Reevaluation of the efficacy of favipiravir against rabies virus using in vivo imaging analysis.

Reevaluation of the efficacy of favipiravir against rabies virus using in vivo imaging analysis. Antiviral Res. 2019 Oct 28;:104641 Authors: Yamada K, Noguchi K, Kimitsuki K, Kaimori R, Saito N, Komeno T, Nakajima N, Furuta Y, Nishizono A Abstract Rabies virus (RABV) is a highly neurotropic virus and the causative agent of rabies, an encephalitis with an almost 100% case-fatality rate that remains incurable after the onset of symptoms. Favipiravir (T-705), a broad-spectrum antiviral drug against RNA viruses, has been shown to be effective against RABV in vitro but ineffective in vivo. We hypothesized that favipiravir is effective in infected mice when RABV replicates in the peripheral tissues/nerves but not after virus neuroinvasion. We attempted to clarify this point in this study using in vivo bioluminescence imaging. We generated a recombinant RABV from the field isolate 1088, which expressed red firefly luciferase (1088/RFLuc). This allowed semiquantitative detection and monitoring of primary replication at the inoculation site and viral spread in the central nervous system (CNS) in the same mice. Bioluminescence imaging revealed that favipiravir (300 mg/kg/day) treatment commencing 1 h after intramuscular inoculation of RABV efficiently suppressed viral replication at the inoculation site and the subsequent replication in the CNS. However, virus replication in the CNS was not inhibited when the treatment began 2 days after inoculation. We also f...
Source: Antiviral Research - Category: Virology Authors: Tags: Antiviral Res Source Type: research

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r U Abstract Children and adults with rheumatic diseases (RD) have a higher risk to contract infections due to the underlying disease and the frequently necessary immunosuppressive treatment (IT). The quality of life of the majority of patients with RD has remarkably improved due to IT-related reduction of inflammation. Therefore, RD patients usually have an international travel behavior similar to healthy individuals. An investigation indicated that patients with RD and IT have lower travel vaccination rates and are often less well-prepared for their trip in comparison to healthy travelers, even when visitin...
Source: Zeitschrift fur Rheumatologie - Category: Rheumatology Authors: Tags: Z Rheumatol Source Type: research
In this study we worked on cytotoxicity and antiviral activity effects of Naja naja oxiana (Iranian Caspian cobra) snake venom components, on Rabies Lyssavirus (Rabies virus; RABV) infected mammalian cells. The concentration of 25 μg/ml F5 fraction separated by FPLC showed minor toxicity on BHK-21 cells by MTT test and high antiviral activity against infected cells by FAT assay. Further studies on F5 fractionation by HPLC showed that the proliferation of infected BHK-21 cells by rabies virus CVS-11 strain was decreased up to 80% by using 20 μg/ml P5 peak, after 48 h. We assume that P5-peptide (MW 
Source: Toxicon - Category: Toxicology Authors: Tags: Toxicon Source Type: research
Kanika Goyal, Chandana Bhagwat, Renu Suthar, Arushi Gahlot Saini, Namita Ravikumar, Paramjeet Singh, Reeta S Mani, Meenu SinghNeurology India 2020 68(3):673-676Rabies encephalitis is a universally fatal disease. Prolonged survival in children with rabies encephalitis has only been anecdotally reported. Case report: An 11-year-old boy presented with right-handed paraesthesia followed by flaccid weakness, progressive quadriparesis and encephalopathy following an unprovoked, class III dog bite over the right wrist 1 month previously. He received five doses of the rabies vaccine as post exposure prophylaxis. Diagnosis of rabie...
Source: Neurology India - Category: Neurology Authors: Source Type: research
by Julio A. Benavides, Andres Velasco-Villa, Lauren C. Godino, Panayampalli Subbian Satheshkumar, Nino Ruby, Elizabeth Rojas-Paniagua, Carlos Shiva, Nestor Falcon, Daniel G. Streicker Rabies virus infections normally cause universally lethal encephalitis across mammals. However, ‘abortive infections’ which are resolved prior to the onset of lethal disease have been described in bats and a variety of non-reservoir species. Here, we surveyed rabies virus neutralizing antibody titers in 332 unvaccinated livestock of 5 species from a vampire bat rabies endemic region of southern Peru where livestock are the main f...
Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases - Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Source Type: research
AbstractSuccessful preventive and control measures of zoonotic diseases require updated epidemiological data. Sylvatic rabies is endemic in Oman since 1990. Studying of the prevalence of animal rabies in Oman (2017 –2019) was the goal of the current study besides the clinical–histopathological investigations of rabies in different animal species. A total of 117 whole brains of different animal species from different regions of Oman were examined by fluorescent antibody test (FAT) and histopathology for rab ies during 2017–2019. Sixty-four samples (54.7%) were positive for rabies by FAT. The most affected ...
Source: Tropical Animal Health and Production - Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research
CONCLUSION: The 2-site ID PrEP with PVRV on days 0 and 28 co-administrated with JE-CV are safe and immunogenic. PMID: 32522414 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Vaccine - Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Tags: Vaccine Source Type: research
JAN Abstract Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) changes are significant for antemortem diagnoses of some neurological diseases. The aim of this study was to evaluate if the concentration of L-lactate in CSF could be used to differentiate healthy from encephalitic cattle. Cerebrospinal fluid samples from healthy cattle (n = 10) and from those naturally affected by rabies (n = 15), bovine herpesvirus type 5 meningoencephalitis (n = 16), histophilosis (n = 6), or bacterial encephalitis (n = 4), including 1 case of listeriosis, were collected and analyzed. Physical, biochemical (i.e., protein and glucose), and cellular analys...
Source: Canadian Journal of Veterinary Research - Category: Veterinary Research Authors: Tags: Can J Vet Res Source Type: research
This study determined the genotypic characteristics of rabies virus in dogs slaughtered for human consumption based on sequence of a fragment of nucleoprotein gene. Brain tissues were collected from 50 dogs slaughtered in Billiri and Kaltungo Local Government Areas of Gombe State, Nigeria. Direct fluorescent antibody test (DFAT) was used to screen for the presence of rabies virus antigen. Viral RNA isolated from DFAT positive brain tissues were subjected to the reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) followed by sequencing of the amplicons. Maximum Likelihood (ML) was used to construct a phylogenetic tree ...
Source: Acta Tropica - Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Tags: Acta Trop Source Type: research
AbstractThe accurate and early diagnosis of rabies is critical for undertaking public health measures in animals. The aim of the current study was to identify the molecular characterization of the circulating rabies virus (RABV) among camels (Camelus dromedaries) in Oman and to evaluate the efficacy of the histopathology and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) as diagnostic tools of acute rabies encephalitis in camels in comparison with direct fluorescent antibody test (dFAT). Of the forty-five brain samples from suspected camels submitted to the Animal Health Research Center in Oman (2009 –2013)...
Source: Tropical Animal Health and Production - Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research
Rabies encephalitis should be included in the differential diagnosis of new-onset refractory status epilepticus despite a normal MRI and the lack of robust cellular responses in the CSF.
Source: Neurology Clinical Practice - Category: Neurology Authors: Tags: Case Source Type: research
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