Associations of cortical thickness, surface area and subcortical volumes with insight in drug-naïve adults with obsessive-compulsive disorder

Publication date: Available online 16 October 2019Source: NeuroImage: ClinicalAuthor(s): Wanting Liu, Jun Gan, Jie Fan, Hong Zheng, Sihui Li, Raymond C.K. Chan, Changlian Tan, Xiongzhao ZhuAbstractPoor insight in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is associated with several adverse clinical outcomes. However, the neurobiological basis of this insight deficit is not clearly understood. The present study thus aimed to investigate associations of cortical thickness, cortical surface area and subcortical volumes with insight in a sample of drug-naïve adults with OCD. Forty-seven OCD patients and 42 healthy controls (HCs) underwent MRI scanning, depression and anxiety assessments. The Brown Assessment of Beliefs Scale (BABS) measured insight levels and patients were divided into two groups: poor insight (OCD-PI; n = 21), and good insight (OCD-GI; n = 26). Cortical thickness and surface area between groups were compared with whole-brain exploratory vertex-by-vertex analyses, while subcortical volumes were compared on a structure-by-structure basis. Partial correlation analyses were then performed to assess associations between regional cortical and subcortical measures and insight levels. OCD-GI and OCD-PI groups displayed partly shared, but also partly distinct brain structural alterations. Strikingly, OCD-PI showed decreased cortical thickness in the left superior frontal gyrus, left anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and right inferior parietal gyrus, compared to both...
Source: NeuroImage: Clinical - Category: Radiology Source Type: research

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CONCLUSIONS: These findings are important because they identify experiential avoidance as a potential key explanatory construct in accounting for the development of OCD and suicidal experiences. However, future research using longitudinal and/or experimental designs is needed to infer causality. PMID: 31553082 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Suicide and Life-Threatening Behavior - Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Tags: Suicide Life Threat Behav Source Type: research
Hui Xu1,2,3, Chenguang Guo1, Haining Li1, Lin Gao2, Ming Zhang1* and Yuan Wang1* 1Department of Medical Imaging, The First Affiliated Hospital of Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an, China 2Key Laboratory of Biomedical Information Engineering of Education Ministry, Institute of Biomedical Engineering, Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an, China 3Faculty of Dentistry, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada Background and Purpose: Hemifacial spasm (HFS) is a rare neuromuscular disorder characterized by unilateral, involuntary, and paroxysmal contractions of orofacial muscles. To eluci...
Source: Frontiers in Neurology - Category: Neurology Source Type: research
Conclusion: Some patients with psychiatric syndromes and increased ANA titers may suffer from psychiatric variants of SLE, even if the American College of Rheumatology criteria for SLE are not met. Whether the psychiatric symptoms in our patient represent a prodromal stage with the later manifestation of full-blown SLE or a subtype of SLE with isolated CNS involvement remains unclear. Regardless, early diagnosis and initiation of immunosuppressive treatment are essential steps in preventing further disease progression and organ damage. Intrathecal ANAs with extractable nuclear antigen differentiation may be a more sensitiv...
Source: Frontiers in Psychiatry - Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research
Conclusions: To our knowledge, this is the first study to investigate VS-related tinnitus with respect to both patients' hearing status and psychological condition. Our results suggest that tinnitus distress strongly affects VS patients' QoL and that its characteristics are similar to primary tinnitus. An intervention for VS-related tinnitus, therefore, should assess to what extent tinnitus bothers patients, and it should reduce any unpleasant emotions that may exacerbate symptoms. This approach should improve their QoL. Introduction Vestibular schwannoma (VS)—or acoustic neuroma—is a be...
Source: Frontiers in Neurology - Category: Neurology Source Type: research
Conclusion: This study found that HIV-infected pubertal children showed a delayed cortical maturation with atrophy. This abnormal pattern of cortical development may be the structural basis for cognitive impairment in HIV-infected children. Introduction Acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS)-related encephalopathy is one of the most serious complications of AIDS and is more common in children than in adults (1). At present, there are nearly 2 million children living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in the world, almost all newly infected children are infected through mother-to-child transmission (2). Effec...
Source: Frontiers in Immunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research
Conclusions The treatment used for PD, particularly DA, is associated with the development of ICDs and related behaviors. Susceptibility to these disorders depends on the associated risk factors. ICDs can have serious personal, family, psychosocial, financial, and medical consequences. However, in contrast, artistic activities have been described in patients with PD while undergoing treatment with DA. These patients are compulsive but report a positive influence on quality of life. These findings highlight the need for a very critical approach at the moment of Dopaminergic Replacement therapy choice. Author Contributio...
Source: Frontiers in Neurology - Category: Neurology Source Type: research
When I was a young girl, I struggled with obsessive-compulsive disorder. I believed that if I landed on a crack in the sidewalk, something terrible would happen to me, so I did my best to skip over them. I feared that if I had bad thoughts of any kind, I would go to hell. To purify myself, I would go to confession and Mass over and over again, and spend hours praying the rosary. I felt if I didn’t compliment someone, like the waitress where we were eating dinner, I would bring on the end of the world. What Is OCD? The National Institute of Mental Health defines OCD as a “common, chronic and long-lasting disorde...
Source: World of Psychology - Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Tags: Anxiety and Panic Mental Health and Wellness OCD Personal Self-Help Compulsions Intrusive Thoughts Obsessions Obsessive Compulsive Disorder Source Type: blogs
Conclusion It is clear that clinically, there is still much to be learnt about alexithymia and its relationship with a range of related phenomena. Firstly, is alexithymia a continuous and stable trait independent of psychological or somatic symptomology that is developed during childhood? Or is it instead a reactive state induced by trauma and distress at any age, which serves to defend against intense and upsetting emotions? This impacts on treatment options. For example, should we be focussing on early childhood interventions which target the child's emotional environment and parenting to encourage emotional exp...
Source: Frontiers in Psychiatry - Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research
This study, therefore, compares reappraisal of negative, positive, neutral, and alcohol-related images at a behavioral and neural level between ADPs and healthy controls (HCs).Thirty-nine ADPs and 39 age-, gender-, and education-matched HCs performed an emotion reappraisal task during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), and craving was measured before and after the reappraisal task. During the emotion reappraisal task, participants were instructed to either attend or reappraise positive, negative, neutral, or alcohol-related images, and to indicate their experienced emotion on a visual analogue scale (VAS).Both A...
Source: Frontiers in Psychiatry - Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research
Conclusion We believe our diagnosis of schizo-obsessive disorder in the described patient is appropriate due to his symptoms of schizophrenia and OCD. The OCS at first seemed to have retarded the psychotic manifestation; however, the negative and cognitive symptoms of schizophrenia associated with OCS were prominent, and we believe this greatly contributed to the poor prognosis of our patient. The improvement of his OCS occurred with the emergence of an over-valued idea, corroborating the existence of a schizo-obsessive spectrum modulated by the presence and extent of phenomenological features related to insight. Therefore...
Source: Innovations in Clinical Neuroscience - Category: Neuroscience Authors: Tags: Case Report Current Issue Neurodegenerative Disease Schizophrenia comorbidity insight obsessive compulsive disorder Source Type: research
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