Endogenous cathelicidin is required for protection against ZIKV-caused testis damage via inactivating virons
Antiviral Res. 2022 Jan 14:105248. doi: 10.1016/j.antiviral.2022.105248. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTCathelicidins have been shown to effectively inhibit flavivirus replication in vitro. However, the effects of mouse and human endogenous cathelicidins on flavivirus infection in vivo are rarely known. We herein found that mouse endogenous cathelicidin CRAMP was significantly up-regulated upon Zika virus (ZIKV) infection. CRAMP deficiency markedly exacerbated ZIKV replication in testis, and aggravated ZIKV-induced testicular damage and ZIKV-induced spermatic damage in mice, indicating that endogenous cathelicidin is requir...
Source: Antiviral Research - January 17, 2022 Category: Virology Authors: Zhen Liu Jing Wu Zhaofeng Qin Chunsheng Dong Hailong Yang Jia Sun Wei Xu Lin Wei Source Type: research

Very low levels of remdesivir resistance in SARS-COV-2 genomes after 18 months of massive usage during the COVID19 pandemic: A GISAID exploratory analysis
Antiviral Res. 2022 Jan 13:105247. doi: 10.1016/j.antiviral.2022.105247. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTMassive usage of antiviral compounds during a pandemic creates an ideal ground for emergence of resistant strains. Remdesivir, a broad-spectrum inhibitor of the viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp), was extensively prescribed under emergency use authorization during the first 18 months of the COVID19 pandemic, before randomized controlled trials showed poor efficacy in hospitalized patients. RdRp mutations conferring resistance to remdesivir are well known from in vitro studies, and the huge SARS-CoV-2 sequencing eff...
Source: Antiviral Research - January 16, 2022 Category: Virology Authors: Daniele Focosi Fabrizio Maggi Scott McConnell Arturo Casadevall Source Type: research

Very low levels of remdesivir resistance in SARS-COV-2 genomes after 18 months of massive usage during the COVID19 pandemic: A GISAID exploratory analysis
Antiviral Res. 2022 Jan 13:105247. doi: 10.1016/j.antiviral.2022.105247. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTMassive usage of antiviral compounds during a pandemic creates an ideal ground for emergence of resistant strains. Remdesivir, a broad-spectrum inhibitor of the viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp), was extensively prescribed under emergency use authorization during the first 18 months of the COVID19 pandemic, before randomized controlled trials showed poor efficacy in hospitalized patients. RdRp mutations conferring resistance to remdesivir are well known from in vitro studies, and the huge SARS-CoV-2 sequencing eff...
Source: Antiviral Research - January 16, 2022 Category: Virology Authors: Daniele Focosi Fabrizio Maggi Scott McConnell Arturo Casadevall Source Type: research

Subcutaneous remdesivir administration prevents interstitial pneumonia in rhesus macaques inoculated with SARS-CoV-2
Antiviral Res. 2022 Jan 12;198:105246. doi: 10.1016/j.antiviral.2022.105246. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTThe utility of remdesivir treatment in COVID-19 patients is currently limited by the necessity to administer this antiviral intravenously, which has generally limited its use to hospitalized patients. Here, we tested a novel, subcutaneous formulation of remdesivir in the rhesus macaque model of SARS-CoV-2 infection that was previously used to establish the efficacy of remdesivir against this virus in vivo. Compared to vehicle-treated animals, macaques treated with subcutaneous remdesivir from 12 h through 6 days post ...
Source: Antiviral Research - January 15, 2022 Category: Virology Authors: Brandi N Williamson Lizzette P érez-Pérez Benjamin Schwarz Friederike Feldmann Myndi G Holbrook Manmeet Singh Diane S Lye Darius Babusis Raju Subramanian Elaine Haddock Atsushi Okumura Patrick W Hanley Jamie Lovaglio Catharine M Bosio Danielle P Porter Source Type: research

Immunobiology of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever
Antiviral Res. 2022 Jan 10:105244. doi: 10.1016/j.antiviral.2022.105244. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTHuman infection with Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV), a tick-borne pathogen in the family Nairoviridae, can result in a spectrum of outcomes, ranging from asymptomatic infection through mild clinical signs to severe or fatal disease. Studies of CCHFV immunobiology have investigated the relationship between innate and adaptive immune responses with disease severity, attempting to elucidate factors associated with differential outcomes. In this article, we begin by highlighting unanswered questions, then revie...
Source: Antiviral Research - January 13, 2022 Category: Virology Authors: Sergio E Rodriguez David W Hawman Teresa E Sorvillo T Justin O'Neal Brian H Bird Luis L Rodriguez Éric Bergeron Stuart T Nichol Joel M Montgomery Christina F Spiropoulou Jessica R Spengler Source Type: research

Immunobiology of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever
Antiviral Res. 2022 Jan 10:105244. doi: 10.1016/j.antiviral.2022.105244. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTHuman infection with Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV), a tick-borne pathogen in the family Nairoviridae, can result in a spectrum of outcomes, ranging from asymptomatic infection through mild clinical signs to severe or fatal disease. Studies of CCHFV immunobiology have investigated the relationship between innate and adaptive immune responses with disease severity, attempting to elucidate factors associated with differential outcomes. In this article, we begin by highlighting unanswered questions, then revie...
Source: Antiviral Research - January 13, 2022 Category: Virology Authors: Sergio E Rodriguez David W Hawman Teresa E Sorvillo T Justin O'Neal Brian H Bird Luis L Rodriguez Éric Bergeron Stuart T Nichol Joel M Montgomery Christina F Spiropoulou Jessica R Spengler Source Type: research

Immunobiology of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever
Antiviral Res. 2022 Jan 10:105244. doi: 10.1016/j.antiviral.2022.105244. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTHuman infection with Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV), a tick-borne pathogen in the family Nairoviridae, can result in a spectrum of outcomes, ranging from asymptomatic infection through mild clinical signs to severe or fatal disease. Studies of CCHFV immunobiology have investigated the relationship between innate and adaptive immune responses with disease severity, attempting to elucidate factors associated with differential outcomes. In this article, we begin by highlighting unanswered questions, then revie...
Source: Antiviral Research - January 13, 2022 Category: Virology Authors: Sergio E Rodriguez David W Hawman Teresa E Sorvillo T Justin O'Neal Brian H Bird Luis L Rodriguez Éric Bergeron Stuart T Nichol Joel M Montgomery Christina F Spiropoulou Jessica R Spengler Source Type: research

Novel reverse genetics of genotype I and III Japanese encephalitis viruses assembled through transformation associated recombination in yeast: The reporter viruses expressing a green fluorescent protein for the antiviral screening assay
Antiviral Res. 2022 Jan;197:105233. doi: 10.1016/j.antiviral.2021.105233. Epub 2021 Dec 30.ABSTRACTJapanese encephalitis virus (JEV) belongs to a zoonotic flavivirus and is the main cause of viral encephalitis in humans throughout Asia. During the past two decades, both genotypes I (G) and III (GIII) JEVs co-existed in many Asian countries, and the prevalent strains have shifted from GIII to GI. Since all licensed JE vaccines are derived from GIII strains and no specific treatment is available, the development of novel vaccines and specific antiviral drugs against both genotypes is urgently required. To solve the unstable ...
Source: Antiviral Research - January 1, 2022 Category: Virology Authors: Chenxi Li Xuan Chen Yanyang Zhou Jingbo Hu Xinjie Wang Yanhua Li Source Type: research

Novel reverse genetics of genotype I and III Japanese encephalitis viruses assembled through transformation associated recombination in yeast: The reporter viruses expressing a green fluorescent protein for the antiviral screening assay
Antiviral Res. 2022 Jan;197:105233. doi: 10.1016/j.antiviral.2021.105233. Epub 2021 Dec 30.ABSTRACTJapanese encephalitis virus (JEV) belongs to a zoonotic flavivirus and is the main cause of viral encephalitis in humans throughout Asia. During the past two decades, both genotypes I (G) and III (GIII) JEVs co-existed in many Asian countries, and the prevalent strains have shifted from GIII to GI. Since all licensed JE vaccines are derived from GIII strains and no specific treatment is available, the development of novel vaccines and specific antiviral drugs against both genotypes is urgently required. To solve the unstable ...
Source: Antiviral Research - January 1, 2022 Category: Virology Authors: Chenxi Li Xuan Chen Yanyang Zhou Jingbo Hu Xinjie Wang Yanhua Li Source Type: research

Novel reverse genetics of genotype I and III Japanese encephalitis viruses assembled through transformation associated recombination in yeast: The reporter viruses expressing a green fluorescent protein for the antiviral screening assay
Antiviral Res. 2022 Jan;197:105233. doi: 10.1016/j.antiviral.2021.105233. Epub 2021 Dec 30.ABSTRACTJapanese encephalitis virus (JEV) belongs to a zoonotic flavivirus and is the main cause of viral encephalitis in humans throughout Asia. During the past two decades, both genotypes I (G) and III (GIII) JEVs co-existed in many Asian countries, and the prevalent strains have shifted from GIII to GI. Since all licensed JE vaccines are derived from GIII strains and no specific treatment is available, the development of novel vaccines and specific antiviral drugs against both genotypes is urgently required. To solve the unstable ...
Source: Antiviral Research - January 1, 2022 Category: Virology Authors: Chenxi Li Xuan Chen Yanyang Zhou Jingbo Hu Xinjie Wang Yanhua Li Source Type: research

Novel reverse genetics of genotype I and III Japanese encephalitis viruses assembled through transformation associated recombination in yeast: The reporter viruses expressing a green fluorescent protein for the antiviral screening assay
Antiviral Res. 2022 Jan;197:105233. doi: 10.1016/j.antiviral.2021.105233. Epub 2021 Dec 30.ABSTRACTJapanese encephalitis virus (JEV) belongs to a zoonotic flavivirus and is the main cause of viral encephalitis in humans throughout Asia. During the past two decades, both genotypes I (G) and III (GIII) JEVs co-existed in many Asian countries, and the prevalent strains have shifted from GIII to GI. Since all licensed JE vaccines are derived from GIII strains and no specific treatment is available, the development of novel vaccines and specific antiviral drugs against both genotypes is urgently required. To solve the unstable ...
Source: Antiviral Research - January 1, 2022 Category: Virology Authors: Chenxi Li Xuan Chen Yanyang Zhou Jingbo Hu Xinjie Wang Yanhua Li Source Type: research

Novel reverse genetics of genotype I and III Japanese encephalitis viruses assembled through transformation associated recombination in yeast: The reporter viruses expressing a green fluorescent protein for the antiviral screening assay
Antiviral Res. 2021 Dec 29:105233. doi: 10.1016/j.antiviral.2021.105233. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTJapanese encephalitis virus (JEV) belongs to a zoonotic flavivirus and is the main cause of viral encephalitis in humans throughout Asia. During the past two decades, both genotypes I (G) and III (GIII) JEVs co-existed in many Asian countries, and the prevalent strains have shifted from GIII to GI. Since all licensed JE vaccines are derived from GIII strains and no specific treatment is available, the development of novel vaccines and specific antiviral drugs against both genotypes is urgently required. To solve the unsta...
Source: Antiviral Research - January 1, 2022 Category: Virology Authors: Chenxi Li Xuan Chen Yanyang Zhou Jingbo Hu Xinjie Wang Yanhua Li Source Type: research

Novel reverse genetics of genotype I and III Japanese encephalitis viruses assembled through transformation associated recombination in yeast: The reporter viruses expressing a green fluorescent protein for the antiviral screening assay
Antiviral Res. 2021 Dec 29:105233. doi: 10.1016/j.antiviral.2021.105233. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTJapanese encephalitis virus (JEV) belongs to a zoonotic flavivirus and is the main cause of viral encephalitis in humans throughout Asia. During the past two decades, both genotypes I (G) and III (GIII) JEVs co-existed in many Asian countries, and the prevalent strains have shifted from GIII to GI. Since all licensed JE vaccines are derived from GIII strains and no specific treatment is available, the development of novel vaccines and specific antiviral drugs against both genotypes is urgently required. To solve the unsta...
Source: Antiviral Research - January 1, 2022 Category: Virology Authors: Chenxi Li Xuan Chen Yanyang Zhou Jingbo Hu Xinjie Wang Yanhua Li Source Type: research

S-adenosylmethionine-dependent methyltransferase inhibitor DZNep blocks transcription and translation of SARS-CoV-2 genome with a low tendency to select for drug-resistant viral variants
We report the in vitro antiviral activity of DZNep (3-Deazaneplanocin A; an inhibitor of S-adenosylmethionine-dependent methyltransferase) against SARS-CoV-2, besides demonstrating its protective efficacy against lethal infection of infectious bronchitis virus (IBV, a member of the Coronaviridae family). DZNep treatment resulted in reduced synthesis of SARS-CoV-2 RNA and proteins without affecting other steps of viral life cycle. We demonstrated that deposition of N6-methyl adenosine (m6A) in SARS-CoV-2 RNA in the infected cells recruits heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein A1 (hnRNPA1), an RNA binding protein which ser...
Source: Antiviral Research - December 30, 2021 Category: Virology Authors: Ram Kumar Nitin Khandelwal Yogesh Chander Himanshu Nagori Assim Verma Aditya Barua Bhagraj Godara Yash Pal Baldev R Gulati Bhupendra N Tripathi Sanjay Barua Naveen Kumar Source Type: research

S-adenosylmethionine-dependent methyltransferase inhibitor DZNep blocks transcription and translation of SARS-CoV-2 genome with a low tendency to select for drug-resistant viral variants
We report the in vitro antiviral activity of DZNep (3-Deazaneplanocin A; an inhibitor of S-adenosylmethionine-dependent methyltransferase) against SARS-CoV-2, besides demonstrating its protective efficacy against lethal infection of infectious bronchitis virus (IBV, a member of the Coronaviridae family). DZNep treatment resulted in reduced synthesis of SARS-CoV-2 RNA and proteins without affecting other steps of viral life cycle. We demonstrated that deposition of N6-methyl adenosine (m6A) in SARS-CoV-2 RNA in the infected cells recruits heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein A1 (hnRNPA1), an RNA binding protein which ser...
Source: Antiviral Research - December 30, 2021 Category: Virology Authors: Ram Kumar Nitin Khandelwal Yogesh Chander Himanshu Nagori Assim Verma Aditya Barua Bhagraj Godara Yash Pal Baldev R Gulati Bhupendra N Tripathi Sanjay Barua Naveen Kumar Source Type: research

Screening and identification of Lassa virus endonuclease-targeting inhibitors from a fragment-based drug discovery library
Antiviral Res. 2021 Dec 26:105230. doi: 10.1016/j.antiviral.2021.105230. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTLassa virus (LASV) belongs to the Old World genus Mammarenavirus, family Arenaviridae, and order Bunyavirales. Arenavirus contains a segmented negative-sense RNA genome, which is in line with the bunyavirus and orthomyxoviruses. The segmented negative-sense RNA viruses utilize a cap-snatching strategy to provide primers cleavaged from the host capped mRNA for viral mRNA transcription. As a similar strategy and the conformational conservation shared with these viruses, the endonuclease (EN) would serve as an attractive tar...
Source: Antiviral Research - December 29, 2021 Category: Virology Authors: Xiaohao Lan Yueli Zhang Xiaoying Jia Siqi Dong Yang Liu Mengmeng Zhang Jiao Guo Junyuan Cao Yu Guo Gengfu Xiao Wei Wang Source Type: research

A split NanoLuc complementation-based human norovirus-like particle entry assay facilitates evaluation of anti-norovirus antibodies in live cells
In this study, we successfully developed a NoV virus-like particle (VLP) entry assay based on split NanoLuc luciferase (LgBiT and HiBiT) complementation. HiBiT-tagged NoV GII.4 VLP (VLP-HiBiT) can be efficiently produced in Pichia pastoris and retain binding activity towards NoV receptor histo-blood group antigens (HBGAs). A 293T-FUT2-LgBiT cell line was established and was shown to stably express cell surface HBGAs and intracellular LgBiT. GII.4 VLP-HiBiT can bind and enter into the 293-FUT2-LgBiT cells, producing strong luminescence signals in live cells. Anti-GII.4 sera can inhibit VLP-HiBiT entry into the 293-FUT2-LgBi...
Source: Antiviral Research - December 29, 2021 Category: Virology Authors: Weihua Qiao Shuxia Wang Chao Zhang Zhong Huang Source Type: research

Screening and identification of Lassa virus endonuclease-targeting inhibitors from a fragment-based drug discovery library
Antiviral Res. 2021 Dec 26:105230. doi: 10.1016/j.antiviral.2021.105230. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTLassa virus (LASV) belongs to the Old World genus Mammarenavirus, family Arenaviridae, and order Bunyavirales. Arenavirus contains a segmented negative-sense RNA genome, which is in line with the bunyavirus and orthomyxoviruses. The segmented negative-sense RNA viruses utilize a cap-snatching strategy to provide primers cleavaged from the host capped mRNA for viral mRNA transcription. As a similar strategy and the conformational conservation shared with these viruses, the endonuclease (EN) would serve as an attractive tar...
Source: Antiviral Research - December 29, 2021 Category: Virology Authors: Xiaohao Lan Yueli Zhang Xiaoying Jia Siqi Dong Yang Liu Mengmeng Zhang Jiao Guo Junyuan Cao Yu Guo Gengfu Xiao Wei Wang Source Type: research

A split NanoLuc complementation-based human norovirus-like particle entry assay facilitates evaluation of anti-norovirus antibodies in live cells
In this study, we successfully developed a NoV virus-like particle (VLP) entry assay based on split NanoLuc luciferase (LgBiT and HiBiT) complementation. HiBiT-tagged NoV GII.4 VLP (VLP-HiBiT) can be efficiently produced in Pichia pastoris and retain binding activity towards NoV receptor histo-blood group antigens (HBGAs). A 293T-FUT2-LgBiT cell line was established and was shown to stably express cell surface HBGAs and intracellular LgBiT. GII.4 VLP-HiBiT can bind and enter into the 293-FUT2-LgBiT cells, producing strong luminescence signals in live cells. Anti-GII.4 sera can inhibit VLP-HiBiT entry into the 293-FUT2-LgBi...
Source: Antiviral Research - December 29, 2021 Category: Virology Authors: Weihua Qiao Shuxia Wang Chao Zhang Zhong Huang Source Type: research

Comparison of the effects of different potent adjuvants on enhancing the immunogenicity and cross-protection by influenza virus vaccination in young and aged mice
This study has significance in comparing the effects of potent adjuvants on enhancing humoral and cellular immune responses to influenza virus vaccination, inducing homologous and cross-protection in adult and aged populations.PMID:34933043 | DOI:10.1016/j.antiviral.2021.105229 (Source: Antiviral Research)
Source: Antiviral Research - December 21, 2021 Category: Virology Authors: Noopur Bhatnagar Ki-Hye Kim Jeeva Subbiah Bo Ryoung Park Eun-Ju Ko Baik-Lin Seong Sang-Moo Kang Source Type: research

COVID-19, Influenza and RSV: Surveillance-informed prevention and treatment - Meeting report from an isirv-WHO virtual conference
This report summarizes the oral presentations given at this meeting for the benefit of the broader medical and scientific community involved in surveillance, treatment and prevention of respiratory virus diseases.PMID:34933044 | PMC:PMC8684224 | DOI:10.1016/j.antiviral.2021.105227 (Source: Antiviral Research)
Source: Antiviral Research - December 21, 2021 Category: Virology Authors: Jennifer L McKimm-Breschkin Alan J Hay Bin Cao Rebecca J Cox Jake Dunning Ann C Moen Daniel Olsen Andr és Pizzorno Frederick G Hayden Source Type: research

Comparison of the effects of different potent adjuvants on enhancing the immunogenicity and cross-protection by influenza virus vaccination in young and aged mice
This study has significance in comparing the effects of potent adjuvants on enhancing humoral and cellular immune responses to influenza virus vaccination, inducing homologous and cross-protection in adult and aged populations.PMID:34933043 | DOI:10.1016/j.antiviral.2021.105229 (Source: Antiviral Research)
Source: Antiviral Research - December 21, 2021 Category: Virology Authors: Noopur Bhatnagar Ki-Hye Kim Jeeva Subbiah Bo Ryoung Park Eun-Ju Ko Baik-Lin Seong Sang-Moo Kang Source Type: research

COVID-19, Influenza and RSV: Surveillance-informed prevention and treatment - Meeting report from an isirv-WHO virtual conference
This report summarizes the oral presentations given at this meeting for the benefit of the broader medical and scientific community involved in surveillance, treatment and prevention of respiratory virus diseases.PMID:34933044 | PMC:PMC8684224 | DOI:10.1016/j.antiviral.2021.105227 (Source: Antiviral Research)
Source: Antiviral Research - December 21, 2021 Category: Virology Authors: Jennifer L McKimm-Breschkin Alan J Hay Bin Cao Rebecca J Cox Jake Dunning Ann C Moen Daniel Olsen Andr és Pizzorno Frederick G Hayden Source Type: research

Comparison of the effects of different potent adjuvants on enhancing the immunogenicity and cross-protection by influenza virus vaccination in young and aged mice
This study has significance in comparing the effects of potent adjuvants on enhancing humoral and cellular immune responses to influenza virus vaccination, inducing homologous and cross-protection in adult and aged populations.PMID:34933043 | DOI:10.1016/j.antiviral.2021.105229 (Source: Antiviral Research)
Source: Antiviral Research - December 21, 2021 Category: Virology Authors: Noopur Bhatnagar Ki-Hye Kim Jeeva Subbiah Bo Ryoung Park Eun-Ju Ko Baik-Lin Seong Sang-Moo Kang Source Type: research

COVID-19, Influenza and RSV: Surveillance-informed prevention and treatment - Meeting report from an isirv-WHO virtual conference
This report summarizes the oral presentations given at this meeting for the benefit of the broader medical and scientific community involved in surveillance, treatment and prevention of respiratory virus diseases.PMID:34933044 | PMC:PMC8684224 | DOI:10.1016/j.antiviral.2021.105227 (Source: Antiviral Research)
Source: Antiviral Research - December 21, 2021 Category: Virology Authors: Jennifer L McKimm-Breschkin Alan J Hay Bin Cao Rebecca J Cox Jake Dunning Ann C Moen Daniel Olsen Andr és Pizzorno Frederick G Hayden Source Type: research

Comparison of the effects of different potent adjuvants on enhancing the immunogenicity and cross-protection by influenza virus vaccination in young and aged mice
This study has significance in comparing the effects of potent adjuvants on enhancing humoral and cellular immune responses to influenza virus vaccination, inducing homologous and cross-protection in adult and aged populations.PMID:34933043 | DOI:10.1016/j.antiviral.2021.105229 (Source: Antiviral Research)
Source: Antiviral Research - December 21, 2021 Category: Virology Authors: Noopur Bhatnagar Ki-Hye Kim Jeeva Subbiah Bo Ryoung Park Eun-Ju Ko Baik-Lin Seong Sang-Moo Kang Source Type: research

COVID-19, Influenza and RSV: Surveillance-informed prevention and treatment - Meeting report from an isirv-WHO virtual conference
This report summarizes the oral presentations given at this meeting for the benefit of the broader medical and scientific community involved in surveillance, treatment and prevention of respiratory virus diseases.PMID:34933044 | PMC:PMC8684224 | DOI:10.1016/j.antiviral.2021.105227 (Source: Antiviral Research)
Source: Antiviral Research - December 21, 2021 Category: Virology Authors: Jennifer L McKimm-Breschkin Alan J Hay Bin Cao Rebecca J Cox Jake Dunning Ann C Moen Daniel Olsen Andr és Pizzorno Frederick G Hayden Source Type: research

Comparison of the effects of different potent adjuvants on enhancing the immunogenicity and cross-protection by influenza virus vaccination in young and aged mice
This study has significance in comparing the effects of potent adjuvants on enhancing humoral and cellular immune responses to influenza virus vaccination, inducing homologous and cross-protection in adult and aged populations.PMID:34933043 | DOI:10.1016/j.antiviral.2021.105229 (Source: Antiviral Research)
Source: Antiviral Research - December 21, 2021 Category: Virology Authors: Noopur Bhatnagar Ki-Hye Kim Jeeva Subbiah Bo Ryoung Park Eun-Ju Ko Baik-Lin Seong Sang-Moo Kang Source Type: research

COVID-19, Influenza and RSV: Surveillance-informed prevention and treatment - Meeting report from an isirv-WHO virtual conference
This report summarizes the oral presentations given at this meeting for the benefit of the broader medical and scientific community involved in surveillance, treatment and prevention of respiratory virus diseases.PMID:34933044 | PMC:PMC8684224 | DOI:10.1016/j.antiviral.2021.105227 (Source: Antiviral Research)
Source: Antiviral Research - December 21, 2021 Category: Virology Authors: Jennifer L McKimm-Breschkin Alan J Hay Bin Cao Rebecca J Cox Jake Dunning Ann C Moen Daniel Olsen Andr és Pizzorno Frederick G Hayden Source Type: research

Comparison of the effects of different potent adjuvants on enhancing the immunogenicity and cross-protection by influenza virus vaccination in young and aged mice
This study has significance in comparing the effects of potent adjuvants on enhancing humoral and cellular immune responses to influenza virus vaccination, inducing homologous and cross-protection in adult and aged populations.PMID:34933043 | DOI:10.1016/j.antiviral.2021.105229 (Source: Antiviral Research)
Source: Antiviral Research - December 21, 2021 Category: Virology Authors: Noopur Bhatnagar Ki-Hye Kim Jeeva Subbiah Bo Ryoung Park Eun-Ju Ko Baik-Lin Seong Sang-Moo Kang Source Type: research

COVID-19, Influenza and RSV: Surveillance-informed prevention and treatment - Meeting report from an isirv-WHO virtual conference
This report summarizes the oral presentations given at this meeting for the benefit of the broader medical and scientific community involved in surveillance, treatment and prevention of respiratory virus diseases.PMID:34933044 | PMC:PMC8684224 | DOI:10.1016/j.antiviral.2021.105227 (Source: Antiviral Research)
Source: Antiviral Research - December 21, 2021 Category: Virology Authors: Jennifer L McKimm-Breschkin Alan J Hay Bin Cao Rebecca J Cox Jake Dunning Ann C Moen Daniel Olsen Andr és Pizzorno Frederick G Hayden Source Type: research

Niclosamide inhibits hepatitis E virus through suppression of NF-kappaB signalling
In this study, we identified niclosamide, a widely used anthelmintic drug, as a potent inhibitor of HEV replication in a range of subgenomic and full-length HEV models, which are based on human cell lines and liver organoids harbouring genotype 1 and 3 HEV strains. Niclosamide is known to have multiple cellular targets including the inhibition of STAT3 and NFκB signaling pathways. Although HEV activates STAT3, we excluded its involvement in the anti-HEV activity of niclosamide. Interestingly, HEV infection activated NFκB and activation of NFκB promoted viral replication. Consistently, stable silencing of ...
Source: Antiviral Research - December 20, 2021 Category: Virology Authors: Yunlong Li Pengfei Li Qiyu He Ruyi Zhang Yang Li Nassim Kamar Maikel P Peppelenbosch Robert A de Man Lin Wang Qiuwei Pan Source Type: research

Niclosamide inhibits hepatitis E virus through suppression of NF-kappaB signalling
In this study, we identified niclosamide, a widely used anthelmintic drug, as a potent inhibitor of HEV replication in a range of subgenomic and full-length HEV models, which are based on human cell lines and liver organoids harbouring genotype 1 and 3 HEV strains. Niclosamide is known to have multiple cellular targets including the inhibition of STAT3 and NFκB signaling pathways. Although HEV activates STAT3, we excluded its involvement in the anti-HEV activity of niclosamide. Interestingly, HEV infection activated NFκB and activation of NFκB promoted viral replication. Consistently, stable silencing of ...
Source: Antiviral Research - December 20, 2021 Category: Virology Authors: Yunlong Li Pengfei Li Qiyu He Ruyi Zhang Yang Li Nassim Kamar Maikel P Peppelenbosch Robert A de Man Lin Wang Qiuwei Pan Source Type: research

CD47 expression attenuates Ebola virus-induced immunopathology in mice
Antiviral Res. 2021 Dec 16:105226. doi: 10.1016/j.antiviral.2021.105226. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTIt has been shown that a very early cell-intrinsic response to infection is the upregulation of CD47 cell surface expression, a molecule known for delivering a "don't eat me signal" that inhibits macrophage-mediated phagocytosis and antigen presentation. Thus, blockade of CD47 signaling during lymphocytic choriomenigitis virus infections of mice has been shown to enhance the kinetics and potency of immune responses, thereby producing faster recovery. It seems counterintuitive that one of the earliest responses t...
Source: Antiviral Research - December 19, 2021 Category: Virology Authors: Deepashri Rao Kyle L O'Donnell Aaron Carmody Irving L Weissman Kim J Hasenkrug Andrea Marzi Source Type: research

CD47 expression attenuates Ebola virus-induced immunopathology in mice
Antiviral Res. 2021 Dec 16:105226. doi: 10.1016/j.antiviral.2021.105226. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTIt has been shown that a very early cell-intrinsic response to infection is the upregulation of CD47 cell surface expression, a molecule known for delivering a "don't eat me signal" that inhibits macrophage-mediated phagocytosis and antigen presentation. Thus, blockade of CD47 signaling during lymphocytic choriomenigitis virus infections of mice has been shown to enhance the kinetics and potency of immune responses, thereby producing faster recovery. It seems counterintuitive that one of the earliest responses t...
Source: Antiviral Research - December 19, 2021 Category: Virology Authors: Deepashri Rao Kyle L O'Donnell Aaron Carmody Irving L Weissman Kim J Hasenkrug Andrea Marzi Source Type: research

Association of C-reactive protein polymorphisms with serum-CRP concentration and viral load among dengue-chikungunya mono/co-infected patients
This study investigated role of CRP single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotypes and protein levels towards DENV/CHIKV mono and co-infection among eastern Indian patients. 128 DENV-CHIKV co-infected, 206 DENV and 167 CHIKV mono-infected patients were subjected to genotyping of two CRP SNPs by PCR-RFLP along with 102 healthy individuals. CRP levels were determined by immunoturbidimetry. Statistical correlation of CRP genotypes with CRP concentration, DENV-CHIKV mono/co-infection and viral load was performed. Patients with rs3093059-CT and rs3091244-TT were more susceptible to DENV-CHIKV co-infection, whereas, rs3091244-CT...
Source: Antiviral Research - December 16, 2021 Category: Virology Authors: Siddhartha Sengupta Nemai Bhattacharya Anusri Tripathi Source Type: research

Association of C-reactive protein polymorphisms with serum-CRP concentration and viral load among dengue-chikungunya mono/co-infected patients
This study investigated role of CRP single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotypes and protein levels towards DENV/CHIKV mono and co-infection among eastern Indian patients. 128 DENV-CHIKV co-infected, 206 DENV and 167 CHIKV mono-infected patients were subjected to genotyping of two CRP SNPs by PCR-RFLP along with 102 healthy individuals. CRP levels were determined by immunoturbidimetry. Statistical correlation of CRP genotypes with CRP concentration, DENV-CHIKV mono/co-infection and viral load was performed. Patients with rs3093059-CT and rs3091244-TT were more susceptible to DENV-CHIKV co-infection, whereas, rs3091244-CT...
Source: Antiviral Research - December 16, 2021 Category: Virology Authors: Siddhartha Sengupta Nemai Bhattacharya Anusri Tripathi Source Type: research

Association of C-reactive protein polymorphisms with serum-CRP concentration and viral load among dengue-chikungunya mono/co-infected patients
This study investigated role of CRP single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotypes and protein levels towards DENV/CHIKV mono and co-infection among eastern Indian patients. 128 DENV-CHIKV co-infected, 206 DENV and 167 CHIKV mono-infected patients were subjected to genotyping of two CRP SNPs by PCR-RFLP along with 102 healthy individuals. CRP levels were determined by immunoturbidimetry. Statistical correlation of CRP genotypes with CRP concentration, DENV-CHIKV mono/co-infection and viral load was performed. Patients with rs3093059-CT and rs3091244-TT were more susceptible to DENV-CHIKV co-infection, whereas, rs3091244-CT...
Source: Antiviral Research - December 16, 2021 Category: Virology Authors: Siddhartha Sengupta Nemai Bhattacharya Anusri Tripathi Source Type: research

Identification of a novel replication-competent hepatitis C virus variant that confers the sofosbuvir resistance
In conclusion, we identified the combination of two NS5B mutations S282T and K74R as a novel RAS that confers a substantial resistance to SOF while retains the HCV replication capacity.PMID:34864126 | DOI:10.1016/j.antiviral.2021.105224 (Source: Antiviral Research)
Source: Antiviral Research - December 5, 2021 Category: Virology Authors: Steve Leumi Mingzhe Guo Jie Lu Zhaoning Wang Tianyu Gan Lin Han Jackline Ngari Yimin Tong Xiaogang Xiang Qing Xie Lanfeng Wang Jin Zhong Source Type: research

Identification of a novel replication-competent hepatitis C virus variant that confers the sofosbuvir resistance
In conclusion, we identified the combination of two NS5B mutations S282T and K74R as a novel RAS that confers a substantial resistance to SOF while retains the HCV replication capacity.PMID:34864126 | DOI:10.1016/j.antiviral.2021.105224 (Source: Antiviral Research)
Source: Antiviral Research - December 5, 2021 Category: Virology Authors: Steve Leumi Mingzhe Guo Jie Lu Zhaoning Wang Tianyu Gan Lin Han Jackline Ngari Yimin Tong Xiaogang Xiang Qing Xie Lanfeng Wang Jin Zhong Source Type: research

Identification of a novel replication-competent hepatitis C virus variant that confers the sofosbuvir resistance
In conclusion, we identified the combination of two NS5B mutations S282T and K74R as a novel RAS that confers a substantial resistance to SOF while retains the HCV replication capacity.PMID:34864126 | DOI:10.1016/j.antiviral.2021.105224 (Source: Antiviral Research)
Source: Antiviral Research - December 5, 2021 Category: Virology Authors: Steve Leumi Mingzhe Guo Jie Lu Zhaoning Wang Tianyu Gan Lin Han Jackline Ngari Yimin Tong Xiaogang Xiang Qing Xie Lanfeng Wang Jin Zhong Source Type: research

Identification of a novel replication-competent hepatitis C virus variant that confers the sofosbuvir resistance
In conclusion, we identified the combination of two NS5B mutations S282T and K74R as a novel RAS that confers a substantial resistance to SOF while retains the HCV replication capacity.PMID:34864126 | DOI:10.1016/j.antiviral.2021.105224 (Source: Antiviral Research)
Source: Antiviral Research - December 5, 2021 Category: Virology Authors: Steve Leumi Mingzhe Guo Jie Lu Zhaoning Wang Tianyu Gan Lin Han Jackline Ngari Yimin Tong Xiaogang Xiang Qing Xie Lanfeng Wang Jin Zhong Source Type: research

Identification of a novel replication-competent hepatitis C virus variant that confers the sofosbuvir resistance
In conclusion, we identified the combination of two NS5B mutations S282T and K74R as a novel RAS that confers a substantial resistance to SOF while retains the HCV replication capacity.PMID:34864126 | DOI:10.1016/j.antiviral.2021.105224 (Source: Antiviral Research)
Source: Antiviral Research - December 5, 2021 Category: Virology Authors: Steve Leumi Mingzhe Guo Jie Lu Zhaoning Wang Tianyu Gan Lin Han Jackline Ngari Yimin Tong Xiaogang Xiang Qing Xie Lanfeng Wang Jin Zhong Source Type: research

Identification of a novel replication-competent hepatitis C virus variant that confers the sofosbuvir resistance
In conclusion, we identified the combination of two NS5B mutations S282T and K74R as a novel RAS that confers a substantial resistance to SOF while retains the HCV replication capacity.PMID:34864126 | DOI:10.1016/j.antiviral.2021.105224 (Source: Antiviral Research)
Source: Antiviral Research - December 5, 2021 Category: Virology Authors: Steve Leumi Mingzhe Guo Jie Lu Zhaoning Wang Tianyu Gan Lin Han Jackline Ngari Yimin Tong Xiaogang Xiang Qing Xie Lanfeng Wang Jin Zhong Source Type: research

Identification of a novel replication-competent hepatitis C virus variant that confers the sofosbuvir resistance
In conclusion, we identified the combination of two NS5B mutations S282T and K74R as a novel RAS that confers a substantial resistance to SOF while retains the HCV replication capacity.PMID:34864126 | DOI:10.1016/j.antiviral.2021.105224 (Source: Antiviral Research)
Source: Antiviral Research - December 5, 2021 Category: Virology Authors: Steve Leumi Mingzhe Guo Jie Lu Zhaoning Wang Tianyu Gan Lin Han Jackline Ngari Yimin Tong Xiaogang Xiang Qing Xie Lanfeng Wang Jin Zhong Source Type: research

Identification of a novel replication-competent hepatitis C virus variant that confers the sofosbuvir resistance
In conclusion, we identified the combination of two NS5B mutations S282T and K74R as a novel RAS that confers a substantial resistance to SOF while retains the HCV replication capacity.PMID:34864126 | DOI:10.1016/j.antiviral.2021.105224 (Source: Antiviral Research)
Source: Antiviral Research - December 5, 2021 Category: Virology Authors: Steve Leumi Mingzhe Guo Jie Lu Zhaoning Wang Tianyu Gan Lin Han Jackline Ngari Yimin Tong Xiaogang Xiang Qing Xie Lanfeng Wang Jin Zhong Source Type: research

Identification of a novel replication-competent hepatitis C virus variant that confers the sofosbuvir resistance
In conclusion, we identified the combination of two NS5B mutations S282T and K74R as a novel RAS that confers a substantial resistance to SOF while retains the HCV replication capacity.PMID:34864126 | DOI:10.1016/j.antiviral.2021.105224 (Source: Antiviral Research)
Source: Antiviral Research - December 5, 2021 Category: Virology Authors: Steve Leumi Mingzhe Guo Jie Lu Zhaoning Wang Tianyu Gan Lin Han Jackline Ngari Yimin Tong Xiaogang Xiang Qing Xie Lanfeng Wang Jin Zhong Source Type: research

Posaconazole inhibits multiple steps of the alphavirus replication cycle
Antiviral Res. 2021 Nov 29:105223. doi: 10.1016/j.antiviral.2021.105223. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTRepurposing drugs is a promising strategy to identify therapeutic interventions against novel and re-emerging viruses. Posaconazole is an antifungal drug used to treat invasive aspergillosis and candidiasis. Recently, posaconazole and its structural analog, itraconazole were shown to inhibit replication of multiple viruses by modifying intracellular cholesterol homeostasis. Here, we show that posaconazole inhibits replication of the alphaviruses Semliki Forest virus (SFV), Sindbis virus and chikungunya virus with EC50 val...
Source: Antiviral Research - December 2, 2021 Category: Virology Authors: Finny S Varghese Febrina Meutiawati Mona Teppor Sofie Jacobs Carolien de Keyzer Ezgi Ta şköprü Esther van Woudenbergh Gijs J Overheul Ellen Bouma Jolanda M Smit Leen Delang Andres Merits Ronald P van Rij Source Type: research

Posaconazole inhibits multiple steps of the alphavirus replication cycle
Antiviral Res. 2021 Nov 29:105223. doi: 10.1016/j.antiviral.2021.105223. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTRepurposing drugs is a promising strategy to identify therapeutic interventions against novel and re-emerging viruses. Posaconazole is an antifungal drug used to treat invasive aspergillosis and candidiasis. Recently, posaconazole and its structural analog, itraconazole were shown to inhibit replication of multiple viruses by modifying intracellular cholesterol homeostasis. Here, we show that posaconazole inhibits replication of the alphaviruses Semliki Forest virus (SFV), Sindbis virus and chikungunya virus with EC50 val...
Source: Antiviral Research - December 2, 2021 Category: Virology Authors: Finny S Varghese Febrina Meutiawati Mona Teppor Sofie Jacobs Carolien de Keyzer Ezgi Ta şköprü Esther van Woudenbergh Gijs J Overheul Ellen Bouma Jolanda M Smit Leen Delang Andres Merits Ronald P van Rij Source Type: research

Posaconazole inhibits multiple steps of the alphavirus replication cycle
Antiviral Res. 2021 Nov 29:105223. doi: 10.1016/j.antiviral.2021.105223. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTRepurposing drugs is a promising strategy to identify therapeutic interventions against novel and re-emerging viruses. Posaconazole is an antifungal drug used to treat invasive aspergillosis and candidiasis. Recently, posaconazole and its structural analog, itraconazole were shown to inhibit replication of multiple viruses by modifying intracellular cholesterol homeostasis. Here, we show that posaconazole inhibits replication of the alphaviruses Semliki Forest virus (SFV), Sindbis virus and chikungunya virus with EC50 val...
Source: Antiviral Research - December 2, 2021 Category: Virology Authors: Finny S Varghese Febrina Meutiawati Mona Teppor Sofie Jacobs Carolien de Keyzer Ezgi Ta şköprü Esther van Woudenbergh Gijs J Overheul Ellen Bouma Jolanda M Smit Leen Delang Andres Merits Ronald P van Rij Source Type: research