WSU study shows insulin can increase mosquitoes' immunity to West Nile virus

(Washington State University) A discovery by a Washington State University-led research team has the potential to inhibit the spread of West Nile virus as well as Zika and dengue viruses. The researchers demonstrated that mammalian insulin activated an antiviral immunity pathway in mosquitoes, increasing the insects' ability to suppress the viruses. Since mosquito bites are the most common way humans are infected with West Nile, stopping the virus among the insects would protect human health.
Source: EurekAlert! - Infectious and Emerging Diseases - Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: news

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any Usutu virus (USUV), a mosquito-borne zoonotic flavivirus discovered in South Africa in 1959, has spread to many European countries over the last 20 years. The virus is currently a major concern for animal health due to its expanding host range and the growing number of avian mass mortality events. Although human infections with USUV are often asymptomatic, they are occasionally accompanied by neurological complications reminiscent of those due to West Nile virus (another flavivirus closely related to USUV). Whilst USUV actually appears less threatening than some other emergent arboviruses, the lessons learned from ...
Source: Viruses - Category: Virology Authors: Tags: Review Source Type: research
Padmamalini Mahendradas, Ankush Kawali, Saurabh Luthra, Sanjay Srinivasan, Andre L Curi, Shrey Maheswari, Imen Ksiaa, Moncef KhairallahIndian Journal of Ophthalmology 2020 68(9):1775-1786 Post-fever retinitis (PFR) is an infectious or para-infectious uveitic entity caused by bacterial or viral agents and seen mainly in tropical countries. Systemic symptoms such as joint pain, skin rash are common during the febrile stage. On the basis of only clinical presentation, it is difficult to pin-point the exact etiology for PFR. Serological investigations, polymerase chain reaction, and knowledge of concurrent epidemics in the co...
Source: Indian Journal of Ophthalmology - Category: Opthalmology Authors: Source Type: research
Abstract Mosquito borne diseases are a group of infections that affect humans. Emerging or reemerging diseases are those that (re)occur in regions, groups or hosts that were previously free from these diseases: dengue virus; chikungunya virus; Zika virus; West Nile fever and malaria. In Europe, these infections are mostly imported; however, due to the presence of competent mosquitoes and the number of trips both to and from endemic areas, these pathogens are potentially emergent or re-emergent. Present and future climatic conditions, as well as meteorological, environmental and demographic aspects are risk factors...
Source: Environmental Research - Category: Environmental Health Authors: Tags: Environ Res Source Type: research
llo A Abstract The burden of Arboviral infections is largely underestimated in Africa, particularly in North-Eastern Nigeria. A total of 200 serum samples were collected from patients exhibiting febrile illness who visited the State Specialist Hospital in Maiduguri for medical attention between March and April 2018. Sera were tested for Flavivirus RNA by a pan-flaviviral primer set using hemi-nested RT PCR. Twenty-six samples were positive for flaviviral RNA and sequence analysis indicated a high number of West Nile virus infections and one case of Zika virus. In-house recombinant NS1-based IgM ELISA indicated 47%...
Source: Virus Research - Category: Virology Authors: Tags: Virus Res Source Type: research
Mosquito bites may be a nuisance, but fortunately, in the U.S., they tend to amount to nothing more than that. Upon being bitten, most Americans experience a bit of swelling and itchiness, and nothing more. However, there are exceptions to this, including stronger allergic reactions to bites and cases of mosquito-borne illness.  Insect and arachnid bites, including ticks, account for approximately 2,000 cases of malaria and 30,000 cases of Lyme disease in the U.S. annually. In addition, millions of people worldwide die of malaria each year. It is helpful to protect yourself against insect bites, not only to avoid pesk...
Source: Conversations with Dr Greene - Category: Child Development Authors: Tags: Dr. Greene's Blog Environmental Health Insect Bites & Stings Insects & Animals Outdoor Safety Source Type: blogs
Abstract Flaviviruses such as Zika virus (ZIKV), dengue virus (DENV) and West Nile virus (WNV) are major global pathogens for which safe and effective antiviral therapies are not currently available. To identify antiviral small molecules with well-characterized safety and bioavailability profiles we screened a library of 2,907 approved drugs and pharmacologically active compounds for inhibitors of ZIKV infection using a high-throughput cell-based immunofluorescence assay. Interestingly, estrogen receptor modulators raloxifene hydrochloride and quinestrol were amongst 15 compounds that significantly inhibited ZIKV ...
Source: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy - Category: Microbiology Authors: Tags: Antimicrob Agents Chemother Source Type: research
Beyond HIV infection: neglected and varied impacts of CCR5 and CCR5Δ32 on viral diseases. Virus Res. 2020 May 29;:198040 Authors: Ellwanger JH, Kulmann-Leal B, Kaminski VL, Rodrigues AG, de Souza Bragatte MA, Chies JAB Abstract The interactions between chemokine receptors and their ligands may affect susceptibility to infectious diseases as well as their clinical manifestations. These interactions mediate both the traffic of inflammatory cells and virus-associated immune responses. In the context of viral infections, the human C-C chemokine receptor type 5 (CCR5) receives great attention from th...
Source: Virus Research - Category: Virology Authors: Tags: Virus Res Source Type: research
ml;cken W Abstract Flaviviruses replicate in membranous factories associated with the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Significant levels of flavivirus polyprotein integration contribute to ER stress and the host cell may exhibit an Unfolded Protein Response (UPR) to this protein accumulation, stimulating appropriate cellular responses such as adaptation, autophagy or cell death. These different stress responses support other antiviral strategies initiated by infected cells and can help to overcome viral infection. In epithelial A549 cells, a model currently used to study the flavivirus infection cycle and the host c...
Source: Biochimie - Category: Biochemistry Authors: Tags: Biochimie Source Type: research
by Chuan-min Zhou, Jian-wei Liu, Rui Qi, Li-zhu Fang, Xiang-rong Qin, Hui-ju Han, Rong-can Mo, Hao Yu, Yong-jun Jiao, Jian-yan Lin, Xue-jie Yu Currently, Zika virus (ZIKV) is spreading across the world and no ZIKV infection cases have ever been reported in China. Here, we aimed to determine whether ZIKV infection exists in China. Blood samples of 273 healthy individuals were collected from Nanning City, Guangxi Province, China in March 2 019. We found that 9.5% (26/273) and 1.8% (5/273) of healthy persons were positive to ZIKV total antibody (IgG and/or IgM) IgM antibody, respectively. All ZIKV positive plasma samples wer...
Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases - Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Source Type: research
Contributors : Maria E Ramos-Nino ; Daniel Fitzpatrick ; Sonia Cheetham ; Julie A DragonSeries Type : Non-coding RNA profiling by arrayOrganism :Determination of miRNA profiles in most prominent mosquitoes will determine the potential targets for mosquito controlSome of the most medically important viruses, such as dengue virus, West Nile virus, Zika virus, and yellow fever virus, are transmitted by mosquitoes. These aptly named arboviruses impose a tremendous cost to the health of populations around the world. As a result, much effort has gone into the study of the impact of these viruses in human infections. Comparativel...
Source: GEO: Gene Expression Omnibus - Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Tags: Non-coding RNA profiling by array Source Type: research
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