Assessment and Measurement of Spasticity in MS: State of the Evidence

AbstractPurpose of ReviewThe purpose of this review is to familiarize the reader with assessments and measurement of spasticity in people with multiple sclerosis (MS). Spasticity affects 60 –84% of people with MS, worsening as disability worsens and impacting activity, participation, and quality of life. Spasticity manifests in many ways, including spasms, resistance to passive stretch, pain, and perception of tightness, and can affect muscles throughout the body, making assessment a nd quantification of spasticity challenging but important. Assessment tools include those quantified by clinicians, instrumentation, and patients.Recent FindingsMost tools for measuring spasticity are based on clinician scoring, were developed many years ago, and have undergone minimal recent advances. More recent developments are patient-reported outcome measures for spasticity, including the Numeric Rating Scale for Spasticity (NRS-S) and the disease-specific Multiple Sclerosis Spasticity Scale-88 (MSSS), and, most recently, imaging through elastography.SummaryMS-related spasticity is common and often disabling. There are various spasticity measurement tools available, each with advantages and limitations. Newer tools are likely to be developed as our understanding of spasticity in MS grows.
Source: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports - Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

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Purpose of review Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a neurological disorder that heavily affects quality of life (QoL) and demands a multidisciplinary therapeutic approach. This includes multiple protocols and techniques of physical rehabilitation, ranging from conventional exercise paradigms to noninvasive brain stimulation (NIBS). Recently, studies showing the clinical efficacy of physical rehabilitation have remarkably increased, suggesting its disease-modifying potential. Recent findings Studies in animal models of MS have shown that physical exercise ameliorates the main disease pathological hallmarks, acting as a pro-m...
Source: Current Opinion in Neurology - Category: Neurology Tags: MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS: Edited by Giancarlo Comi Source Type: research
Jeiri Flores is normally a busy, upbeat 29-year-old. But amid the COVID-19 pandemic, her go-to thought has been dark. “If I get this,” she thinks, “I’m gonna die.” This is not an unfounded fear. Flores has cerebral palsy, uses a wheelchair and needs assistance with everyday tasks, including making food and getting dressed. Her disability means it’s tougher for her immune system to kick illnesses; she’s still recovering from a bout of pneumonia she had in January. So beating COVID-19 could easily mean a protracted battle and months in a hospital—a prospect that comes with a c...
Source: TIME: Health - Category: Consumer Health News Authors: Tags: Uncategorized COVID-19 Source Type: news
AbstractBackgroundBotulinum toxin (BT) is an effective and safe treatment for spasticity, with limited evidence in multiple sclerosis (MS). We aim to describe the use of BT for the management of MS spasticity in the clinical practice, its combination with other anti-spastic treatments in MS and possible MS clinical correlates.MethodsThis is a multicentre cross-sectional observational study including 386 MS patients, receiving BT for spasticity in 19 Italian centres (age 53.6  ± 10.9 years; female 228 (59.1%); disease duration 18.7 ± 9.2 years; baseline Expanded Disability...
Source: Neurological Sciences - Category: Neurology Source Type: research
Pain is frequent in multiple sclerosis (MS) and includes different types, with neuropathic pain (NP) being most closely related to MS pathology. However, prevalence estimates vary largely, and causal relationships between pain and biopsychosocial factors in MS are largely unknown. Longitudinal studies might help to clarify the prevalence and determinants of pain in MS. To this end, we analyzed data from 410 patients with newly diagnosed clinically isolated syndrome or relapsing-remitting MS participating in the prospective multicenter German National MS Cohort Study (NationMS) at baseline and after 4 years. Pain was assess...
Source: Pain - Category: Anesthesiology Tags: Research Paper Source Type: research
Conclusions: Mobility and mobility impairment can have significant impacts on quality of life. MobQoL is the first outcome measure designed specifically to measure the impact of mobility on quality of life, and therefore has utility in research and practice to measure patient outcomes related to rehabilitation.Implications for RehabilitationMobility impairment affects many different aspects of health and quality of life.The impact of mobility impairment on quality of life is related to processes of physical, emotional, and behavioural adaptation.MobQoL is the first patient-reported outcome measure designed specifically to ...
Source: Disability and Rehabilitation - Category: Rehabilitation Authors: Tags: Disabil Rehabil Source Type: research
It’s not often that a person growing up among the cotton fields of southwest Oklahoma goes on to become a successful manager of global technology companies, but Leland White is not your average person. During his career, he built and managed semiconductor manufacturing plants around the world and provided management consulting services to large corporations and federal agencies. After a successful business career, he retired in Colorado to pursue two passions: downhill skiing and high-performance driving. Referred to by family and friends as “Lee,” he turned 78 last spring. I talked to Lee about the chall...
Source: American Speech-Language-Hearing Association (ASHA) Press Releases - Category: Speech-Language Pathology Authors: Tags: Health Care Slider Speech-Language Pathology Dysphagia Swallowing Disorders Source Type: blogs
Publication date: Available online 13 December 2019Source: Brain, Behavior, and ImmunityAuthor(s): N.B. Teixeira, M.B. Sant'Anna, A.C. Giardini, L.P. Araujo, L.A. Fonseca, A.S. Basso, Y. Cury, G. PicoloAbstractMultiple sclerosis (MS) is a Central Nervous System inflammatory demyelinating disease that has as primary symptoms losses of sensory and motor functions, including chronic pain. To date, however, few studies have investigated the mechanisms of chronic pain in animal models of MS since locomotor impairments render difficult its evaluation. It was previously demonstrated that in the MOG35-55-induced EAE, an animal mod...
Source: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity - Category: Neurology Source Type: research
Abstract Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a Central Nervous System inflammatory demyelinating disease that has as primary symptoms losses of sensory and motor functions, including chronic pain. To date, however, few studies have investigated the mechanisms of chronic pain in animal models of MS since locomotor impairments render difficult its evaluation. It was previously demonstrated that in the MOG35-55-induced EAE, an animal model of MS, the hypernociception appears before the onset of motor disability, allowing for the study of these two phenomena separately. Here, we evaluated the effect of crotoxin (CTX), a neurot...
Source: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity - Category: Neurology Authors: Tags: Brain Behav Immun Source Type: research
This study aimed to explore the extent to which different aspects of PwMS’ activity engagement is related to pain-related illness intrusiveness, and whether certain coping and support systems mediate that relationship.Methods: Participants (N = 161) were PwMS with at least mild pain who were recruited electronically through the North American Research Committee on MS (NARCOMS). Pain-related illness intrusiveness was measured using a modified version of the Illness Intrusiveness Ratings Scale (IIRS). Activity engagement was assessed with Section III of the West Haven-Yale Multidimensional Pain Inventory (WHYMPI). ...
Source: Multiple Sclerosis and Related Disorders - Category: Neurology Source Type: research
 After receiving two chronic illness diagnosis by the age of 24, it really was no surprise that host Jackie Zimmerman also started to experience depression. Unable to tackle both, Jackie chose to focus on her physical health, letting her mental health deteriorate quickly — and dangerously. In this episode, we discuss the mind-body connection and how when your body is sick, your mind can quickly follow.   (Transcript Available Below) SUBSCRIBE &REVIEW About The Not Crazy Podcast Hosts Gabe Howard is an award-winning writer and speaker who lives with bipolar disorder. He is the author of the popular bo...
Source: World of Psychology - Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Tags: Antidepressant Depression Medications Not Crazy Podcast Stress Suicide Trauma Source Type: blogs
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