Oxidative pathways of arachidonic acid as targets for regulation of platelet activation
Publication date: Available online 18 October 2019Source: Prostaglandins & Other Lipid MediatorsAuthor(s): Andrés Trostchansky, Rodrigo Moore-Carrasco, Eduardo FuentesAbstractPlatelet activation plays an important role in acute and chronic cardiovascular disease states. Multiple pathways contribute to platelet activation including those dependent upon arachidonic acid. Arachidonic acid is released from the platelet membrane by phospholipase A2 action and is then metabolized in the cytosol by specific arachidonic acid oxidation enzymes including prostaglandin H synthase, 12-lipoxygenase, and cytochrome P450 to pr...
Source: Prostaglandins and Other Lipid Mediators - October 19, 2019 Category: Lipidology Source Type: research

Eicosanoids derived from cytochrome P450 pathway of arachidonic acid and inflammatory shock
Publication date: Available online 3 October 2019Source: Prostaglandins & Other Lipid MediatorsAuthor(s): Bahar Tunctan, Sefika Pinar Senol, Meryem Temiz-Resitoglu, Demet Sinem Guden, Seyhan Sahan-Firat, John R. Falck, Kafait U. MalikAbstractSepsis is a life-threatening organ dysfunction caused by a dysregulated host response to infection. Septic shock, the most common form of vasodilatory shock, is a subset of sepsis in which circulatory and cellular/metabolic abnormalities are severe enough to increase mortality. Inflammatory shock constitutes the hallmark of sepsis, but also a final common pathway of any form of sev...
Source: Prostaglandins and Other Lipid Mediators - October 5, 2019 Category: Lipidology Source Type: research

Editorial Board
Publication date: October 2019Source: Prostaglandins & Other Lipid Mediators, Volume 144Author(s): (Source: Prostaglandins and Other Lipid Mediators)
Source: Prostaglandins and Other Lipid Mediators - October 2, 2019 Category: Lipidology Source Type: research

Urinary prostaglandin D2 and E2 metabolites associate with abdominal obesity, glucose metabolism, and triglycerides in obese subjects
Publication date: Available online 13 August 2019Source: Prostaglandins & Other Lipid MediatorsAuthor(s): Sven-Christian Pawelzik, Antoine Avignon, Helena Idborg, Catherine Boegner, Françoise Stanke-Labesque, Per-Johan Jakobsson, Ariane Sultan, Magnus BäckAbstractObesity is associated with low-grade chronic inflammation, which contributes to the development of the metabolic syndrome and its associated complications, such as insulin resistance and type-2 diabetes. There is limited data from animal and human studies about the local generation of pro-inflammatory prostanoid lipid mediators in white adipose tis...
Source: Prostaglandins and Other Lipid Mediators - August 14, 2019 Category: Lipidology Source Type: research

The role of sphingosine 1-phosphate receptors on retinal pigment epithelial cells barrier function and angiogenic effects
This study demonstrated that S1P significantly promotes angiogenesis, inflammation, and barrier integrity, which was attenuated by inhibition of S1P2 or S1P3, suggesting that regulation of S1P2 and S1P3 is a novel therapeutic target for CNV.Graphical abstract (Source: Prostaglandins and Other Lipid Mediators)
Source: Prostaglandins and Other Lipid Mediators - August 13, 2019 Category: Lipidology Source Type: research

Evaluation of Analgesic and Antiplatelet Activity of 2-((3-(chloromethyl)benzoyl)oxy)benzoic acid
Publication date: Available online 26 July 2019Source: Prostaglandins & Other Lipid MediatorsAuthor(s): Caroline, Kuncoro Foe, Senny Yesery Esar, Ami Soewandi, Hevi Wihadmadyatami, Ratna Megawati Widharna, Wahyu Dewi Tamayanti, Elisabeth Kasih, Yudy TjahjonoAbstractsAcetylsalicylic acid is used as a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID) and antiplatelet agents by inhibiting cyclooxygenases. However, therapy using acetylsalicylic acid could induce gastric bleeding and cause other gastrointestinal toxicity. The aim of this study was to demonstrate the synthesis of a new compound bearing salicylic acid residue nam...
Source: Prostaglandins and Other Lipid Mediators - July 27, 2019 Category: Lipidology Source Type: research

Liquid chromatography-coupled mass spectrometry analysis of glutathione conjugates of oxygenated polyunsaturated fatty acids
Publication date: Available online 16 July 2019Source: Prostaglandins & Other Lipid MediatorsAuthor(s): Stefanie Liening, Erik Romp, Oliver Werz, Gerhard Scriba, Ulrike GarschaAbstractGlutathione (GSH) conjugates of oxygenated polyunsaturated fatty acids comprise a group of pro-inflammatory and pro-resolving lipid mediators formed in immunocompetent cells. While the pro-inflammatory conjugates as the cysteinyl leukotrienes (cys-LTs), eoxins (EXs) and five-oxo-GSH conjugate (FOG7) derive from arachidonic acid (AA), the group of conjugates in tissue regeneration (CTRs) such as maresin CTRs (MCTRs), protectin CTRs (PCTRs)...
Source: Prostaglandins and Other Lipid Mediators - July 17, 2019 Category: Lipidology Source Type: research

Role of acyl-CoA synthetase ACSL4 in arachidonic acid metabolism
Publication date: Available online 12 July 2019Source: Prostaglandins & Other Lipid MediatorsAuthor(s): Hiroshi Kuwata, Shuntaro HaraAbstractThe activation of long-chain free fatty acids is the first step reaction of their usage in the cells and tissues, which are catalyzed by a family of enzymes called acyl-coenzyme A synthetases long-chain isoform (ACSL). The five ACSL enzymes identified in mammals are thought to have specific and differing functions. Among them, ACSL4 is a unique isozyme that preferentially catalyzes several polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) such as arachidonic acid (AA), and ACSL4 is thought to b...
Source: Prostaglandins and Other Lipid Mediators - July 13, 2019 Category: Lipidology Source Type: research

Increased pain and inflammatory sensitivity in growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH) knockout mice
Publication date: Available online 10 July 2019Source: Prostaglandins & Other Lipid MediatorsAuthor(s): Sheila Leone, Annalisa Chiavaroli, Lucia Recinella, Giustino Orlando, Claudio Ferrante, Guya Diletta Marconi, Irene Gasparo, Alessandra Bitto, Roberto Salvatori, Luigi BrunettiAbstractGrowth hormone (GH) and GH-releasing hormone (GHRH), in addition to metabolic and endocrine effects, play a role in the modulation of pain and inflammation. We aimed to elucidate the consequences of GHRH deficiency on acute nociceptive stimulation and on both acute and chronic inflammatory stimuli in a mouse model of GH deficiency. Mice...
Source: Prostaglandins and Other Lipid Mediators - July 11, 2019 Category: Lipidology Source Type: research

5-oxo-ETE activates migration of H295R adrenocortical cells via MAPK and PKC pathways
In this study we analyzed the effects of the OXE receptor physiological activator 5-oxo-ETE on the growth and migration of H259R cells. While 5-oxo-ETE did not affect the growth of H295R cells, overexpression of OXE receptor caused an increase in cell proliferation, which was further increased by 5-oxo-ETE and blocked by 5-lipoxygenase inhibition. 5-oxo-ETE increased the migratory capacity of H295R cells in wound healing assays, but it did not induce the production of metalloproteases MMP-1, MMP-2, MMP-9 and MMP-10. The pro-migratory effect of 5-oxo-ETE was reduced by pharmacological inhibition of the MEK/ERK1/2, p38 and P...
Source: Prostaglandins and Other Lipid Mediators - July 11, 2019 Category: Lipidology Source Type: research

Blood ceramides as novel markers for renal impairment in systemic lupus erythematosus
ConclusionOur data reveal that chain-length specific ceramides in blood, most likely C24:1Cer levels in serum, could act as potent biomarkers for renal impairment in patients suffering from SLE. (Source: Prostaglandins and Other Lipid Mediators)
Source: Prostaglandins and Other Lipid Mediators - July 11, 2019 Category: Lipidology Source Type: research

Relation of oxidized-low-density lipoprotein and high-density lipoprotein subfractions in non-treated patients with coronary artery disease
Publication date: Available online 3 July 2019Source: Prostaglandins & Other Lipid MediatorsAuthor(s): Jian-Jun LiAbstractBackgroundOxidized-low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL), as well as high-density lipoprotein (HDL) and its subfractions play important role in the development of coronary artery disease (CAD).MethodsA total of 1417 individuals who received selective coronary angiography (CAG) without lipids-lowering treatments were consecutively enrolled. Patients were divided into CAD (n = 942) and non-CAD group (n = 475). The severity of CAD was assessed by Gensini Scores (GS) system. The c...
Source: Prostaglandins and Other Lipid Mediators - July 5, 2019 Category: Lipidology Source Type: research

The effect of the ep3 antagonist dg-041 on male mice with diet-induced obesity
ConclusionShort term EP3 administration of DG-041 produced effective blockade of the EP3 receptor and decreased skeletal muscle triglyceride content but had no significant effects on the diabetic phenotype. (Source: Prostaglandins and Other Lipid Mediators)
Source: Prostaglandins and Other Lipid Mediators - July 3, 2019 Category: Lipidology Source Type: research

Editorial Board
Publication date: August 2019Source: Prostaglandins & Other Lipid Mediators, Volume 143Author(s): (Source: Prostaglandins and Other Lipid Mediators)
Source: Prostaglandins and Other Lipid Mediators - July 3, 2019 Category: Lipidology Source Type: research

Oxylipin profiling in endothelial cells in vitro – Effects of DHA and hydrocortisone upon an inflammatory challenge
Publication date: Available online 28 June 2019Source: Prostaglandins & Other Lipid MediatorsAuthor(s): A.C. Motta, K. Strassburg, P. Oranje, R.J. Vreeken, D.M. JacobsAbstractOmega-3 poly-unsaturated fatty acids have been shown to have beneficial effects on several inflammatory-driven endpoints such as cardiovascular diseases. The anti-inflammatory effects of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) are largely mediated through various oxylipins. Yet, mechanistic insights are limited. Here, we measured 53 oxylipins using LC-MS/MS in an in vitro model of endothelial cell inflammation, and compared the changes induced by DHA to hydroc...
Source: Prostaglandins and Other Lipid Mediators - June 30, 2019 Category: Lipidology Source Type: research

The role of n-3 PUFA-derived fatty acid derivatives and their oxygenated metabolites in the modulation of inflammation
Publication date: Available online 28 June 2019Source: Prostaglandins & Other Lipid MediatorsAuthor(s): Ian de Bus, Renger Witkamp, Han Zuilhof, Bauke Albada, Michiel BalversAbstractNotwithstanding the ongoing debate on their full potential in health and disease, there is general consensus that n-3 PUFAs play important physiological roles. Increasing dietary n-3 PUFA intake results in increased DHA and EPA content in cell membranes as well as an increase in n-3 derived oxylipin and -endocannabinoid concentrations, like fatty acid amides and glycerol-esters. These shifts are believed to (partly) explain the pharmacologi...
Source: Prostaglandins and Other Lipid Mediators - June 30, 2019 Category: Lipidology Source Type: research

Prostaglandin E2 and an EP4 Receptor Agonist Inhibit LPS-Induced Monocyte Chemotactic Protein 5 Production and Secretion in Mouse Cardiac Fibroblasts via Akt and NF-κB Signaling
ConclusionExogenous treatment of PGE2 and the EP4 receptor agonist blocked the pro-inflammatory actions of LPS. Mechanistically, this was mediated via reduced Akt phosphorylation and inhibition of NF-κB. (Source: Prostaglandins and Other Lipid Mediators)
Source: Prostaglandins and Other Lipid Mediators - June 21, 2019 Category: Lipidology Source Type: research

A novel mPGES-1 inhibitor alleviates inflammatory responses by downregulating PGE2 in experimental models
Publication date: Available online 20 June 2019Source: Prostaglandins & Other Lipid MediatorsAuthor(s): Hwi-Ho Lee, YoonHyoung Moon, Ji-Sun Shin, Jeong-Hun Lee, Tae-Woo Kim, Changyoung Jang, Changmin Park, Juhee Lee, Younghoon Kim, Younggwan Kim, Oliver Werz, Boyoung Y. Park, Jae Yeol Lee, Kyung-Tae LeeAbstractWe previously reported the strong inhibitory potency of N-phenyl-N’-(4- benzyloxyphenoxycarbonyl)-4-chlorophenylsulfonyl hydrazide (PBCH) on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) production in macrophages. Herein, we characterized PBCH as a microsomal prostaglandin E synthase-1 (mPGES-1) ...
Source: Prostaglandins and Other Lipid Mediators - June 21, 2019 Category: Lipidology Source Type: research

mPGES-1 as a new target to overcome acquired resistance to gefitinib in non-small cell lung cancer cell lines
This study demonstrates that NSCLC cells resistant to gefitinib (GR cells) displayed a significantly higher microsomal prostaglandin E synthase-1 (mPGES-1) expression and activity than parental cells. Overexpression of mPGES-1/prostaglandin E-2 (PGE-2) signaling in GR cells was associated with acquisition of mesenchymal and stem-like cell properties, nuclear EGFR translocation and tolerance to cisplatin. mPGES-1 inhibition reduced mesenchymal and stem-like properties, and nuclear EGFR translocation in GR cells. Consistently, inhibition of mPGES-1 activity enhanced sensitivity to cisplatin and responsiveness to gefitinib in...
Source: Prostaglandins and Other Lipid Mediators - June 15, 2019 Category: Lipidology Source Type: research

Seasonal expressions of COX-1, COX-2 and EP4 in the uteri of the wild Daurian ground squirrels (Spermophilus dauricus)
In this study, we investigated the immunolocalizations and expression levels of Prostaglandin E2 synthases cyclo-oxygenase (COX)-1 and COX-2, as well as one of PGE2 receptor subtypes 4 (EP4) in the uteri of the wild Daurian ground squirrels (Spermophilus dauricus) during the breeding and non-breeding seasons. Histologically, the thickness of endometrium: myometrium ratio in the uteri of the breeding season was higher than that of the non-breeding season. The immunostainings of COX-1, COX-2 and EP4 were observed in stromal cells, glandular cells and myometrium cells in the breeding and non-breeding seasons. The protein and ...
Source: Prostaglandins and Other Lipid Mediators - June 11, 2019 Category: Lipidology Source Type: research

Formyl-peptide receptor 2 suppresses proliferation, migration and invasion in human extravillous trophoblastic cells
In this study, overexpression of FPR2 was performed in TEV-1 cells. Then, CCK8 transwell and wound healing assays were used to assess the cell proliferation, migration and invasion, respectively. The results showed that FPR2 overexpression significantly inhibited proliferation, invasion and migration in TEV-1 cells. In addition, FPR2 overexpression significantly decreased mRNA and protein levels of integrin-linked kinase (ILK), nuclear factor-kappa B (NF--κB), matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP9) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in TEV-1 cells. These findings indicated that FPR2 overexpression alters prolif...
Source: Prostaglandins and Other Lipid Mediators - June 6, 2019 Category: Lipidology Source Type: research

The Role of Lipoxin in Regulating Tumor Immune Microenvironments
Publication date: Available online 29 May 2019Source: Prostaglandins & Other Lipid MediatorsAuthor(s): Ting Zhang, Hua Hao, Xiao-Yan ZhouAbstractThe tumor immune microenvironment is the living environment for cancer cells which is essential for supporting cancer cells. Vascular endothelial cells and fibroblasts play a vital role in tumor metastasis and angiogenesis, while macrophages, neutrophils, lymphocytes, and other immune cells play an important role in cancer progression. Lipoxin (LX) is a class of eicosanoids that can regulate components of the innate and adaptive immune system, including the above cells. This r...
Source: Prostaglandins and Other Lipid Mediators - May 30, 2019 Category: Lipidology Source Type: research

Respective contribution of cytosolic phospholipase A2α and secreted phospholipase A2 IIA to inflammation and eicosanoid production in arthritis
This study confirms the critical role of PLA2s in arthritis and unveils the distinct contribution of cPLA2α and sPLA2-IIA to the eicosanoid profile in arthritis. (Source: Prostaglandins and Other Lipid Mediators)
Source: Prostaglandins and Other Lipid Mediators - May 24, 2019 Category: Lipidology Source Type: research

Do arachidonic acid metabolites affect apoptosis in bovine endometrial cells with silenced PPAR genes?
Publication date: Available online 18 May 2019Source: Prostaglandins & Other Lipid MediatorsAuthor(s): A.A. Szczepańska, M. Łupicka, A.J. KorzekwaAbstractPeroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are expressed in bovine uterus, and their agonists are arachidonic acid (AA) metabolites. We hypothesised that silencing of PPAR genes in bovine endometrial stromal cells (ESC) would change the intracellular signalling through PPAR and affect apoptosis after cell treatment with different AA metabolites. The study’s aims are detection of apoptosis and examining the influence of prostaglandins and leukotrienes ...
Source: Prostaglandins and Other Lipid Mediators - May 18, 2019 Category: Lipidology Source Type: research

PGE2 in fibrosis and cancer: Insights into fibroblast activation
Publication date: Available online 14 May 2019Source: Prostaglandins & Other Lipid MediatorsAuthor(s): Eiman Elwakeel, Bernhard Brüne, Andreas WeigertAbstractFibroblasts are the essential cellular architects of connective tissue and as such are crucial cells in contributing to organ homeostasis. While fulfilling important repair functions during tissue regeneration upon wounding, chronic fibroblast activation provokes pathological organ fibrosis and promotes neoplastic disease progression. Identifying targets that may serve to therapeutically terminate fibroblast activation is therefore desirable. Among the mediat...
Source: Prostaglandins and Other Lipid Mediators - May 15, 2019 Category: Lipidology Source Type: research

Prostaglandin E2 as a potent therapeutic target for treatment of colon cancer
Publication date: Available online 15 May 2019Source: Prostaglandins & Other Lipid MediatorsAuthor(s): Vahid Karpisheh, Afshin Nikkhoo, Mohammad Hojjat-Farsangi, Afshin Namdar, Gholamreza Azizi, Ghasem Ghalamfarsa, Mehdi Yousefi, Bahman Yousefi, Farhad Jadidi-NiaraghAbstractAlthough colon cancer is one of the most important triggers of cancer related mortality, a few therapeutic options exist for this disease, including combination chemotherapy, anti-EGFR and anti-angiogenic agents. However, none of these therapeutics are fully effective for complete remission, and this issue needs further investigations, particularly ...
Source: Prostaglandins and Other Lipid Mediators - May 15, 2019 Category: Lipidology Source Type: research

Emerging Class of Omega-3 Fatty Acid Endocannabinoids & Their Derivatives
Publication date: Available online 11 May 2019Source: Prostaglandins & Other Lipid MediatorsAuthor(s): Josephine E. Watson, Justin S. Kim, Aditi DasAbstractCannabinoid receptor activation is involved in homeostatic regulation of the body. These receptors are activated by cannabinoids, that include the active constituents of Cannabis sativa as well as endocannabinoids (eCBs). The eCBs are endogenously synthesized from the omega-6 and omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs). The consumption of omega-3 fatty acids shifts the balance towards a higher proportion of omega-3 eCBs, whose physiological functions warrants fu...
Source: Prostaglandins and Other Lipid Mediators - May 12, 2019 Category: Lipidology Source Type: research

Editorial Board
Publication date: June 2019Source: Prostaglandins & Other Lipid Mediators, Volume 142Author(s): (Source: Prostaglandins and Other Lipid Mediators)
Source: Prostaglandins and Other Lipid Mediators - May 8, 2019 Category: Lipidology Source Type: research

Lysophosphatidic acid: its role in bone cell biology and potential for use in bone regeneration
Publication date: Available online 1 May 2019Source: Prostaglandins & Other Lipid MediatorsAuthor(s): Xiangnan Wu, Yuanyuan Ma, Naichuan Su, Jiefei Shen, Hai Zhang, Hang WangAbstractLysophosphatidic acid (LPA) is a simple phospholipid that exerts pleiotropic effects on numerous cell types by activating its family of cognate G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) and participates in many biological processes, including organismal development, wound healing, and carcinogenesis. Bone cells, such as bone marrow mesenchymal stromal (stem) cells (BMSCs), osteoblasts, osteocytes and osteoclasts play essential roles in bone homeo...
Source: Prostaglandins and Other Lipid Mediators - May 3, 2019 Category: Lipidology Source Type: research

Formation of trans-epoxy fatty acids correlates with formation of isoprostanes and could serve as biomarker of oxidative stress
Publication date: Available online 19 April 2019Source: Prostaglandins & Other Lipid MediatorsAuthor(s): Katharina M. Rund, Daniel Heylmann, Nina Seiwert, Sabine Wecklein, Camille Oger, Jean-Marie Galano, Thierry Durand, Rongjun Chen, Faikah Gueler, Jörg Fahrer, Julia Bornhorst, Nils Helge SchebbAbstractIn mammals, epoxy-polyunsaturated fatty acids (epoxy-PUFA) are enzymatically formed from naturally occurring all-cis PUFA by cytochrome P450 monooxygenases leading to the generation of cis-epoxy-PUFA (mixture of R,S- and S,R-enantiomers). In addition, also non-enzymatic chemical peroxidation gives rise to epoxy-PUF...
Source: Prostaglandins and Other Lipid Mediators - April 21, 2019 Category: Lipidology Source Type: research

Low mRNA expression and activity of monoacylglycerol lipase in human SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells
Publication date: Available online 9 April 2019Source: Prostaglandins & Other Lipid MediatorsAuthor(s): Janis Szeremeta, Jessica Karlsson, Mireille Alhouayek, Christopher J. FowlerAbstractRelatively little is known about the endocannabinoid system in human neuroblastoma cell lines. In the present study, we have investigated the expression of the genes coding for the enzymes involved in the synthesis and catabolism of endocannabinoids in the SH-SY5Y cell line. The expression of MGLL, the gene coding for 2-arachidonoylglycerol hydrolytic enzyme monoacylglycerol lipase (MAGL), was found to be 85 and 340 fold lower than th...
Source: Prostaglandins and Other Lipid Mediators - April 10, 2019 Category: Lipidology Source Type: research

Flax seed oil reduced tumor growth, modulated immune responses and decreased HPV E6 and E7 oncoprotein expression in a murine model of ectopic cervical cancer
Publication date: Available online 6 April 2019Source: Prostaglandins & Other Lipid MediatorsAuthor(s): Rashmi Deshpande, Prerna Raina, Kavita Shinde, Prakash Mansara, Manjiri Karandikar, Ruchika Kaul-GhanekarAbstractCervical cancer is the second leading cause of cancer death in women in India. Previously, we have reported that alpha linolenic acid (ALA), induced apoptosis in cervical cancer cell lines and reduced expression of E6 and E7 oncoproteins with simultaneous decrease in Cox2/VEGF/MAP kinase proteins. Here, we investigated the tumor retardation potential of flax oil (FO), rich in ALA, in mouse papilloma model....
Source: Prostaglandins and Other Lipid Mediators - April 7, 2019 Category: Lipidology Source Type: research

Regulation of nicotinic acetylcholine receptor α3 subtype in adipose tissue dysfunction
Publication date: Available online 3 April 2019Source: Prostaglandins & Other Lipid MediatorsAuthor(s): Xiaoqing Bai, Haibing Ju, Li Gao, Yong Xiong, Rong Dai, Xiangzhong Huang, Cui YangABSTRACTNicotinic acetylcholine receptor α3 subtype (α3-nAChR) plays a pivotal role in regulating inflammatory responses. Inflammation leads to the adipose tissue dysfunction and further increases the risk of metabolic and cardiovascular diseases. Therefore, we hypothesize that α3-nAChR could regulate the disorder of adipose functions. Adipocytokines and inflammatory cytokines were evaluated in apolipoprotein E knockou...
Source: Prostaglandins and Other Lipid Mediators - April 4, 2019 Category: Lipidology Source Type: research

Beyond leukotriene formation—The noncanonical functions of 5-lipoxygenase
Publication date: June 2019Source: Prostaglandins & Other Lipid Mediators, Volume 142Author(s): Ann-Kathrin Häfner, Astrid S. Kahnt, Dieter SteinhilberAbstract5-lipoxygenase (5-LO) is the key enzyme in the biosynthesis of leukotrienes and specialized proresolving lipid mediators (SPM). It is mainly expressed in leukocytes and is part of the innate immune system. 5-LO can shuttle between the cytosol and the nucleus. Upon cell activation the protein translocates from soluble cellular compartments to the nuclear membrane. Besides FLAP which is required for cellular leukotriene and SPM formation, 5-LO interacts with o...
Source: Prostaglandins and Other Lipid Mediators - April 4, 2019 Category: Lipidology Source Type: research

Enhancement by HSP90 inhibitor of PGD2-stimulated HSP27 induction in osteoblasts: suppression of SAPK/JNK and p38 MAP kinase
Publication date: Available online 1 April 2019Source: Prostaglandins & Other Lipid MediatorsAuthor(s): Woo Kim, Haruhiko Tokuda, Tetsu Kawabata, Kazuhiko Fujita, Go Sakai, Daiki Nakashima, Junko Tachi, Gen Kuroyanagi, Rie Matsushima-Nishiwaki, Kumiko Tanabe, Takanobu Otsuka, Hiroki Iida, Osamu KozawaAbstractHeat shock protein (HSP) 90 that is ubiquitously expressed in various tissues, is a major molecular chaperone. We have previously demonstrated that prostaglandin D2 (PGD2), a bone remodeling factor, elicits the expression of HSP27, a small HSP, through stress-activated protein kinase/c-Jun N-terminal kinase (SAPK/J...
Source: Prostaglandins and Other Lipid Mediators - April 2, 2019 Category: Lipidology Source Type: research

Beyond leukotriene formation – the noncanonical functions of 5-lipoxygenase
Publication date: Available online 28 March 2019Source: Prostaglandins & Other Lipid MediatorsAuthor(s): Ann-Kathrin Häfner, Astrid S. Kahnt, Dieter SteinhilberAbstract5-lipoxygenase (5-LO) is the key enzyme in the biosynthesis of leukotrienes and specialized proresolving lipid mediators (SPM). It is mainly expressed in leukocytes and is part of the innate immune system. 5-LO can shuttle between the cytosol and the nucleus. Upon cell activation the protein translocates from soluble cellular compartments to the nuclear membrane. Besides FLAP which is required for cellular leukotriene and SPM formation, 5-LO interac...
Source: Prostaglandins and Other Lipid Mediators - March 29, 2019 Category: Lipidology Source Type: research

Neutral sphingomyelinase increases and delocalizes in the absence of Toll-Like Receptor 4: a new insight for MPTP Neurotoxicity
In this study, using WT and TLR4-deficient mice, treated or not with 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP), we aimed to investigate the relation between TLR4 and neutral sphingomyelinase (nSMase) in the midbrain. We found that the lack of TLR4 caused increase in nSMase protein expression and enzyme activity in the midbrain, as well as a marked delocalization from the cell membranes. This provoked a decrease in sphingomyelin (SM) species and an increase in ceramide levels. We found that exposure of TLR4-deficient mice to MPTP reduces unsaturated SM species by increasing saturated/unsaturated SM ratio. Saturate...
Source: Prostaglandins and Other Lipid Mediators - March 28, 2019 Category: Lipidology Source Type: research

Mammary cancer risk and serum lipid profile of rats supplemented with pomegranate seed oil and bitter melon extract
The objective of the present study was to determine the influence of dietary supplementation with pomegranate seed oil (PSO) and/or an aqueous extract of dried bitter melon fruits (BME) on breast cancer risk and fatty acid profile in serum of female rats with chemical carcinogen-inflicted mammary tumours. Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 96) were fed control diet or experimental diets supplemented with 0.15 ml PSO/day, BME or jointly PSO and BME. After 21 weeks mammary tumours were subjected to histopathological examination and in serum fatty acids, 8-isoprostaglandin F2α content and indices of desaturas...
Source: Prostaglandins and Other Lipid Mediators - March 28, 2019 Category: Lipidology Source Type: research

Editorial Board
Publication date: April 2019Source: Prostaglandins & Other Lipid Mediators, Volume 141Author(s): (Source: Prostaglandins and Other Lipid Mediators)
Source: Prostaglandins and Other Lipid Mediators - March 12, 2019 Category: Lipidology Source Type: research

Prostaglandin D2-ethanolamide induces skin cancer apoptosis by suppressing the activity of cellular antioxidants
Publication date: Available online 8 March 2019Source: Prostaglandins & Other Lipid MediatorsAuthor(s): Ahmed E.M. Elhassanny, Daniel A. Ladin, Eman Soliman, Hussam Albassam, Andrew Morris, Robert Kobet, Kathleen Thayne, Colin Burns, Allison S. Danell, Rukiyah Van DrossAbstractThe combined incidence of melanoma and non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC) is greater than the incidence of all other malignancies in the US. Previously, we demonstrated that the endocannabinoid, arachidonoyl-ethanolamide (AEA), was a potent inducer of apoptosis in NMSC. The metabolism of AEA to the prostaglandin, PGD2-EA, was a prerequisite for AEA ...
Source: Prostaglandins and Other Lipid Mediators - March 10, 2019 Category: Lipidology Source Type: research

Omega-3 Fatty Acids and Docosahexaenoic Acid Oxymetabolites Modulate the Inflammatory Response of Equine Recombinant Interleukin1β-stimulated Equine Synoviocytes
Publication date: Available online 2 March 2019Source: Prostaglandins & Other Lipid MediatorsAuthor(s): John P. Caron, Jeffrey C. Gandy, Jennifer L. Brown, Lorraine M. SordilloAbstractOmega-3 fatty acid (n-3 PUFA) supplementation may have beneficial effects in certain chronic diseases, potentially including osteoarthritis. Favorable effects are attributed, in part, to downstream pro-resolving oxylipid metabolites. We investigated the role of n-3 PUFA and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)-derived oxylipids (docosanoids) on equine synoviocyte metabolism. We hypothesized that n-3 PUFA and selected docosanoids would modulate infl...
Source: Prostaglandins and Other Lipid Mediators - March 4, 2019 Category: Lipidology Source Type: research

Quantifying 1-deoxydihydroceramides and 1-deoxyceramides in mouse nervous system tissue
Publication date: Available online 19 February 2019Source: Prostaglandins & Other Lipid MediatorsAuthor(s): Nicholas U. Schwartz, Izolda Mileva, Mikhail Gurevich, Justin Snider, Yusuf A. Hannun, Lina M. ObeidAbstractAccumulation of deoxysphingolipids (deoxySLs) has been implicated in many neural diseases, although mechanisms remain unclear. A major obstacle limiting understanding of deoxySLs has been the lack of a method easily defining measurement of deoxydihydroceramide (deoxydhCer) and deoxyceramide (deoxyCer) in neural tissues. Furthermore, it is poorly understood if deoxySLs accumulate in the nervous system with a...
Source: Prostaglandins and Other Lipid Mediators - February 19, 2019 Category: Lipidology Source Type: research

A strategy for validating concentrations of oxylipin standards for external calibration
Publication date: Available online 12 February 2019Source: Prostaglandins & Other Lipid MediatorsAuthor(s): Nicole M. Hartung, Malwina Mainka, Nadja Kampschulte, Annika I. Ostermann, Nils Helge SchebbAbstractQuantitative analysis of oxylipins by means of chromatography/mass spectrometry is based on (external) calibration with standard compounds. Therefore, the quality of analytical standards is of fundamental importance for accurate results. Recently launched certified standards with an assured concentration within a narrow range are useful tools for this purpose. However, such standards are only available for a few co...
Source: Prostaglandins and Other Lipid Mediators - February 13, 2019 Category: Lipidology Source Type: research

Metabolic studies of synaptamide in an immortalized dopaminergic cell line
ConclusionsIn undifferentiated cells, synaptamide uptake and metabolism is driven by its enzymatic hydrolysis (fatty acid amide hydrolase; FAAH), but in differentiating cells, the process seems to be FAAH independent. We conclude that differentiated and undifferentiated N27 cells utilize synaptamide via different mechanisms. This observation could be extrapolated to how different mechanisms may be in place for synaptamide uptake and metabolism in developing and adult dopaminergic cells. (Source: Prostaglandins and Other Lipid Mediators)
Source: Prostaglandins and Other Lipid Mediators - February 12, 2019 Category: Lipidology Source Type: research

Effects of Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs on the Expression of Arachidonic Acid-Metabolizing Cyp450 Genes in Mouse Hearts, Kidneys and Livers
Publication date: Available online 11 February 2019Source: Prostaglandins & Other Lipid MediatorsAuthor(s): Yazun Bashir Jarrar, Qais Jarrar, Abdulqader abed, Mohammad Abu-ShalhoobAbstractArachidonic acid (ARA) metabolites are involved in cardiovascular diseases and drug-induced cardiotoxicity. The present study aimed to investigate the effects of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) on the gene expression of ARA-metabolizing cyp450 genes in the hearts, kidneys and livers of experimental mice. Thirty five Balb/c mice were divided into 5 groups, and each group contained 7 mice. Then, the groups were administere...
Source: Prostaglandins and Other Lipid Mediators - February 12, 2019 Category: Lipidology Source Type: research

Physiological and pathological levels of Prostaglandin E2 in renal parenchyma and neoplastic renal tissue
Publication date: Available online 10 February 2019Source: Prostaglandins & Other Lipid MediatorsAuthor(s): Vittore Verratti, Luigi Brunetti, Claudio Ferrante, Giustino Orlando, Lucia Recinella, Annalisa Chiavaroli, Sheila Leone, Run Wang, Francesco BerardinelliAbstractProstaglandin (PG)E2 seems to promote tumor proliferation by regulating cell growth, inhibiting apoptosis, promoting angiogenesis, and suppressing host immune surveillance of cancer cells. The suppression of prostaglandins biosynthesis is thought to be the main molecular mechanism for non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs antineoplastic effect. Yet the r...
Source: Prostaglandins and Other Lipid Mediators - February 11, 2019 Category: Lipidology Source Type: research

Leukotriene B4 modulation of murine dendritic cells affects adaptive immunity
Publication date: Available online 8 February 2019Source: Prostaglandins & Other Lipid MediatorsAuthor(s): Marco Antonio Pires-Lapa, Marianna Mainardi Koga, Ildefonso Alves da Silva-, Luciano Ribeiro Filgueiras, Sonia JancarAbstractDendritic cells (DCs) link innate and adaptive immunity. The microenvironment generated during the innate immunity affects DCs and the type of adaptive immunity generated. Lipid mediators are released early in inflammation and could modify the functional state of DCs. Leukotriene B4 (LTB4) has a wide range of effects on macrophages and in the present study we investigated if it also affects ...
Source: Prostaglandins and Other Lipid Mediators - February 8, 2019 Category: Lipidology Source Type: research

Upregulation of cystathionine-γ-lyase/hydrogen sulfide pathway underlies the celecoxib counteraction of cyclosporine-induced hypertension and renal insult in rats
Publication date: Available online 15 January 2019Source: Prostaglandins & Other Lipid MediatorsAuthor(s): Mai M. Helmy, Maged W. Helmy, Mahmoud M. El-MasAbstractWe recently reported that celecoxib, a selective cyclooxygenase-2 (COX2) inhibitor, counteracts the adverse circulatory and renal actions of cyclosporine (CSA). Despite the seemingly advantageous nature of this interaction particularly in clinical settings that necessitate the combined use of the two drugs such as immune-related arthritis, the underlying mechanism remains elusive. This prompted us to test the hypothesis that the facilitation of the cystathioni...
Source: Prostaglandins and Other Lipid Mediators - January 16, 2019 Category: Lipidology Source Type: research

Editorial Board
Publication date: February 2019Source: Prostaglandins & Other Lipid Mediators, Volume 140Author(s): (Source: Prostaglandins and Other Lipid Mediators)
Source: Prostaglandins and Other Lipid Mediators - January 9, 2019 Category: Lipidology Source Type: research

Development of Multitarget Agents Possessing Soluble Epoxide Hydrolase Inhibitory Activity
Publication date: Available online 26 December 2018Source: Prostaglandins & Other Lipid MediatorsAuthor(s): Kerstin Hiesinger, Karen M. Wagner, Bruce D. Hammock, Ewgenij Proschak, Sung Hee HwangABSTRACTOver the last two decades polypharmacology has emerged as a new paradigm in drug discovery, even though developing drugs with high potency and selectivity toward a single biological target is still a major strategy. Often, targeting only a single enzyme or receptor shows lack of efficacy. High levels of inhibitor of a single target also can lead to adverse side effects. A second target may offer additive or synergistic e...
Source: Prostaglandins and Other Lipid Mediators - December 27, 2018 Category: Lipidology Source Type: research