Non-invasive Imaging for Skin Cancers —the European Experience
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThe aim of this work is to review the role of advanced non-invasive imaging, such as reflectance confocal microscopy (RCM) and optical coherence tomography (OCT), in malignant melanomas and non-melanoma skin cancers (NMSCs) using data coming from the most recent literature, with a particular highlight on the results of the European experience.Recent FindingsExamination with RCM and OCT increases the accuracy of diagnosis. The most recent diagnostic clues for melanoma and NMSCs are revised. In addition, the application of these techniques in presurgical margin definition and in monitoring the efficacy of topical therapies is discussed.SummarySkin cancer incidence is continuously increasing. While melanoma and squamous cell carcinoma are high-risk skin cancers, basal cell carcinoma can progressively infiltrate and damage the surrounding tissues. Physicians should consider that advanced non-invasive techniques may be employed for an early and accurate diagnosis and an improved management of skin cancers.
Non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC) is the most common cancer worldwide. Australia has the highest incidence of skin cancer in the world, exceeding 2000 per 100 000 person-years and it is increasing . In the USA, more than 3 million individuals are diagnosed with NMSC each year [2,3]. In the UK, during 2014–2016, about 147 000 new NMSC cases were diagnosed every year, more than 400 every day . Data show that between 1976 and 1984, the overall inc idence of basal cell carcinoma (BCC) increased by 145% and of cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (cSCC) by 263%.
Transplant recipients have a significantly higher risk of developing non-melanoma skin cancers compared with the general population and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) and basal cell carcinoma (BCC) are the most common post-transplant malignancies. Although in the general population BCC outnumbers SCC 4:1, in transplant patients this ratio is reversed and SCC is more common, with a 65- to 250-fold increased incidence. As patients in immunosuppressed states are living longer after transplants, the incidence of skin cancer in this population continues to increase.
ConclusionsThis study brings out consequential information on factors linked with invaded or insufficient excision margins. Larger cohorts should evaluate the aesthetic outcomes in such a population.
CONCLUSIONS: Our large study suggests that prevention of melanoma in NMSC patients is mandatory, especially for patients which develop a NMSC under 40 years of age. PMID: 31042854 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Conclusions: Our results underestimate the direct costs of nmsc because inpatient services and non-physician costs were not included in the calculations. The present research represents a first step in understanding the cost burden of nmsc in Saskatchewan. PMID: 31043813 [PubMed - in process]
The authors discuss the potential use and limitations of immunotherapy among patients with squamous cell cancer, basal cell carcinoma, and other skin cancers.
Skin cancer is the most common form of cancer in the United States. Research estimates that nonmelanoma skin cancer, including basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma, affects more than 3 million Americans a year. The incidence of both non-melanoma and melanoma skin cancers has been increasing over the past decades. Fortunately, most NMSC lesions are detected at an early stage that is amenable to very effective local therapy and thus are highly curable. Various therapeutic modalities are currently being used to treat these tumors, including surgery, topical treatments and radiotherapy.
Nonmelanoma skin cancers (NMSC), including basal cell carcinoma (BCC) and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), are the most common cancers in the United States, with over 5.4 million cases diagnosed annually. Current therapeutic strategies and preventative measures have not been able to effectively manage this neoplasm. Therefore, better understanding of NMSC biology may provide novel mechanisms and targets for management of these cancers. Polo-like kinase 4 (PLK4) is a serine/threonine kinase, known to play a role in cell division by regulating centriole duplication.
CONCLUSION: Our findings confirm that superficial radiotherapy is an effective treatment for early BCC or SCC of the vermilion lip, especially in the ageing population, in high-risk tumours, and even if poor cosmetic outcome is expected from surgical excision. PMID: 30973789 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Erica S. Tarabadkar† and Michi M. Shinohara*† Division of Dermatology, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, United States Skin directed therapies (SDTs) serve important roles in the treatment of early stage cutaneous T-cell lymphoma (CTCL)/mycosis fungoides (MF), as well as managing symptoms and improving quality of life of all stages. There are now numerous options for topical therapies that demonstrate high response rates, particularly in early/limited MF. Phototherapy retains an important role in treating MF, with increasing data supporting efficacy and long-term safety of both UVB and PUVA as ...