Zika virus infection in pregnancy: Establishing a case definition for clinical research on  pregnant women with rash in an active transmission setting

by Ricardo Arraes de Alencar Ximenes, Dem ócrito de Barros Miranda-Filho, Elizabeth B. Brickley, Ulisses Ramos Montarroyos, Celina Maria Turchi Martelli, Thalia Velho Barreto de Araújo, Laura C. Rodrigues, Maria de Fatima Pessoa Militão de Albuquerque, Wayner Vieira de Souza, Priscila Mayrelle da Silva Castanha, Rafael F. O. França, Raf ael Dhália, Ernesto T. A. Marques, on behalf of the Microcephaly Epidemic Research Group (MERG) Defining cases of Zika virus (ZIKV) infection is a critical challenge for epidemiological research. Due to ZIKV’s overlapping clinical features and potential immunologic cross-reactivity with other flaviviruses and the current lack of an optimal ZIKV-specific diagnostic assay, varying approaches for identifying ZIKV infections have been employed to date. This paper presents the laboratory results and diagnostic criteria developed by the Microcephaly Epidemic Research Group for defining cases of maternal ZIKV infection in a cohort of pregnant women with rash (N = 694) recruited during the d eclining 2015–2017 epidemic in northeast Brazil. For this investigation, we tested maternal sera for ZIKV by quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR), Immunoglobulin (Ig) M and IgG3 enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs), and Plaque Reduction Neutralization Test (PRNT50). Overall, 23.8% of participants tested positive by qRT-PCR during pregnancy (range of detection: 0 –72 days...
Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases - Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Source Type: research

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This study was designed to understand the impacts of Zika on women who were less directly affected and less vulnerable to Zika. Women were recruited from various locations in Brazil, Puerto Rico, and the United States. Data were collected through semi-structured interviews and analyzed using thematic analysis. Women perceived that public health systems placed an unfair responsibility for preventing health complications from Zika onto women who had limited ability to do so. They also stated that the measures recommended to them were invasive, while creating the perception that women were the sole determinant of whether they...
Source: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health - Category: Environmental Health Authors: Tags: Article Source Type: research
ConclusionsThe WHO Framework encapsulated important infrastructure and process factors relevant to the Florida Zika response as well as future epidemics. In this context, similarities, differences, and implications for the Coronavirus COVID-19 pandemic response are discussed.
Source: Maternal and Child Health Journal - Category: Health Management Source Type: research
atrakis Dagla The global epidemic of Zika virus has been a major public health problem affecting pregnant women and their infants. Zika virus causes a viral disease transmitted to humans mainly by the infected Aedes mosquito bite. The infection is not severe in most cases; however, there is evidence that infection during pregnancy may be associated with fetal genetic abnormalities (including microcephaly). In addition to microcephaly and other malformations, some specific lesions in the central nervous system have been reported. The aim of this systematic review was to determine the risk of developing microcephaly i...
Source: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health - Category: Environmental Health Authors: Tags: Review Source Type: research
By CHADI NABHAN, MD, MBA, FACP If you are a soccer fan, watching the FIFA World Cup is a ritual that you don’t ever violate. Brazilians, arguably more than any other fans in the world, live and breathe soccer—and they are always expected to be a legitimate contender to win it all. Their expectations are magnified when they are the host country, which was the case in 2014. Not only did the Germans destroy Brazilian World Cup dreams, but less than a year after a humiliating loss on their turf, Brazilians began dealing with another devastating blow: a viral epidemic. Zika left the country scrambling to understa...
Source: The Health Care Blog - Category: Consumer Health News Authors: Tags: COVID-19 Health Policy Chadi Nabhan epidemic Pandemic Zika Source Type: blogs
Abstract Zika virus is a mosquito-borne Flavivirus originally isolated from humans in 1952. Following its re-emergence in Brazil in 2015, an increase in the number of babies born with microcephaly to infected mothers was observed. Microcephaly is a neurodevelopmental disorder, characterised phenotypically by a smaller than average head size, and is usually developed in utero. The 2015 outbreak in the Americas led to the World Health Organisation declaring Zika a Public Health Emergency of International Concern. Since then, much research into the effects of Zika has been carried out. Studies have investigated the s...
Source: Molecular Biology Reports - Category: Molecular Biology Authors: Tags: Mol Biol Rep Source Type: research
Asisa Volz In 2015 Zika virus (ZIKV) emerged for the first time in South America. The following ZIKV epidemic resulted in the appearance of a clinical phenotype with microcephaly and other severe malformations in newborns. So far, mechanisms of ZIKV induced damage to the fetus are not completely understood. Previous data suggest that ZIKV may bypass the placenta to reach the fetus. Thus, animal models for ZIKV infection are important to facilitate studies about ZIKV infection during pregnancy. Here, we used ultrasound based imaging (USI) to characterize ZIKV induced pathogenesis in the pregnant Type I interferon recep...
Source: Viruses - Category: Virology Authors: Tags: Article Source Type: research
CONCLUSIONS: Early placentomegaly may represent the first sign of trans-placental contamination and should lead to an enhanced follow-up of these pregnancies. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. PMID: 31773804 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: The Ultrasound Review of Obstetrics and Gynecology - Category: Radiology Authors: Tags: Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol Source Type: research
th Du Chen Zika virus (ZIKV) infection during pregnancy leads to severe congenital Zika syndrome, which includes microcephaly and other neurological malformations. No therapeutic agents have, so far, been approved for the treatment of ZIKV infection in humans; as such, there is a need for a continuous effort to develop effective and safe antiviral drugs to treat ZIKV-caused diseases. After screening a natural product library, we have herein identified four natural products with anti-ZIKV activity in Vero E6 cells, including gossypol, curcumin, digitonin, and conessine. Except for curcumin, the other three natura...
Source: Viruses - Category: Virology Authors: Tags: Article Source Type: research
her For the first 60 years following its isolation, Zika virus (ZIKV) remained a relatively poorly described member of the Flaviviridae family. However, since 2007, it has caused a series of increasingly severe outbreaks and is now associated with neurological symptoms such as Guillain-Barré syndrome and congenital Zika syndrome (CZS). A number of reports have improved our understanding of rare complications that may be associated with ZIKV infection in adults, the areas of the body to which it spreads, and viral persistence in various tissues. Likewise, studies on the effect of ZIKV infection during pregnan...
Source: Viruses - Category: Virology Authors: Tags: Review Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 4 September 2019Source: Antiviral ResearchAuthor(s): Antonio E. Muruato, Chao Shan, Camila R. Fontes-Garfias, Yang Liu, Qiang Gao, Scott C. Weaver, Pei-Yong ShiAbstractZika virus (ZIKV) has drawn global attention as the etiologic agent of Zika Congenital Syndrome in babies born to infected pregnant women. To prevent future ZIKV outbreaks and protect persons at risk for severe disease, we developed two live-attenuated vaccine (LAV) candidates containing 10- or 20-nucleotide deletions in the 3′UTR of the viral genome (Δ10 and Δ20). After a single-dose immunization, both &D...
Source: Antiviral Therapy - Category: Virology Source Type: research
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