Yale scientists help immune system find hidden cancer cells

A new Yale-developed immunotherapy system has been shown to reduce or eliminate melanoma and triple-negative breast and pancreatic tumors in mice.
Source: Yale Science and Health News - Category: Universities & Medical Training Source Type: news

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In conclusion, DNAM-1 or NKG2D over-expression elicited a dynamic increase in NK cell degranulation against all sarcoma explants and cancer cell lines tested, including those that failed to induce a notable response in WT NK-92 cells. These results support the broad therapeutic potential of DNAM-1+ or NKG2D+ GM NK-92 cells and GM human NK cells for the treatment of sarcomas and other malignancies.
Source: Frontiers in Immunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 3 January 2020Source: Seminars in Cancer BiologyAuthor(s): Kelly Olino, Tristen Park, Ntia AhujaAbstractAdvances in immunotherapy, most notably antibodies targeting the inhibitory immune receptors cytotoxic T-lymphocyte associated protein 4 (CTLA-4/CD152), programmed death protein 1 (PD-1/CD279) and programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1/B7H1/CD274) have become effective standard therapies in advanced malignancies including melanoma,1–4 merkel cell carcinoma5, urological cancers6–8, non-small cell lung cancer9–11, mis-match repair (MMR) deficient tumors12, and Hodgkin lymphoma...
Source: Seminars in Cancer Biology - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research
Cancer immunology drugs, which harness the body ’s immune system to better attack cancer cells, have significantly changed the face of cancer treatment. People with aggressive cancers are now living longer, healthier lives. Unfortunately, cancer immunology therapy only works in a subset of patients.Now, a new study from scientists at the UCLA Jonsson Comprehensive Cancer Center helps explain why some people with advanced cancer may not respond to one of the leading immunotherapies, PD-1 blockade, and how a new combination approach may help overcome resistance to the immunotherapy drug.TheUCLA study, published today i...
Source: UCLA Newsroom: Health Sciences - Category: Universities & Medical Training Source Type: news
AbstractImmunotherapy is now widely established as a potent and effective treatment option across several types of cancer. However, there is increasing recognition that not all patients respond to immunotherapy, focusing attention on the immune contexture of the tumor microenvironment (TME), drivers of the immune response and mechanisms of tumor resistance to immunity. The development of novel immunotherapeutics and their use in combination with checkpoint inhibitors and other standard of care and novel treatment modalities is an area of particular attention across several tumor types, including melanoma, lung, ovarian, br...
Source: Journal for Immunotherapy of Cancer - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research
Yicheng Ni Cancer remains a major cause of death globally. Given its relapsing and fatal features, curing cancer seems to be something hardly possible for the majority of patients. In view of the development in cancer therapies, this article summarizes currently available cancer therapeutics and cure potential by cancer type and stage at diagnosis, based on literature and database reviews. Currently common cancer therapeutics include surgery, chemotherapy, radiotherapy, targeted therapy, and immunotherapy. However, treatment with curative intent by these methods are mainly eligible for patients with localized diseas...
Source: Cancers - Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Tags: Review Source Type: research
We performed a prospective immunohistochemical analysis of lymphocyte activation gene 3 (LAG3) for 430 consecutive patients with advanced gastrointestinal, genitourinary, or rare cancers between June 2012 and March 2016. Most patients (428/430, 99.5%) were evaluable for LAG3 expression by immunohistochemistry. In total, 18.5% (79/428) of the evaluated cancers expressed LAG3, including pancreatic cancer (33.3%, 2/6), gastric cancer (24.7%, 21/85), colorectal cancer (23.6%, 48/203), melanoma (12.5%, 1/8), genitourinary cancer (9.5%, 4/46), biliary tract cancer (6.3%, 1/16), and sarcoma (5.4%, 2/37), but not miscellaneous (0....
Source: Journal of Immunotherapy - Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: Basic Studies Source Type: research
AbstractImmunotherapy has led to a paradigm shift in the treatment of many advanced malignancies. Despite the success in treatment of tumors like non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and melanoma, checkpoint inhibition-based immunotherapy has limitations. Many tumors, such as pancreatic cancer, are less responsive to checkpoint inhibitors, where patients tend to have a limited duration of benefit and where clinical responses are more robust in patients who are positive for predictive biomarkers. One of the critical factors that influence the efficacy of immunotherapy is the tumor microenvironment (TME), which contains a hete...
Source: Journal for Immunotherapy of Cancer - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research
Patients with mesothelioma are now eligible for a multicancer clinical trial studying the effectiveness of personalized immunotherapy at the University of California, San Diego Medical Center. The phase I clinical trial involves a combination of Keytruda (pembrolizumab), a proven immunotherapy drug, and an individualized vaccine based upon the genetic mutations found in each patient’s cancer. “This is the future of cancer treatment,” Dr. Ezra Cohen, principal investigator and director of the San Diego Center for Precision Immunotherapy, told The Mesothelioma Center at Asbestos.com. “Now, we still ha...
Source: Asbestos and Mesothelioma News - Category: Environmental Health Authors: Source Type: news
Abstract CD40 is a cell-surface member of the TNF (tumor necrosis factor) receptor superfamily. Upon activation, CD40 can license dendritic cells to promote antitumor T cell activation and re-educate macrophages to destroy tumor stroma. Numerous agonist CD40 antibodies of varying formulations have been evaluated in the clinic and found to be tolerable and feasible. Administration is associated with mild to moderate (but transient) cytokine release syndrome, readily managed in the outpatient setting. Antitumor activity with or without anti-CTLA4 monoclonal antibody (mAb) therapy has been observed in patients with m...
Source: Annual Review of Medicine - Category: General Medicine Authors: Tags: Annu Rev Med Source Type: research
Patients Selection for Immunotherapy in Solid Tumors: Overcome the Naïve Vision of a Single Biomarker. Biomed Res Int. 2019;2019:9056417 Authors: Signorelli D, Giannatempo P, Grazia G, Aiello MM, Bertolini F, Mirabile A, Buti S, Vasile E, Scotti V, Pisapia P, Cona MS, Rolfo C, Malapelle U, Group IY Abstract Immunotherapy, and in particular immune-checkpoints blockade therapy (ICB), represents a new pillar in cancer therapy. Antibodies targeting Cytotoxic T-Lymphocyte Antigen 4 (CTLA-4) and Programmed Death 1 (PD-1)/Programmed Death Ligand-1 (PD-L1) demonstrated a relevant clinical value in a larg...
Source: Biomed Res - Category: Research Authors: Tags: Biomed Res Int Source Type: research
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