Cancers, Vol. 11, Pages 1388: BRAF Inhibitors in Thyroid Cancer: Clinical Impact, Mechanisms of Resistance and Future Perspectives

Cancers, Vol. 11, Pages 1388: BRAF Inhibitors in Thyroid Cancer: Clinical Impact, Mechanisms of Resistance and Future Perspectives Cancers doi: 10.3390/cancers11091388 Authors: Fabiana Crispo Tiziana Notarangelo Michele Pietrafesa Giacomo Lettini Giovanni Storto Alessandro Sgambato Francesca Maddalena Matteo Landriscina The Kirsten rat sarcoma viral oncogene homolog (RAS)/v-raf-1 murine leukemia viral oncogene homolog 1 (RAF)/mitogen-activated protein kinase 1 (MAPK) signaling cascade is the most important oncogenic pathway in human cancers. Tumors leading mutations in the gene encoding for v-raf murine sarcoma viral oncogene homolog B (BRAF) serine-threonine kinase are reliant on the MAPK signaling pathway for their growth and survival. Indeed, the constitutive activation of MAPK pathway results in continuous stimulation of cell proliferation, enhancement of the apoptotic threshold and induction of a migratory and metastatic phenotype. In a clinical perspective, this scenario opens to the possibility of targeting BRAF pathway for therapy. Thyroid carcinomas (TCs) bearing BRAF mutations represent approximately 29–83% of human thyroid malignancies and, differently from melanomas, are less sensitive to BRAF inhibitors and develop primary or acquired resistance due to mutational events or activation of alternative signaling pathways able to reactivate ERK signaling. In this review, we provide an overview on the current knowledge concerning the mec...
Source: Cancers - Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Tags: Review Source Type: research

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teo Landriscina The Kirsten rat sarcoma viral oncogene homolog (RAS)/v-raf-1 murine leukemia viral oncogene homolog 1 (RAF)/mitogen-activated protein kinase 1 (MAPK) signaling cascade is the most important oncogenic pathway in human cancers. Tumors leading mutations in the gene encoding for v-raf murine sarcoma viral oncogene homolog B (BRAF) serine-threonine kinase are reliant on the MAPK signaling pathway for their growth and survival. Indeed, the constitutive activation of MAPK pathway results in continuous stimulation of cell proliferation, enhancement of the apoptotic threshold and induction of a migratory and met...
Source: Cancers - Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Tags: Review Source Type: research
Markus Hartl* and Rainer Schneider Center of Molecular Biosciences (CMBI), Institute of Biochemistry, University of Innsbruck, Innsbruck, Austria The neuronal proteins GAP43 (neuromodulin), MARCKS, and BASP1 are highly expressed in the growth cones of nerve cells where they are involved in signal transmission and cytoskeleton organization. Although their primary structures are unrelated, these signaling proteins share several structural properties like fatty acid modification, and the presence of cationic effector domains. GAP43, MARCKS, and BASP1 bind to cell membrane phospholipids, a process reversibly regulate...
Source: Frontiers in Oncology - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research
This study was supported by the Shanghai Sailing Program [grant number 17YF1425200, 2017]; Chinese National Natural Science Funding [grant number 81702249, 2017]; Science and Technology Commission of Shanghai Municipality [grant number 17511103403, 2017]; The funder has no role in the study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript. Conflict of Interest Statement The authors declare that the research was conducted in the absence of any commercial or financial relationships that could be construed as a potential conflict of interest. Acknowledgments We acknowledge the ex...
Source: Frontiers in Oncology - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research
In conclusion, osmotic burst of inflated complement-damaged cells may occur, but these bursts are most likely a consequence of metabolic collapse of the cell rather than the cause of cell death. The Complement Cell Death Mediator: A Concerted Action of Toxic Moieties Membrane pores caused by complement were first visualized by electron microscopy on red blood cell membranes as large ring structures (22). Similar lesions were viewed on E. coli cell walls (23). Over the years, ample information on the fine ultrastructure of the MAC that can activate cell death has been gathered (24) and has been recently further examined (...
Source: Frontiers in Immunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research
Monica Parodi1, Herman Favoreel2, Giovanni Candiano3, Silvia Gaggero4, Simona Sivori4,5, Maria Cristina Mingari1,4,5, Lorenzo Moretta6, Massimo Vitale1 and Claudia Cantoni4,5,7* 1Immunology Operative Unit, IRCCS Ospedale Policlinico San Martino, Genoa, Italy 2Department of Virology, Parasitology and Immunology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Ghent University, Merelbeke, Belgium 3Laboratory of Molecular Nephrology, IRCCS Istituto Giannina Gaslini, Genoa, Italy 4Department of Experimental Medicine, University of Genoa, Genoa, Italy 5Center of Excellence for Biomedical Research, University of Genoa, Genoa, Italy ...
Source: Frontiers in Immunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research
A T cell receptor (TCR) recognizing melanoma-associated antigen-A (MAGE-A3/A6) is currently used in clinical trials involving adoptive transfer of TCR-transduced T cells for patients with metastatic cancer. To be eligible for this TCR immunotherapy, tumor specimens from patients must show homogeneous expression of MAGE-A3 and/or MAGE-A6. Currently-available antibodies recognize additional members of the MAGE-A family and/or are cross-reactive because they were raised by epitopes shared among the MAGE-A family members.MAGE-A3 and MAGE-A6 are members of the MAGE-A family of twelve homologous proteins. The MAGE-A proteins are...
Source: NIH OTT Licensing Opportunities - Category: Research Authors: Source Type: research
Objective: To investigate the clinical features of 2nd hematological malignancies post to the initial cancer treatment.METHODS: A retrospective study was performed to analyze the available clinical data of 116 patients diagnosed with 2nd hematologic malignancies after treatment of various malignant tumors from June 1998 to June 2018 at Sun Yat-sen University cancer center.RESULTS: The characteristics of the 116 patients diagnosed with 2nd hematological cancer post to initial cancer treatment were indicated as following: 62 males and 54 females. The primary tumor category was grouped as (according to ICD-10 International Di...
Source: Blood - Category: Hematology Authors: Tags: 904. Outcomes Research-Malignant Conditions Source Type: research
In January, 2018, Academic Press published my bookPrecision Medicine and the Reinvention of Human Disease. This book has an excellent " look inside " at itsGoogle book site, which includes the Table of Contents. In addition, I thought it might be helpful to see the topics listed in the Book's index. Note that page numbers followed by f indicate figures, t indicate tables, and ge indicate glossary terms.AAbandonware, 270, 310geAb initio, 34, 48ge, 108geABL (abelson leukemia) gene, 28, 58ge, 95 –97Absidia corymbifera, 218Acanthameoba, 213Acanthosis nigricans, 144geAchondroplasia, 74, 143ge, 354geAcne, 54ge, 1...
Source: Specified Life - Category: Information Technology Tags: index jules berman jules j berman precision medicine Source Type: blogs
Conclusions: GCT with SMT constitutes a very rare entity in children and adolescents. Surgical removal of the tumor is the cornerstone of the treatment and might be sufficient in selected cases. In the remaining cases, the best management is still unknown and should take into account both components and their respective chemosensitivity. Long-term surveillance is advised for patient with unresected teratoma as late transformation can occur.
Source: Journal of Pediatric Hematology Oncology - Category: Hematology Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research
aradağ O, Kasifoglu N, Arslantas D, Sahin F, Keser G, Yavuz S, Birlik M, Onat AM Abstract Systemic sclerosis (SSc) is an autoimmune connective tissue disease with multisystem involvement. An increased incidence of cancer in SSc patients compared with the general population has been reported in several reports. Our aims in this study were to determine the most common malignancies and to investigate the possible risk factors for the development of malignancy in patients with SSc. Three hundred forty SSc patients from 13 centers were included to the study. Data of the patients were obtained by evaluating their medic...
Source: Clinical Lymphoma and Myeloma - Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Tags: Clin Rheumatol Source Type: research
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