Temporal lobe sparing radiotherapy with photons or protons for cognitive function preservation in paediatric craniopharyngioma.

CONCLUSION: The irradiated volumes of temporal lobe BSCs were consistently the lowest with PBS, whereas the model-based estimates of cognitive outcomes were less consistent. PMID: 31472997 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Radiotherapy and Oncology : journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology - Category: Radiology Authors: Tags: Radiother Oncol Source Type: research

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Exp Clin Endocrinol Diabetes DOI: 10.1055/a-1217-7282Craniopharyngioma as a rare tumor originating from cells of rathke’s pouch and representing 2–5% of all intracranial tumors is a rare and generally benign neoplasm of the central nervous system with two incidence peaks one in childhood and one after 40 years of age. Data on adult patients is scarce compared to childhood onset tumors, however the burden of disease caused by the tumors and related treatment options is significant. Clinical symptoms range from headaches, visual disability, cranial nerve affection or hypothalamic ...
Source: Experimental and Clinical Endocrinology and Diabetes - Category: Endocrinology Authors: Tags: Review Source Type: research
Energy homeostasis, appetite, and satiety are modulated by a complex neuroendocrine system regulated by the hypothalamus. Dysregulation of this system resulting in hypothalamic obesity (HO) is caused by brain tumors, neurosurgery, and/or cranial irradiation. Craniopharyngioma (CP) is a paradigmatic disease with regard to the development of HO. Initial hypothalamic involvement of CP and/or treatment-related damage to hypothalamic-pituitary axes result in HO. Attempts to control HO with lifestyle interventions have not been satisfactory. No generally accepted pharmacologic or bariatric therapy for HO in CP has been effective...
Source: Endocrinology and Metabolism Clinics of North America - Category: Endocrinology Authors: Source Type: research
AbstractThe possible application of BRAF-targeted therapy in brain tumors is growing continuously. We have analyzed clinical strategies that address BRAF activation in primary brain tumors and verified current recommendations regarding screening for BRAF mutations. There is preliminary evidence for a range of positive responses in certain brain tumor types harboring the BRAF V600E mutation. National Comprehensive Cancer Network Guidelines for central nervous system cancers recommend screening for the BRAF V600E mutation in pilocytic astrocytoma, pleomorphic xanthoastrocytoma, and ganglioglioma. We suggest additional testin...
Source: Targeted Oncology - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research
ConclusionImmune checkpoint inhibition was relatively well tolerated in a cohort of pediatric patients spanning several CNS tumor diagnoses. Results from prospective clinical trials will be critical to inform clinical decisions.
Source: Journal of Neuro-Oncology - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research
Parkkila Carbonic anhydrases (CAs) are zinc-containing metalloenzymes that participate in the regulation of pH homeostasis in addition to many other important physiological functions. Importantly, CAs have been associated with neoplastic processes and cancer. Brain tumors represent a heterogeneous group of diseases with a frequently dismal prognosis, and new treatment options are urgently needed. In this review article, we summarize the previously published literature about CAs in brain tumors, especially on CA II and hypoxia-inducible CA IX and CA XII. We review here their role in tumorigenesis and potential value in ...
Source: Cancers - Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Tags: Review Source Type: research
Craniopharyngiomas (CPs) are rare brain tumours managed primarily with surgery and radiotherapy. There are two phenotypes of CPs, one with a rather good outcome without hypothalamic damage and the other with hypothalamic damage. With hypothalamic damage progressive disease with recurrent operations and additional cranial radiotherapy often result in hypothalamic obesity, affected psychosocial life and cognitive dysfunction. The morbidity and mortality is increased for particularly cerebrovascular diseases. Preoperative hypothalamic involvement to predict hypothalamic damage is important for decision making for hypothalamic...
Source: Neuroendocrinology - Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research
Craniopharyngiomas (CP) are rare brain tumors managed primarily with surgery and radiotherapy. There are 2 phenotypes of CP, i.e., one with a rather good outcome without hypothalamic damage and another with hypothalamic damage. With hypothalamic damage, progressive disease with recurrent operations and additional cranial radiotherapy often result in hypothalamic obesity, an affected psychosocial life, and cognitive dysfunction. The morbidity and mortality are increased for particularly cerebrovascular diseases. Preoperative hypothalamic involvement to predict hypothalamic damage is important for decision making for hypotha...
Source: Neuroendocrinology - Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research
CONCLUSIONS: Inflammatory response is common in craniopharyngiomas and is closely related to their biological behavior and the patients' clinical prognosis. Further studies of the relationship between craniopharyngiomas and the inflammatory response will enable the discovery of potential therapeutic targets, which will reduce morbidity and result in better outcomes for pediatric Q-CP patients. IMPACT: Pediatric infradiaphragmatic craniopharyngiomas are histologically benign brain tumors that often follow an aggressive clinical course.The inflammatory response in craniopharyngioma is common, which is closely related to...
Source: Pediatric Research - Category: Pediatrics Authors: Tags: Pediatr Res Source Type: research
Chordoid glioma (CG) is a world health organization classified grade II tumor whose typical localization is in the anterior part of the third ventricle. It's clinical, neuroimaging, and pathologic features may vary and furthermore mimic other types of benign lesions usually associated with a better outcome, thus representing a potential radiological and diagnostic pitfall. In this article, the authors present a novel case of a 51-year-old male who underwent gross total removal of the tumor of the third ventricle with high calcification. The imaging studies and the intraoperative examination led at first to a hypothesis of ...
Source: Journal of Craniofacial Surgery - Category: Surgery Tags: Brief Clinical Studies Source Type: research
Conclusions: Brain tumors especially germinoma are associated with the development of hypothalamic–pituitary antibodies and pituitary defects. The correct interpretation of APA/AHA antibodies is essential to avoid a misdiagnosis of an autoimmune infundibulo-neurohypophysitis or pituitary hypophysitis in patients with germinoma.
Source: Frontiers in Endocrinology - Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research
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