Saliva proteins may protect older people from influenza

(American Chemical Society) Spit. Drool. Dribble. Saliva is not normally a topic of polite conversation, but it may be the key to explaining the age and sex bias exhibited by influenza and other diseases, according to a new study. Published in ACS' Journal of Proteome Research, it provides new insights into why older people were better able to fight off the new strains of "bird" flu and "swine" flu than younger people.
Source: EurekAlert! - Medicine and Health - Category: Global & Universal Source Type: news

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Avian influenza viruses (AIVs) are zoonotic pathogens that proliferate in a wide variety of host and undergo continuous genetic reassortment.1 Currently, 18 different haemagglutination (HA, H1-H18) and 11 different neuraminidase (NA, N1-N11) subtypes have been discovered, among which H1-H16 and N1-N9 were identified in avian species and had adapted to humans, equines, and swine.2 The continuous reassortment among AIV subtypes resulted in the emergence of novel AIVs and poised significant zoonotic risk to human.
Source: Journal of Infection - Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Source Type: research
The emergence of novel avian influenza A viruses is frequently reported in this journal, 1,2 while other emergent diseases, e.g., African swine fever (ASF), which also cause great losses in recent years. African swine fever is caused by the African swine fever virus (ASFV). ASFV is the only member of the Asfarviridae family, and the genus Asfivirus.3 Infections of swine with ASFV show high morbidity and mortality (up to 100%). At present, there is no effective vaccine to prevent ASF and thus it is a great threat to global pig production.  Since its first described in Kenya in the 1920s, ASF has been recorded in most s...
Source: Journal of Infection - Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Tags: Letter to the Editor Source Type: research
We read with interest the recent communication by Guo et al. concerning avian influenza virus pathogenicity.1 Swine has been considered an intermediate host for avian influenza viruses to adapt to humans. Cross-species transmissions caused by novel reassortant swine-originate influenza A virus (S-OIV) are of particular concern after the 2009 pandemic caused by pdH1N1 virus and epidemic outbreaks caused by H3N2v.2,3 The genesis of these viruses shows that reassortant is the major driving force for producing highly infectious variants.
Source: Journal of Infection - Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Tags: Letter to the Editor Source Type: research
In conclusion, the reported results highlight the importance of AIV attachment to trachea in many avian species. Finally, the importance of chickens and mallards in AIVs dynamics was illustrated by the abundant AIV attachment observed. Introduction Influenza A viruses (IAVs) are pathogens of global concern in both human and veterinary medicine (Webster et al., 1992; Stöhr, 2002; Olsen et al., 2006; Wiethoelter et al., 2015). Wild birds are well-described hosts of avian influenza viruses (AIVs) and longitudinal surveillance studies have demonstrated a plethora of low pathogenic AIVs (LPAIVs) circulating in wild...
Source: Frontiers in Microbiology - Category: Microbiology Source Type: research
María Maximina B. Moreno-Altamirano1*, Simon E. Kolstoe2 and Francisco Javier Sánchez-García1* 1Laboratorio de Inmunorregulación, Departamento de Inmunología, Escuela Nacional de Ciencias Biológicas, Instituto Politécnico Nacional, Mexico City, Mexico 2School of Health Sciences, University of Portsmouth, Portsmouth, United Kingdom Over the last decade, there has been significant advances in the understanding of the cross-talk between metabolism and immune responses. It is now evident that immune cell effector function strongly depends on the metabolic pathway in w...
Source: Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology - Category: Microbiology Source Type: research
Jennifer M. Rudd1, Sivasami Pulavendran1, Harshini K. Ashar1, Jerry W. Ritchey1, Timothy A. Snider1, Jerry R. Malayer1, Montelongo Marie1, Vincent T. K. Chow2 and Teluguakula Narasaraju1* 1Center for Veterinary Health Sciences, Oklahoma State University, Stillwater, OK, United States2Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine, National University of Singapore, National University Health System, Singapore, Singapore Exaggerated host innate immune responses have been implicated in severe influenza pneumonia. We have previously demonstrated that excessive neutrophils recruited during in...
Source: Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology - Category: Microbiology Source Type: research
In this study, we used a swine pH1N1 challenge virus to investigate the efficacy of whole inactivated virus vaccines homologous or heterologous to the challenge virus as well as a commercial vaccine. We found that vaccine-mediated protection was most effective when vaccine antigen and challenge virus were homologous and correlated with the specific production of neutralising antibodies and a cellular response to the challenge virus. We conclude that a conventional whole inactivated SwIV vaccine must be antigenically matched to the challenge strain to be an effective control measure. PMID: 30914224 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Vaccine - Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Tags: Vaccine Source Type: research
The objective of this study was to elucidate the role of the PA subunit on the replication and airborne transmission of the H9N2 subtype AIV. By reverse genetics, a reassortant rSD01-PA was derived from the H9N2 subtype AIV A/Chicken/Shandong/01/2008 (SD01) by introducing the PA gene from the pandemic influenza A H1N1 virus A/swine/Shandong/07/2011 (SD07). Specific pathogen-free (SPF) chickens and guinea pigs were selected as the animal models for replication and aerosol transmission studies. Results show that rSD01-PA lost the ability of airborne transmission among SPF chickens because of the single substitution of the PA...
Source: Viruses - Category: Virology Authors: Tags: Article Source Type: research
Source: European Union, European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC). Published: 2019. This five-page report is based on data on zoonotic influenza for 2017 retrieved from Epidemic Intelligence on May 18, 2018. No human cases of avian influenza were reported in the European Union/European Economic Area. Sporadic cases were reported from Africa and Asia. Influenza viruses A(H1N1)v, A(H1N2)v, and A(H3N2)v of swine origin caused human cases in Switzerland and the United States. (PDF)
Source: Disaster Lit: Resource Guide for Disaster Medicine and Public Health - Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: news
Source: European Union, European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC). Published: 2019. This five-page report is based on data on zoonotic influenza for 2017 retrieved from Epidemic Intelligence on May 18, 2018. No human cases of avian influenza were reported in the European Union/European Economic Area. Sporadic cases were reported from Africa and Asia. Influenza viruses A(H1N1)v, A(H1N2)v, and A(H3N2)v of swine origin caused human cases in Switzerland and the United States. (PDF)
Source: Disaster Lit: Resource Guide for Disaster Medicine and Public Health - Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: news
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