Parasitic load determination by differential expression of 5-Lipoxygenase and PGE2 Synthases in Visceral Leishmaniasis

In this study, we intend to explore linkage between organ specific immune response and eicosanoids. We suggest that eicosanoids (early immune modulators) and their organ specific expressions, possibly tune the outcome of mφ differently at different sites. We have observed that liver showed better containment of parasitic load than spleen, where we have found higher expression of 5-lipoxygenase (5-LO) enzyme along with IL-12 and iNOS. However, in spleen, enzymes of the PGE2 pathway (PGE2 cytosolic and PGE2 microsomal) along with IL-10 were predominantly higher. To further corroborate our findings, in vitro assays were carried out using purified eicosanoids (LTB4 and PGE2) and the inhibitors of these pathways. Findings establish that the 5-lipoxygenase pathway (i.e. LTB4) is anti-parasitic and its inhibition increases the parasitic load (qPCR based kDNA detection). On the contrary, PGE2 pathway supports establishment of infection in mφ. Taken together, 5-LO pathway plays a protective role in liver during L. donovani infection. However, the PGES pathway favors the parasite growth, particularly in the spleen at a later stage.Graphical abstract
Source: Prostaglandins and Other Lipid Mediators - Category: Lipidology Source Type: research

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Mucosal leishmaniosis (ML) is a chronic infection that affects the upper respiratory tract or oral mucosa, caused by Leishmania protozoan parasites. Four male patients between the ages of 60 and 94 years presented with oral lesions of ML. All of them presented with destruction of the nasal septum and infiltrative lesions in the soft palate, with a granulomatous and erythematous base. One of the patients presented with edema and erythema in the nose and middle face. The histopathologic exam was performed in all the cases, but, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was necessary in 2 cases to confirm the diagnosis.
Source: Oral Surgery, Oral Medicine, Oral Pathology, Oral Radiology, and Endodontics - Category: ENT & OMF Authors: Source Type: research
In this study, we reported the in vitro schistosomicidal activity of the R. graveolens extract (Rg) and its active fraction (Rg-FAE). Also, the characterization of Rg-FAE by UPLC-ESI-QTOF-MS analysis and its in vitro antileishmanial activity against Leishmania braziliensis were also performed. In vitro schistosomicidal assays were assessed against adult worms of S. mansoni, while cell viability against peritoneal macrophages was measured by MTT assay. Rg (100 μg/mL) exhibited noticeable schistosomicidal activity, causing 100% mortality and decreasing motor activity of all adult male and female schistosomes, but w...
Source: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine - Category: Complementary Medicine Tags: Evid Based Complement Alternat Med Source Type: research
by Malgorzata A. Domagalska, Hideo Imamura, Mandy Sanders, Frederik Van den Broeck, Narayan Raj Bhattarai, Manu Vanaerschot, Ilse Maes, Erika D ’Haenens, Keshav Rai, Suman Rijal, Matthew Berriman, James A. Cotton, Jean-Claude Dujardin Whole genome sequencing (WGS) is increasingly used for molecular diagnosis and epidemiology of infectious diseases. CurrentLeishmania genomic studies rely on DNA extracted from cultured parasites, which might introduce sampling and biological biases into the subsequent analyses. Up to now, direct analysis ofLeishmania genome in clinical samples is hampered by high levels of human DNA a...
Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases - Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Source Type: research
Leishmaniosis, a disease caused by pathogenic Leishmania parasites, remains an unresolved health problem in the New World and the Old World. It is well known that lizards can be infected by a subgenus of Leishman...
Source: BMC Veterinary Research - Category: Veterinary Research Authors: Tags: Research article Source Type: research
This study assessed the potential role of the Sub-Saharan rodents Arvicanthis neumanni, A. niloticus and Mastomys natalensis as hosts of L. donovani and L. sp. from Ghana, based on experimental infections of animals and xenodiagnoses. The distribution and load of parasites were determined post mortem using qPCR from the blood, skin and viscera samples. The attractiveness of Arvicanthis and Mastomys to Phlebotomus orientalis was tested by pair-wise comparisons. None of the animals inoculated with L. donovani were infectious to P. orientalis females, although, in some animals, parasites were detected by PCR even 30 weeks pos...
Source: International Journal for Parasitology: Parasites and Wildlife - Category: Parasitology Source Type: research
Conclusion: Leishmania major is responsible for the most common CL in southern Iran. In addition, in two patients with L. major and L. tropica, mix infection with Crithidia was confirmed. The potential role of Crithidia as the main factor for CL and the probability of this parasite to have synergistic effects on Leishmania, as a hypothesis, requires more comprehensive researches on the ambiguity of this protozoon. PMID: 31803781 [PubMed]
Source: Iranian Journal of Arthropod-Borne Diseases - Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: J Arthropod Borne Dis Source Type: research
Canine leishmaniosis (CanL) caused by Leishmania infantum can have several dermatological manifestations. The type of immune response elicited against the parasite appears to be at the basis for such clinical var...
Source: Parasites and Vectors - Category: Microbiology Authors: Tags: Research Source Type: research
Abstract A series of bis-naphthoquinone derivatives prepared by condensation of aryl aldehydes with lawsone was tested for anti-parasitic activities against Toxoplasma gondii and Trypanosoma brucei parasites. Monofluorophenyl derivative 1a , 3,4-difluorophenyl analog 1c and furyl compound 1l exhibited significant activity against T. gondii cells and appear to be new promising drug candidates against this parasite. The 3,4,5-trifluorophenyl derivative 1g and the isovanillyl derivative 1j displayed selective activity against Leishmania major amastigotes. PMID: 31804031 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Chemistry and Biodiversity - Category: Biochemistry Authors: Tags: Chem Biodivers Source Type: research
Leishmaniases are widespread neglected diseases with an incidence of 1.6 million new cases and 40 thousand deaths per year. Leishmania parasites may show distinct, species-specific patterns of virulence that lead to different clinical manifestations. It is well known that successive in vitro passages (SIVP) lead to the attenuation of virulence, but neither the metabolism nor the pathways involved in these processes are well understood. Herein, promastigotes of a virulent L. amazonensis strain recently isolated from mice was compared to SIVP derived and attenuated promastigotes, submitted to 10, 40, and 60 axenic passages a...
Source: Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology - Category: Microbiology Source Type: research
This study indicates the potential of the essential oil of O. onites and its constituents in the treatment of protozoal infections.
Source: Molecules - Category: Chemistry Authors: Tags: Article Source Type: research
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