelae, includi...
Source: Frontiers in Neurology - Category: Neurology Source Type: research
In this study, the cerebral-protective effect of crocin was evaluated on a rat transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) model. Our data showed that oral administration of crocin had better effectiveness in cerebral protection than an intravenous injection. Neither crocin nor its metabolite crocetin were determined in the brain of cerebral I/R rats, indicating a target site of periphery. Abundant crocetin was detected in plasma after oral administration instead of intravenous injection of crocin. Meanwhile, orally administered crocetin showed similar cerebral protection to that of crocin, but this exciting effect w...
Source: Frontiers in Pharmacology - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research
Conclusion: These findings indicate that TBI differentially affects the levels of sex-steroid hormones in men and women patients. Plasma levels of testosterone could be a good candidate blood marker to predict recovery from unconsciousness after sTBI for male patients. Introduction Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a major cause of death and disability worldwide and is increasing in incidence (1). Patients with acute severe TBI (sTBI) often develop severe disorders of consciousness, i.e., coma, minimally conscious state or vegetative state. Although many patients may regain consciousness during the 1-month post-TBI p...
Source: Frontiers in Endocrinology - Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research
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Source: Frontiers in Neurology - Category: Neurology Source Type: research
Geng-Hong Xia1†, Chao You1,2†, Xu-Xuan Gao1, Xiu-Li Zeng1, Jia-Jia Zhu1, Kai-Yu Xu3, Chu-Hong Tan1, Ruo-Ting Xu1, Qi-Heng Wu1, Hong-Wei Zhou3, Yan He4*‡ and Jia Yin1*‡ 1Department of Neurology, Nanfang Hospital, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou, China 2Department of Neurology, The First People's Hospital of Zunyi, Zunyi, China 3State Key Laboratory of Organ Failure Research, Division of Laboratory Medicine, Zhujiang Hospital, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou, China 4Microbiome Medicine Center, Division of Laboratory Medicine, Zhujiang Hospital, Southern Medical Univ...
Source: Frontiers in Neurology - Category: Neurology Source Type: research
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