Multidrug-Resistant Malaria Expands its Reach

Malaria parasites resistant to 2 first-line treatments are spreading rapidly in Southeast Asia, according to a pair of recent studies.
Source: JAMA - Category: General Medicine Source Type: research

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In this study, genetic variations in drug resistance markers of Plasmodium falciparum were determined in parasites from asymptomatic populations located in three geographically dispersed townships of Myanmar by PCR and sequencing. Mutations in dihydrofolate reductase (pfdhfr), dihydropteroate synthase (pfdhps), chloroquine resistance transporter (pfcrt), multidrug resistance protein 1 (pfmdr1), multidrug resistance-associated protein 1 (pfmrp1), and Kelch protein 13 (k13) were present in 92.3%, 97.6%, 84.0%, 98.8%, and 68.3% of the parasites, respectively. The pfcrt K76T, pfmdr1 N86Y, pfmdr1 I185K, and pfmrp1 I876V mutatio...
Source: Genes - Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Tags: Article Source Type: research
In this study we seek to understand the resistant mechanism against N-89 by establishing a highly N-89-resistant clone, named NRC10H, of the Plasmodium falciparum FCR-3 strain. We describe gene mutations in the parent FCR-3 strain and the NRC10H clone using whole-genome sequencing and subsequently by expression profiling using quantitative real-time PCR. Seven genes related to drug resistance, proteolysis, glycophosphatidylinositol anchor biosynthesis, and phosphatidylethanolamine biosynthesis exhibited a single amino acid substitution in the NRC10H clone. Among these seven genes, the multidrug resistance protein 2 (mdr2) ...
Source: Gene - Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Tags: Gene Source Type: research
Malaria parasites resistant to two key anti-malarial medicines are becoming more dominant in Vietnam, Laos and northern Thailand after spreading rapidly from Cambodia, scientists warned on Monday.Reuters Health Information
Source: Medscape Medical News Headlines - Category: Consumer Health News Tags: Infectious Diseases News Source Type: news
Source: BMJ Comments - Category: General Medicine Source Type: forums
(The Lancet) Multidrug-resistant forms of Plasmodium falciparum parasites, the most lethal species causing human malaria, have evolved even higher levels of resistance to antimalarial drugs and spread rapidly since 2015, becoming firmly established in multiple regions of Cambodia, Laos, Thailand, and Vietnam, where they are causing alarmingly high treatment failure rates to a widely used frontline malaria drug combination.
Source: EurekAlert! - Infectious and Emerging Diseases - Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: news
(Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute) Genomic surveillance has revealed that malaria resistance to two first-line antimalarial drugs has spread rapidly from Cambodia to neighboring countries in Southeast Asia. Researchers discovered that descendants of one multi-drug resistant malaria strain are replacing the local parasites in Vietnam, Laos and northeastern Thailand, and are picking up additional new genetic changes which could further enhance resistance. The study in The Lancet Infectious Diseases reveals the importance of ongoing genomic surveillance in malaria control strategies.
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - Category: Biology Source Type: news
Abstract Two unknown enantiomeric compounds, named (R)- and (S)-taeniolin, along with six known compounds, were isolated from the marine-associated fungus Taeniolella sp. BCC31839. Chemical structures were determined by NMR spectroscopic techniques, and the absolute configurations were confirmed by Mosher application together with CD spectral analyses. Both were inactive for antimicrobial activity against multidrug-resistant malaria parasite (Plasmodium falciparum) and bacteria (Mycobacerium tuberculosis and Bacillus cereus) at maximum tested concentration. PMID: 31250661 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Natural Product Research - Category: Biochemistry Authors: Tags: Nat Prod Res Source Type: research
Malaria parasites repair DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) primarily through homologous recombination (HR). Here, because the unrepaired DSBs lead to the death of the unicellular parasite Plasmodium falciparum, we investigated its recombinase, PfRad51, as a potential drug target. Undertaking an in silico screening approach, we identified a compound, B02, that docks to the predicted tertiary structure of PfRad51 with high affinity. B02 inhibited a drug-sensitive P. falciparum strain (3D7) and multidrug-resistant parasite (Dd2) in culture, with IC50 values of 8 and 3 μm, respectively. We found that B02 is more potent agains...
Source: Journal of Biological Chemistry - Category: Chemistry Authors: Tags: DNA and Chromosomes Source Type: research
on A Abstract Prevalence of and risk factors associated with polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-determined Plasmodium falciparum positivity were assessed on day 3 after initiation of treatment, pre-implementation and up to 8 years post-deployment of artemether-lumefantrine as first-line treatment for uncomplicated malaria in Bagamoyo district, Tanzania. Samples originated from previously reported trials conducted between 2006 and 2014. Cytochrome b-nested PCR was used to detect malaria parasites from blood samples collected on a filter paper on day 3. Chi-square and McNemar chi-squared tests, logistic regression mode...
Source: Am J Trop Med Hyg - Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Tags: Am J Trop Med Hyg Source Type: research
ConclusionsAdded to community-based basic malaria control measures, 3 monthly rounds of DP MDA reduced the incidence and prevalence of falciparum malaria over a 1-year period in areas affected by artemisinin resistance.P.falciparum infections returned during the follow-up period as the remaining infections spread and malaria was reintroduced from surrounding areas. Limitations of this study include a relatively small sample of villages, heterogeneity between villages, and mobility of villagers that may have limited the impact of the intervention. These results suggest that, if used as part of a comprehensive, well-organise...
Source: PLoS Medicine - Category: Internal Medicine Authors: Source Type: research
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