Reevaluation of the efficacy of favipiravir against rabies virus using in vivo imaging analysis.

Reevaluation of the efficacy of favipiravir against rabies virus using in vivo imaging analysis. Antiviral Res. 2019 Oct 28;:104641 Authors: Yamada K, Noguchi K, Kimitsuki K, Kaimori R, Saito N, Komeno T, Nakajima N, Furuta Y, Nishizono A Abstract Rabies virus (RABV) is a highly neurotropic virus and the causative agent of rabies, an encephalitis with an almost 100% case-fatality rate that remains incurable after the onset of symptoms. Favipiravir (T-705), a broad-spectrum antiviral drug against RNA viruses, has been shown to be effective against RABV in vitro but ineffective in vivo. We hypothesized that favipiravir is effective in infected mice when RABV replicates in the peripheral tissues/nerves but not after virus neuroinvasion. We attempted to clarify this point in this study using in vivo bioluminescence imaging. We generated a recombinant RABV from the field isolate 1088, which expressed red firefly luciferase (1088/RFLuc). This allowed semiquantitative detection and monitoring of primary replication at the inoculation site and viral spread in the central nervous system (CNS) in the same mice. Bioluminescence imaging revealed that favipiravir (300 mg/kg/day) treatment commencing 1 h after intramuscular inoculation of RABV efficiently suppressed viral replication at the inoculation site and the subsequent replication in the CNS. However, virus replication in the CNS was not inhibited when the treatment began 2 days after inoculation. We also f...
Source: Antiviral Research - Category: Virology Authors: Tags: Antiviral Res Source Type: research

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This article provides information on these and other travel vaccinations against hepatitis A, typhoid fever, rabies, Japanese encephalitis and cholera.Yellow fever endemic areas are located in Africa and in South America; there is no yellow fever in Asia. The meningococcal vaccine (A, C, W, Y) is required for pilgrims to Saudi Arabia. Additionally, it is recommended for travellers visiting the African "meningitis belt" during the dry season. A polio booster is required for countries with endemic wild-type polio virus (WPV) or circulating vaccine derived poliovirus (cVDPV).Hepatitis A is a common vaccine-prev...
Source: Bundesgesundheitsblatt, Gesundheitsforschung, Gesundheitsschutz - Category: International Medicine & Public Health Authors: Tags: Bundesgesundheitsblatt Gesundheitsforschung Gesundheitsschutz Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 28 October 2019Source: Antiviral ResearchAuthor(s): Kentaro Yamada, Kazuko Noguchi, Kazunori Kimitsuki, Ryo Kaimori, Nobuo Saito, Takashi Komeno, Nozomi Nakajima, Yousuke Furuta, Akira NishizonoAbstractRabies virus (RABV) is a highly neurotropic virus and the causative agent of rabies, an encephalitis with an almost 100% case-fatality rate that remains incurable after the onset of symptoms. Favipiravir (T-705), a broad-spectrum antiviral drug against RNA viruses, has been shown to be effective against RABV in vitro but ineffective in vivo. We hypothesized that favipiravir is effective in ...
Source: Antiviral Therapy - Category: Virology Source Type: research
Discussion Dengue is an important arboviral infection that affects about 40% of the world population. It is found mainly in topical and subtropical areas of the world mainly in developing countries but it range is spreading including the United States. A review of common arboviruses can be found here. It is a flaviavirus with 4 distinct serotypes named DENV-1 through DENV-4 and is spread by A. aegypti a day biting mosquito. Infection with one serotype confers immunity to that serotype but not the others. It does offer some protection for cross-infection but this only lasts a few months. Incubation period is 3-14 days with ...
Source: PediatricEducation.org - Category: Pediatrics Authors: Tags: Uncategorized Source Type: news
Chandrakant M Bokade, Vishal S Gajimwar, Rajkumar M Meshram, Swapnil B WathoreAnnals of Indian Academy of Neurology 2019 22(3):319-321 Rabies is a fatal zoonotic disease transmitted primarily by dogs, cats, and bats, which accounts for approximately 59,000 deaths globally per year. An 8-year-old boy from rural central India developed an atypical presentation of rabies following a street dog bite in spite of receiving postexposure prophylaxis and proper care of Category III wounds. A diagnosis of rabies was made on the basis of clinical background, neuroimaging finding, excess antibody titer, detection of rabies viral anti...
Source: Annals of Indian Academy of Neurology - Category: Neurology Authors: Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 7 May 2019Source: Antiviral ResearchAuthor(s): Zoé Lama, Yves Gaudin, Danielle Blondel, Cécile Lagaudriere-GesbertAbstractRabies virus (RABV) is a neurotropic virus that causes fatal encephalitis in humans and animals and still kills up to 59,000 people worldwide every year. To date, only preventive or post-exposure vaccination protects against the disease but therapeutics are missing. After screening a library of 80 kinases inhibitors, we identified two compounds as potent inhibitors of RABV infection: Tyrphostin 9 and Rottlerin. Mechanism of action studies show that both i...
Source: Antiviral Therapy - Category: Virology Source Type: research
Abstract Rabies virus (RABV) is a neurotropic virus that causes fatal encephalitis in humans and animals and still kills up to 59,000 people worldwide every year. To date, only preventive or post-exposure vaccination protects against the disease but therapeutics are missing. After screening a library of 80 kinases inhibitors, we identified two compounds as potent inhibitors of RABV infection: Tyrphostin 9 and Rottlerin. Mechanism of action studies show that both inhibitors interfere with an early step of viral cycle and can prevent viral replication. In presence of Tyrphostin 9, the viral entry through endocytosis...
Source: Antiviral Research - Category: Virology Authors: Tags: Antiviral Res Source Type: research
In this study, we standardized a real-time quantitative RT-PCR duplex assay to be used during intermediate stages of the vaccine production. This assay was done for the quantification of vaccine strain rabies virus, targeting rabies nucleoprotein, and β-actin mRNA of BHK-21 cells as an internal endogenous control. The results showed specific amplification, with the analytical sensitivity ranged from 101 to 106 TCID50/mL with high repeatability rate for the quantification of rabies virus in inactivated vaccine samples. Global organizations are engaged to develop new approaches to determine viable residual virus, and th...
Source: Journal of Virological Methods - Category: Virology Authors: Tags: J Virol Methods Source Type: research
We report the clinical and radiological findings of eight patients with laboratory-confirmed rabies who survived the illness. With the exception of one patient who recovered with mild sequelae, all survivors had poor functional outcomes. The reported survival from rabies in recent years may reflect an increased awareness of the disease and greater access to better critical care facilities in rabies-endemic countries. Nonetheless, there is an urgent need to focus on preventive strategies to reduce the burden of this dreadful disease in rabies-endemic countries. PMID: 30398147 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene - Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Tags: Am J Trop Med Hyg Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 26 October 2018Source: Antiviral ResearchAuthor(s): Natalia Langenfeld Fuoco, Elaine Raniero Fernandes, Sandriana dos Ramos Silva, Fernanda Guedes Luiz, Orlando Garcia Ribeiro, Iana Suly Santos KatzAbstractRabies is a fatal and viral zoonosis that causes acute, progressive encephalitis and remains an important concern in public health. In the last few years, there has been a change in the epidemiological profile of rabies after implementing canine rabies control in the Americas, which has led to a significant increase in both human and pet cases of rabies associated with insectivorous bat...
Source: Antiviral Therapy - Category: Virology Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 25 October 2018Source: Antiviral ResearchAuthor(s): Sophie Rogée, Florence Larrous, Dirk Jochmans, Youcef Ben-Khalifa, Johan Neyts, Hervé BourhyAbstractRabies virus transmits from animals to humans and causes encephalitis. Every year more than 15 million people receive a post exposure prophylaxis (PEP) treatment that is highly effective in the prevention of rabies disease. However, when clinical symptoms appear, for example in people who did not receive PEP, rabies is almost invariably fatal. Due to the limited access to PEP in some target populations, mostly in Asia and in ...
Source: Antiviral Therapy - Category: Virology Source Type: research
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