Imaging the spontaneous flow of thought: Distinct periods of cognition contribute to dynamic functional connectivity during rest

Publication date: Available online 25 August 2019Source: NeuroImageAuthor(s): Javier Gonzalez-Castillo, César Caballero-Gaudes, Natasha Topolski, Daniel A. Handwerker, Francisco Pereira, Peter A. BandettiniAbstractBrain functional connectivity (FC) changes have been measured across seconds using fMRI. This is true for both rest and task scenarios. Moreover, it is well accepted that task engagement alters FC, and that dynamic estimates of FC during and before task events can help predict their nature and performance. Yet, when it comes to dynamic FC (dFC) during rest, there is no consensus about its origin or significance. Some argue that rest dFC reflects fluctuations in on-going cognition, or is a manifestation of intrinsic brain maintenance mechanisms, which could have predictive clinical value. Conversely, others have concluded that rest dFC is mostly the result of sampling variability, head motion or fluctuating sleep states. Here, we present novel analyses suggesting that rest dFC is influenced by short periods of spontaneous cognitive-task-like processes, and that the cognitive nature of such mental processes can be inferred blindly from the data. As such, several different behaviorally relevant whole-brain FC configurations may occur during a single rest scan even when subjects were continuously awake and displayed minimal motion. In addition, using low dimensional embeddings as visualization aids, we show how FC states—commonly used to summarize and inter...
Source: NeuroImage - Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

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Source: Frontiers in Psychiatry - Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research
Ryan R. Kelly1,2†, Lindsay T. McDonald1,2†, Nathaniel R. Jensen1,2, Sara J. Sidles1,2 and Amanda C. LaRue1,2* 1Research Services, Ralph H. Johnson VA Medical Center, Charleston, SC, United States 2Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, SC, United States The significant biochemical and physiological effects of psychological stress are beginning to be recognized as exacerbating common diseases, including osteoporosis. This review discusses the current evidence for psychological stress-associated mental health disorders as risk factors for os...
Source: Frontiers in Psychiatry - Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research
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Source: Fight Aging! - Category: Research Authors: Tags: Newsletters Source Type: blogs
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Source: Innovations in Clinical Neuroscience - Category: Neuroscience Authors: Tags: Case Report CNS Infections Cognition Current Issue Neurologic Systems and Symptoms Primary Care Psychopharmacology acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) Source Type: research
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Source: Epilepsy and Behaviour - Category: Neurology Authors: Tags: Epilepsy Behav Source Type: research
Conclusion Continuous electroencephalography demonstrated a pattern that associated seizures and poor outcomes in patients with moderate to severe traumatic brain injury, particularly in a subgroup of patients with nonaccidental trauma. Best practice should include institution-based TBI cEEG protocols, which may detect seizure activity early and promote outcomes. Future studies should include examination of individual cEEG characteristics to help improve outcomes in pediatric TBI.
Source: Epilepsy and Behavior - Category: Neurology Source Type: research
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